Sensible advice for aches, pains & injuries

Save Yourself from Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome!

Patellofemoral pain syndrome (aka runner’s knee) explained and discussed in great detail, including every imaginable self-treatment option and all the available scientific evidence

updated (first published 2003)
by Paul Ingraham, Vancouver, Canadabio
I am a science writer and a former Registered Massage Therapist with a decade of experience treating tough pain cases. I was the Assistant Editor of for several years. I’ve written hundreds of articles and several books, and I’m known for readable but heavily referenced analysis, with a touch of sass. I am a runner and ultimate player. • more about memore about

illustrations by Paul Ingraham, Lindsay McGee
Photo of many runners disappearing into the mist. A caption superimposed on the image reads: patellofemoral pain is a common and often chronic injury in runners (many non-runners too), causing pain mainly on the front of the knee.

Welcome to the most detailed guide to patellofemoral pain syndrome on the Internet. This tutorial goes as deep into the topic as you can go. Every anterior knee pain base is covered: what it is, how it works, the myths and controversies, diagnostic help, worst case scenarios, analysis of every possible treatment method.

Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS), also known as runner’s knee, is the most common of all kinds of knee pain, causing pain around and under the kneecap. Almost anyone can get it, but it particularly affects runners, cyclists and hikers, and also office workers or anyone else who sits for a living. It’s also common in teens. Almost 40% of pro cyclists will get anterior knee pain in any given year,1 but runners are by far the most numerous victims, and PFPS is the most common of all runners’ knee injuries.2

I survived a brain tumor. Knee rehab has been worse.

~ a reader

About footnotes. There are 258 footnotes in this document. Click to make them pop up without losing your place. There are two types: more interesting extra content,1Footnotes with more interesting and/or fun extra content are bold and blue, while dry footnotes (citations and such) are lightweight and gray. Type ESC to close footnotes, or re-click the number.
and boring reference stuff.2“Boring” footnotes usually contain scientific citations from my giant bibliography of pain science. Many of them actually have pretty interesting notes.

Example citation:
Berman BM, Langevin HH, Witt CM, Dubner R. Acupuncture for Chronic Low Back Pain. N Engl J Med. 2010 Jul 29;(363):454–461. PubMed #20818865. PainSci #54942. ← That symbol means a link will open in a new window.
Try one!

Getting good care for patellofemoral pain is a challenge

Knee pain may be common, but it’s surprisingly hard to find good self-help information for it. Patellofemoral pain is one of the most misunderstood of all knee pain problems. There are countless shallow webpages about it, but most just repeat the same points of oversimplified conventional wisdom.3 And not many doctors and therapists are prepared to treat tough cases. Sports medicine in general is amazingly primitive considering how much potential funding it has. You’d think anything affecting elite athletes with huge audiences would be gettingting more attention! The situation is improving, but only recently and it still has a long way to go.4

And so, many popular treatments for PFPS are of dubious value:

  • Correcting muscle imbalances is by far the most common prescription for PFPS. The idea is to teach muscles to pull more evenly on your kneecap — which good science has shown to be difficult at best, possibly impossible, and quite likely irrelevant.5
  • Quadriceps massage is a popular alternative treatment, but massage — while good medicine for many painful conditions — is really not very helpful for kneecap pain, which is a very “jointy” problem.
  • “Stay active” is one of the most common recommendations — but it can be the worst therapy of all for patellofemoral pain. It’s just knee jerk advice, given by professionals unfamiliar with the nature of PFPS. While exercise can be useful, “staying active” is overly simplistic advice, and can seriously backfire.
  • Treating PFPS like arthritis is a basic misunderstanding of the condition. Family doctors usually do this, but they are generally poorly informed about PFPS.6 It’s an understandable mistake — the distinction between PFPS and arthritis is complex — but it’s bad news for the patient with serious chronic pain!
  • Knee surgery is rarely a good option and often prescribed prematurely. Specialists7 and orthopaedic surgeons cannot be counted upon to provide good advice for PFPS.8 Experts believe surgery to be quite risky,9 and the research is very discouraging.

You should try to find good professional help, but it’s a great idea to be as well informed as possible when you do it, or you can easily waste a lot of time and money on dubious therapies — even if this tutorial can’t give you “the answer,” I hope it can at least help you avoid ineffective treatment.

How can you trust this information about patellofemoral pain?

I apply a MythBusters approach to health care (without explosives): I have fun questioning everything. I don’t claim to have The Answer for patellofemoral pain syndrome. When I don’t know, I admit it. I read scientific journals, I explain the science behind key points (there are more than 250 footnotes here, drawn from a huge bibliography), and I always link to my sources.

For instance, there’s good evidence that educational tutorials are actually effective medicine for pain.?Dear BF, Gandy M, Karin E, et al. The Pain Course: A Randomised Controlled Trial Examining an Internet-Delivered Pain Management Program when Provided with Different Levels of Clinician Support. Pain. 2015 May. PubMed #26039902. Researchers tested a series of web-based pain management tutorials on a group of adults with chronic pain. They all experienced reductions in disability, anxiety, and average pain levels at the end of the eight week experiment as well as three months down the line. “While face-to-face pain management programs are important, many adults with chronic pain can benefit from programs delivered via the internet, and many of them do not need a lot of contact with a clinician in order to benefit.” Good information is good medicine!

I don’t offer a miracle cure because (duh!) there is none! It’s important to state this clearly. Wouldn’t it be great if there were a proven treatment with minimal cost, inconvenience, or side effects? But medical science is nowhere close to this for most chronic pain conditions, and especially for patellofemoral pain.10

However, there are good reasons for optimism.

I can explain all the options, help you to confirm your diagnosis, and debunk bad ideas. It may or may not lead to a “cure,” but it will get you as close as you can get. Some readers will finally break free of their patellar pain. Others will make progress after ditching a counter-productive therapy, or trying an option they didn’t know about before. And maybe that is kind of miraculous! But probably not!

A quick overview of patellofemoral pain

Diagram illustrating the difference between patellofemoral pain syndrome and iliotibial band syndrome, showing how the former causes pain primarily on the front of the knee, while the latter causes pain primarily on the outside of the knee.

PFPS affects the kneecap & surrounding area. Don’t confuse it with iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS) which definitely affects primarily the outside of the knee (the lateral or outward-facing side of the knee). This picture is of a right knee.

Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is a problem with pain that feels like it is mainly on the front of the knee, specifically on the underside of or somewhere around the edges of the kneecap.[Wikipedia] One or both knees can be affected. The pain is usually worse when climbing stairs or hills, or after sitting for a long time.

In average cases, the pain is not severe and the problem often goes away with basic physical therapy.11 “Basic physical therapy” probably isn’t actually effective, but recovery proceeds anyway simply because the body is pretty good at healing.12 But many cases get worse instead of better. For the unluckiest patients, “basic therapy” completely fails and patellar pain becomes permanent and almost crippling.

Honest professionals know that the causes and cures for patellofemoral pain syndrome are unknown. But most doctors and therapists buy into the conventional wisdom: that the problem is essentially “mechanical.” Unfortunately, those theories have serious errors that are rarely discussed. Fortunately, a few medical experts suggest good alternatives, which will be explained in detail in this tutorial.

What’s in a name? The many labels of patellofemoral pain

“Patellofemoral pain syndrome” is a surprisingly meaningless name. It basically means “strange kneecap pain,” but in Latin. “Anterior knee pain syndrome” is another common name with an even broader meaning, and it’s a little more direct and honest: it’s pain, and it’s on the front of your knee, ‘nuff said.

A humourous graphical definition of patellofemoral pain syndrome, showing the meaning of the root “patello” means “kneecap,” the word “pain” means “ow,” and “syndrome” means “kinda mysterious.”]

Sometimes the “pain” part is dropped and it is just called “patellofemoral syndrome” or PFS.

The words “patellofemoral pain syndrome” are often used as a catch-all diagnosis in practice, without any diagnostic certainty — they may refer to nearly any pain roughly on the front of the knee, which may have any of several possible causes, none of which are particularly clear. Technically, it’s a diagnosis of exclusion — what’s left when everything else has been eliminated.13 The problem gets “syndrome” status because of this lack of clarity, and the fact that this particular kind of joint pain is so common.

Photo of a woman in a chair. Chair workers often suffer from patellofemoral pain syndrome.

Do you live in a chair?

“Chair warriors” who spend more than 4–6 hours per day suffer as much from knee pain as many runners. Woe to you if you both run and work in a chair …

“Runner’s knee” is a popular description among runners, of course, and they do get it more often than anyone else. But it is not a good term to use, because there are at least a half dozen other conditions that could be meant by it, especially iliotibial band syndrome. And of course it excludes other people who get the condition — all those people with cyclist’s knees and hiker’s knees, for instance!

Calling it “runner’s knee” particularly leaves out people whose knees hurt while sitting and because of sitting. Office workers and other chair-bound workers really do suffer from PFPS in droves. In fact, another name for this condition is moviegoer’s knee because of the tendency of the condition to cause pain after sitting for a long time. This also explains the use of the term “theatre sign” among professionals, as in, “He’s got theatre sign — must be a case of movie-goer’s knee.” In my professional experience, however, you could just as well say, “He’s got desk job sign — must be a case of office worker’s knee.”

One more naming note: occasionally you’ll hear therapists or doctors call this condition “patellofemoral tracking syndrome” (PFTS) or even chondromalacia patellae (definitions coming soon), but these are blatantly in error: these are things that might be causes of the condition, but they are not the condition itself.

About patellofemoral pain in teens

Patellofemoral pain in teens isn’t specifically covered in this book. However, the book is still useful for young patients.

The incidence of patellofemoral pain in adolescents is only a little bit higher than it is in the general population, and it is generally less serious and stubborn. It is mostly a temporary condition: they recover from or grow out of more easily than adults do. Although serious cases certainly can and do occur in teenagers, their age is not particularly relevant to those cases. A serious case in a teenager has to be handled in pretty much the same way that you would handle a serious case in an adult. So although age is a factor I haven’t focused on, everything that I have focused on should be of interest to teens with persistent knee pain.

Part 2

Nature of the Beast

The (many) possible causes of patellofemoral syndrome

Officially, no one knows what causes it. Here is an entertaining selection of typical disclaimers from some scientific papers dating back to 1988:

  • Back in 1988 Potter et al. summed it up: “Ironically, as simple as its presentation is, lack of consensus on the fundamental factors associated with PFS remains. No agreement exists on the exact pathophysiology ….”
  • In 1993, the Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine published an editorial called “The myth, mystic and frustration of anterior knee pain,”14 a title that certainly reveals a degree of medical uncertainty on the subject!
  • You would hope for progress over the next few years, but in 1998 Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy published the opinion that “there is no consensus on the most effective method of treatment … the indications and contraindications of each approach have not been well established … [and] there is no generally accepted classification scheme for patellofemoral disorders.”15
  • Not long after, in 1999, the journal American Family Physician, in one of its excellent physician tutorials, said that “Managing patellofemoral pain syndrome is a challenge, in part because of lack of consensus regarding its cause and treatment,” and “no single biomechanical factor has been identified as a primary cause of patellofemoral pain.”16
  • And things haven’t really improved. In 2006, with resounding negativity, Näslund declared that “no consensus on the definition, classification, assessment, diagnosis, or management has been reached.” So, no consensus on anything — wow — and that is still true to this day.

That’s the official, reasonable position. Any honest doctor or therapist should be happy to admit that almost everything about PFPS is basically a mystery. But in practice, most doctors and therapists think and act like the conventional wisdom is adequate.

The conventional wisdom

I’m pleased to say that American Family Physician came around. They say that the mystery of PFPS has been solved. (That’s sarcasm.) In a tutorial for physicians published in 2007, they confidently declared the cause of PFPS:

[Patellofemoral pain syndrome] is caused by imbalances in the forces controlling patellar tracking during knee flexion and extension, particularly with overloading of the joint.

Dixit S, DiFiori JP, Burton M, Mines B. Management of patellofemoral pain syndrome. Am Fam Physician. 2007;75:194–202. PubMed #17263215. PainSci #56699.

Well, thank goodness! That’s nice and clear, isn’t it? The conventional wisdom says that patellofemoral pain syndrome is painful degeneration of the cartilage on the underside of the kneecap, caused by a “mechanical” failure of that joint. What kind of failure? A “tracking” problem, in which the patella doesn’t slide evenly in its groove or “track” on the femur. For this condition, we need yet another multisyllabic name: “patellofemoral tracking syndrome.”

Another syndrome? I’m afraid so. It even has almost the same acronym: PFTS instead of PFPS. The conventional wisdom is so entrenched that many professionals consider the “tracking” syndrome to be virtually synonymous with PFPS itself.

But the idea that tracking problems cause patellar pain has not been proven beyond a reasonable doubt. In fact, as I will show in the sections ahead, it’s incredibly difficult to even prove that these problems even coexist, let alone how much they have anything to do with each other … if anything at all. Even stranger, it turns out that tracking problems are extremely difficult to even identify, let alone blame for anything. And as if this wasn’t enough trouble for the conventional wisdom, it turns out that even the “degeneration” of the kneecap’s cartilage is a scientific myth … a myth that probably has little or nothing to do with patellofemoral pain syndrome!

Wow. That’s a lot of myths.

The evidence that tissue pathology does not explain chronic pain is overwhelming (e.g., in back pain, neck pain, and knee osteoarthritis).

~ Teaching people about pain — why do we keep beating around the bush?, by Lorimer Moseley, 2–3

Assault on the conventional wisdom about patellofemoral pain syndrome

Joints wear out, right? Comedian Louis CK:17

The doctor shows me an x-ray of my ankle and he’s like, “Yeah, your ankle’s just, uh… worn out.”

“What do you mean? I injured my ankle?”

He’s like, “No, it’s just shitty now.”

And yet! Pain in the patellofemoral joint mostly does not appear to be associated with any identifiable tissue degeneration or damage, dysfunction or malfunction, asymmetry or weakness.1819 Sometimes it just hurts, even though the knee — indeed, the whole leg — seem to be healthy in every way that we can measure knee health. And if that seems a bit odd, you ain’t seen nothing yet!

Even when the joint is degenerating…


Purchase full access to this tutorial for USD$1995. Continue reading this page immediately after purchase. See a complete table of contents below. Most content on is free.?Almost everything on this website is free: about 80% of the site by wordcount (well over a million words), or 95% of the bigger pages (>1000 words). This page is only one of 8 big ones that have a price tag. There are also hundreds of free articles, including several about patellar pain. But this page goes into extreme detail, and selling access to it keeps the lights on and allows me to publish everything else (without ads).

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Much more informative and easy to read than anything else I could easily find. I laughed quite a bit, actually. ~ Pearl Lim, lawyer, Hong Kong

Thanks for a hugely informative tour of the dark continent of knee pain. ~ Bob Maul, former nationally ranked Masters swimmer (Bob says, “Bad knees ended that chapter of my life.”)

Your research is impressive. ~ Gita Upreti, graduate research assistant and casual runner with patello-femoral pain, Arizona

Other free samples from the book on

PayPal logo

The main buy button is for credit card purchases. Some customers prefer to use PayPal, rather than giving a credit card number to a small vendor. Please note that my business never handles card info: it goes straight to Stripe (a major payment processor with an excellent reputation).

Buy you can pay with PayPal. Automatic order processing is only available for credit card customers, but you can “manually” login to PayPal and send payment of 19.95 USD to . Please specify the book you are ordering!

I process orders promptly during working hours, usually within two hours, often much less. Night orders are processed early the next day. You will receive order confirmation and access information by email. Don’t see it? Be sure to check your spam folder!

read on any device, no passwords
refund at any time, in a week or a year
call 778-968-0930 for purchase help

Part 2.3


Reader feedback… good and bad

Testimonials on health care websites reek of quackery, so publishing them has always made me a bit queasy. But my testimonials are mostly about the quality of the information I’m selling, and I hope that makes all the difference. So here’s some highlights from the kind words I’ve received over the years… plus some of the common criticisms I receive, at the end. These are all genuine testimonials, mostly received by email. In many cases I withold or change names and identifying details.

Given what I have learned about patellofemoral pain syndrome over the last two years through personal experience, your tutorial is probably the best summary of everything I have seen.

~anonymous customer

This has already served as a massive eye opener for me. It makes a huge amount of sense where previously there was only confusion.

~Greg Bruce, “struggling masters athlete”

Just reading tutorial has already given me hope that I can finally get some relief from my chronic patellofemoral pain syndrome. Why didn’t I find this 2 years ago?! It has been so frustrating, both physically and emotionally, as I’m sure you already know from your patients. Your eBook is very enlightening and well written. Please feel free to use my comments as a testimonial. I was glad to see other testimonials, too — it’s nice to know that I’m not the only one who is struggling with this.

~Melanie Caldwell, Yonkers, NY

Finding this information was a huge relief for me. I really did think I had “tried everything.” But I found pages and pages of stuff in your article that no other doctor or therapist had ever even mentioned.

~Jared Foster, long-distance runner

I’m reading your patellofemoral pain tutorial slowly to absorb your wisdom and expertise. It’s also very pleasurable reading. As I learn, it seems almost comical to me that I have consistently pushed beyond the “envelope of function” into the “zone of overload.”  I see just exactly the mistakes I have made going into my marathon. It just seems so obvious now! Thank you so much. You have helped me in a great way that goes way beyond $20 …

~David Greenman, distance runner, Harrison, New York

This is pretty much exactly the sort of revelation that I hope my readers have!  “Gosh, it’s so simple, really ...” ~ Paul

I have read your tutorial on patellofemoral pain syndrome, and it seems to provide the only sensible information I can find on the subject, despite countless hours on Google, and endless hours with three different physical therapists, an orthopedic surgeon, and my regular MD.

~Heather F., patient with 6 months of “constant pain”

Much more informative and easy to read than anything else I could easily find. I laughed quite a bit, actually.

~Pearl Lim, lawyer, Hong Kong

Your article about patellofemoral pain is by far the best resource on the web — a true service, I think, to those who are getting bad information from doctors and physical therapists.

~Adam Lowry, long-distance runner, California

One more noteworthy endorsement, with regards to this whole website and all of my books, submitted by a London physician specializing in chronic pain, medical education, and patient-advocacy (that’s a link to his excellent blog):

I’m writing to congratulate and thank you for your impressive ongoing review of musculoskeletal research. I teach a course, Medicine in Society, at St. Leonards Hospital in Hoxton. I originally stumbled across your website whilst looking for information about pain for my medical students, and have recommended your tutorials to them. Your work deserves special mention for its transparency, evidence base, clear presentation, educational content, regular documented updates, and lack of any commercial promotional material.

— Dr. Jonathon Tomlinson, MBBS, DRCOG, MRCGP, MA, The Lawson Practice, London

What about criticism and complaints?

Oh, I get those too! I do not host public comments on for many reasons, but emailed constructive criticism, factual corrections, requests, and suggestions are all very welcome. I have made many important changes to this tutorial inspired directly by critical, informed reader feedback.

But you can’t make everyone happy! Some people demand their money back (and get it). I have about a 1% refund rate (far better than average in retail/e-commerce). The complaints of my most disatisfied customers have strong themes:

  • Too negative in general. Some people just can’t stomach all the debunking. Such customers often think that I dismiss “everything” … which I disagree with.
  • Too negative specifically. Some are offended by about a treatment option that they personally use and like. Or sell.
  • Too advanced. Although I work hard to “dumb” the material down, quite a few people still just find it too dense and dorky.
  • Too simple. Some people think they already know everything about the topic. Maybe they do, and maybe they don’t. I always wish I could give these readers a pop quiz. 😉 In my experience, all truly knowledegable people get that way by embracing every new persective and source of information.


Thanks to Dr. Scott Dye for helping me to understand and believe in my own unconventional ideas about patellofemoral pain syndrome, and by extension every other joint problem.

Extra special thanks to Tony Ingram, for substantial contributions of expertise and writing to this book in 2014 — the book is much better for it.

This document and all of was, for many years, created in my so-called “spare time” and with a lot of assistance from family and friends. Undying thanks to my wife, Kimberly, for countless indulgences large and small, and for being my “editor girlfriend”; to my parents for (possibly blind) faith in me, and much copyediting; and to Mike Gobbi, buddy and digital mentor, for many of the nifty features of this document (hidden and obvious). And thanks to all of the above, and many others, for many (many) answers to “what do you think of this?” emails.

Thanks finally to every reader, client, customer, and big tipper for your curiosity, your faith, and your feedback and suggestions and stories. Without you, all of this would be pointless.

And a few thanks to some health professionals who have been particularly inspiring to me: Dr. Rob Tarzwell, Dr. Steven Novella, Dr. David Gorski, Sam Homola, DC, Dr. Harriet Hall, Simon Singh, and Dr. Stephen Barrett.

About the 2nd Edition

The 2nd “edition” of the PFPS tutorial was launched on July 28, 2014, after months of collaboration with Tony Ingram, a Physical Therapist who did his Masters thesis on anterior knee pain. Tony was officially a co-author for a while, but retreated to focus on pursuing a PhD and a career in science.

Like all my books, this one was updated many times over the years, but changes were too small and spread out to constitute an “edition”: that had to wait for this, by far the largest ever major change to the book. It has several new sections, a lot of new science, and a strong (and overdue) new emphasis on the evidence-based value of exercise — reversing my grumpy anti-exercise position. It’s also much less exclusively about a single theory of knee pain than it was.

A new position on exercise

Exercise for patellofemoral pain syndrome is a good example of a treatment that works, but probably doesn’t work how most people think it works. I was anti-exercise before because the evidence just wasn’t there for it yet, and too many professionals fancied that they were prescribing exercise to change biomechanical parameters (e.g. patellar tracking) that correlated poorly with the condition. Such prescriptions tended to be overzealous: too much exercise, too soon for patients suffering from what is fundamentally an overuse condition.

Now there is good evidence that exercise is effective — hallelujah, some much-needed good news — but dosage and timing are key, and the biomechanical rationale still needs to be taken out with the trash.

Not just one guy’s theory any more

The previous version of the book had a significant weakness, a major idea about the nature of the beast (basically the whole “it’s the homeostasis, stupid,” ). The idea was plausible and elegant, but lacked adequate scientific support for an important basic point of the book. One advanced reader complained:

I didn’t buy your book so I could get one guy’s theory about how patellofemoral pain syndrome works.

Fair enough. She went on to say that it was probably a pretty good idea, just painfully unsupported. Simple as it is, that’s one of the best single constructive criticisms I’ve ever received. On the one hand, I unapologetically offer my take on these complex subjects. They are my books, and this is not a medical journal. On the other hand, I don’t want my take to be based solely on private speculation — if my opinion is to have much value, it should be clearly based on a diversity of expert and scientific sources. And so this is one of the major repairs in the 2nd edition. My basic point was sound, but badly needed some scientific and more diverse expert support — and now it has that.

Further Reading

  • “The pathophysiology of patellofemoral pain: a tissue homeostasis perspective,” an article in Clinical Orthopaedics & Related Research, 2005. This article by Scott F. Dye, MD, an orthopaedic surgeon from San Francisco, was by far the most influential source for this article. I do not normally recommend scientific articles to my readers, most of whom are ordinary people with knee pain, and not especially interested in slogging through medical jargon. However, in this case, I have to make an exception: although Dr. Dye’s writing is certainly intended for a professional audience, patients should still be able to get something out of it. It’s clear (for a scientific paper) and sensible, and even somewhat visionary in tone. Despite the fact that it’s certainly harder reading than this article, and despite the cost — the article will set you back US$10 to access — I still think it’s worth it. If you really want a good depth of understanding of PFPS, it’s required reading.
  • Massage Therapy for Your Quads will add to your understanding of the quadriceps muscle group and its relationship to the kneecap.
  • There are other kinds of knee pain, and it’s not always easy to tell which kind you’ve got. In particular, the two main types of runners knee are often confused. Tell them apart with this quick guide and checklist: The Runners Knee Diagnostic Checklist.
  • The journal American Family Physician publishes free tutorials for doctors which may also be useful for patients. I have come to trust those tutorials as one of the best sources available when I am trying to understand conventional medical opinion. They are usually well-written and beautifully illustrated, and determined patients can often get plenty of value out of them despite the jargon. See “Patellofemoral pain syndrome: a review and guidelines for treatment” for a 1999 tutorial for doctors, and “Management of patellofemoral pain syndrome” for their 2007 article on the subject. Bear in mind that these articles present only the conventional wisdom, however, and primarily discuss structural explanations for knee pain. As such, I do not think that they are useful to my patients and readers except as the best available representation of conventional wisdom.
  • One of the hottest and most controversial treatment ideas for patellar pain is the idea that strengthening your hips will help. I explore the controversy here: Does Hip Strengthening Work for IT Band Syndrome?

A few more articles about patellofemoral pain syndrome and related topics:

What’s new in this tutorial?

The original publication date of this tutorial has been lost, but I think it was in 2004. It was quite rudimentary until 2007, when significant upgrades began. This change log was started in May 2007, along with many major improvements. As you can see, the tutorial has been updated many times since, and remains a live document.

Regular updates are a key feature of tutorials. As new science and information becomes available, I upgrade them, and the most recent version is always automatically available to customers. Unlike regular books, and even e-books (which can be obsolete by the time they are published, and can go years between editions) this document is updated at least once every three months and often much more. I also log updates, making it easy for readers to see what’s changed. This tutorial has gotten 81 major and minor updates since I started logging carefully in late 2009 (plus countless minor tweaks and touch-ups).

2017Science update: Cited and discussed Schandelmaier et al on low intensity pulse ultrasound for fracture/osteotomy healing. [Section: Ultrasound is not a strong option.]

2017Science update: Cited Siemieniuk — the British Medical Journal strongly denouncing the common athroscopic surgeries. [Section: Surgery is only a last resort.]

2017Revision: Clarifications about the value of treating inflammation in principle. [Section: Treating for inflammation: is there any point?]

2017Science update: Significant science upgrade based on McAlindon et al. [Section: Steroid injections are powerful, but where would you put the needle?]

2017Upgrade: Shoes now have a section to themselves (orthotics discussed separately), and I made several improvements at the same time, mostly about spring-based shoes as a generic concept. [Section: Hitting the road: shoes, surfaces, impact, and the spring in your step.]

2017Major upgrade: Much more detail and modernized references. The entire section is now dedicated to orthotics (and shoes have their own section, also upgraded). [Section: Orthotics.]

2017Major science update: I have reversed my position on vastus medialis isolation on the basis of new evidence. [Section: Is one part of the quadriceps — the vastus medialis — more important?]

2016Science update: More information and citations about ineffective knee surgeries for context. [Section: Surgery is only a last resort.]

2016Minor update: Cited van Gent 2007 on training volume and the “fine balance.” [Section: Prevention for runners and other athletes.]

2016Minor update: Cited van Gent 2007 for perspective. [Section: Misc other possible biomechanical bogeymen.]

2016Major update: Fully modernized risk and safety information about all over-the-counter analgesics. [Section: You and “vitamin I”: anti-inflammatory meds, especially Voltaren® Gel.]

2016Science update: Significant revision in light of (finally!) good new evidence about natural running and injury prevention. [Section: Should you run naked? On faddish running styles and running shoes (or the lack thereof).]

2016Science update: Added a strong (and interesting) reference about surgical lavage and debridement. [Section: Surgery is only a last resort.]

2015Science update: Added citations to shore up efficacy, and evidence that taping tinkers with knee sensation. [Section: Taping and strapping.]

2015Science update: Added more evidence showing no causal connection with hip weakness, plus related editing. [Section: If exercise works, how does it work?]

2015New section: No notes. Just a new section. [Section: Kill it with fire! Arthroscopic patellar denervation.]

2015New links: Added links to several other relevant articles around the site, and most of those have been updated recently. [Section: Further Reading.]

2015Science update: Added strong evidence from Freedman et al that Q-angles aren’t worth measuring. [Section: Q is for quadriceps: the dubious role of the Q-angle.]

2015Minor update: Added an interesting subsection about “fabella syndrome.” [Section: Under pressure.]

2014Correction: Reduced confidence in the results of a major study of special footwear (Knapik, the subject of the last update). Later removed the reference altogether. [Section: What about pronating?]

2014New section: A short new section, finally, on PRP injections. I’ve also published a more detailed free article about this. [Section: Regenerative medicine? Platelet-rich plasma injections.]

2014Minor update: General editing, plus a stronger and clearer statement about targeting the vastus medialis. [Section: Is one part of the quadriceps — the vastus medialis — more important?]

2014Minor update: General editing and polish, now that the dust has settled from the 2nd edition launch. [Section: If exercise works, how does it work?]

2014Minor update: General editing and polish, now that the dust has settled from the 2nd edition launch. [Section: Does exercise work?]

2014Major update: Extensive revision for the 2nd edition. [Section: How do you exercise without pissing off your knee?]

2014Major update: Extensive revision for the 2nd edition. [Section: Is one part of the quadriceps — the vastus medialis — more important?]

2014New section: A new section for the 2nd edition. [Section: If exercise works, how does it work?]

2014New section: A new section for the 2nd edition. [Section: Does exercise work?]

2014New section: A new section for the 2nd edition. [Section: Then exercise: The long term solution.]

2014New section: A new section for the 2nd edition. [Section: Pain is weird: the surprisingly fallible role of the brain in all this.]

2014Updated: Significant revision and expansion for the 2nd edition. [Section: Females versus males: is there really a difference?]

2014New edition: Major revision of the book with the help of, Tony Ingram, PT, MSo. The new edition has a few new sections, a strong new focus on the value of judicious exercise therapy, and updated and expanded citations for many key points. Read more about the 2nd edition.

2013Science update: Added another bad-news citation, and type of evidence. [Section: What about pronating?]

2013Science update: Added a bad-news citation. Sorry about that. [Section: Taping and strapping.]

2013New section: Intriguing new evidence of circulatory impairment in PFPS patients. [Section: Like getting blood from a bone.]

2013New section: No notes. Just a new section. [Section: “Maybe you’re just not built for running”.]

2013Science update: Added some science, to start building an evidence-based case for resting. [Section: The art of rest: the challenge and the opportunity for patients who have supposedly “tried everything”.]

2013Science update: Another good news science update: more about how surprisingly well knees handle running. [Section: Assault on the conventional wisdom about patellofemoral pain syndrome.]

2013Science update: Added a new study to the pile of evidence that abnormalities are common in healthy people and vice versa. [Section: Patellofemoral Tracking Syndrome.]

2013Science update: A particularly “good news” science update about how running is, counterintuitively, actually pretty good for joints — not hard on them. [Section: Assault on the conventional wisdom about patellofemoral pain syndrome.]

2013Minor update: Added a reader anecdote about stretching the IT band helping her anterior knee pain. [Section: Tight IT bands.]

2013Minor update: Apt aging joints humour added, via comedian Louis CK. [Section: Assault on the conventional wisdom about patellofemoral pain syndrome.]

2013Minor update: Upgraded risk and safety information about Voltaren Gel. [Section: You and “vitamin I”: anti-inflammatory meds, especially Voltaren® Gel.]

2012Science update: The writing was on the wall, but a new comprehensive review of knee lube jobs has confirmed that knee lube jobs are all washed. The section now reflects that. [Section: Should you get a lube job? Artificial synovial fluid injections.]

2012Science update: Two new studies of the connection between knee pain and the inner thigh muscles, showing … modest correlations of dubious significance. [Section: Weak and uncoordinated muscles, perhaps?]

2012Minor update: Some customizing of “brain wrangling” for patellofemoral pain syndrome. [Section: Brain wrangling: what to do about sensitization.]

2012Science update: Weak but interesting new evidence on natural running and injury prevention. [Section: Should you run naked? On faddish running styles and running shoes (or the lack thereof).]

2012Major update: Greatly expanded. Now offers a comprehensive summary of all treatment options: the good, the bad and the ugly. [Section: Other Treatments: What else can you do about PFPS?]

2012New section: New standard section I’m introducing to most of the tutorials to “manage expectations.” Too many readers assume there’s going to be a specific miracle treatment plan. [Section: So what’s the plan? Some expectations for management.]

2012New section: An important new section created as a direct response to reader demand. [Section: Now what?: An action-oriented summary of recommendations.]

2012Medium update: Added a few paragraphs about foam rolling and trying to “elongate” the IT band. [Section: Quadriceps massage.]

2012Science update: A minor but interesting new item about high heels. [Section: Hitting the road: shoes, surfaces, impact, and the spring in your step.]

2012New section: No notes. Just a new section. [Section: Brain wrangling: what to do about sensitization.]

2012Minor update: Another nice swimming update: I added some excellent perspective from an experienced competitive swimmer. [Section: The art of rest: the challenge and the opportunity for patients who have supposedly “tried everything”.]

2012Minor update: Very simple swimming tip added. Hat tip to reader Eric C. [Section: The art of rest: the challenge and the opportunity for patients who have supposedly “tried everything”.]

2012Updated: Answered some common reader concerns about planning. [Section: Jan’s Phase I: Preparation (July and August).]

2012Updated: Bone scans and the reason for getting them are now described much more thoroughly. Added some new science confirming that many PFPS knees are “hot.” [Section: Hot kneecaps! Should you get an x-ray, MRI, or bone scan?]

2012Major update: Expanded and heavily edited. In particular, the concept of a “diagnosis of exclusion” is now explained thoroughly. [Section: Eliminate other concerns.]

2011New section: No notes. Just a new section. [Section: How do you exercise without pissing off your knee?]

2011New section: Not a beefy update: just a few quick thoughts about heat. [Section: Heat (very briefly).]

2011Minor update: Addressed some common fears about the threat of getting out of shape while resting. [Section: 1. Common Resting Pitfall No. 1: The runner’s natural stubbornness.]

2011Minor update: Added reference to Kong et al, about the effect of shoe wear. [Section: Hitting the road: shoes, surfaces, impact, and the spring in your step.]

2011New section: Expanded the section so much that it’s effectively new. It was just a single paragraph about orthotics. Now it is a much more thorough discussion of orthotics, shoes, and impact reduction. [Section: Orthotics.]

2011Minor update: Added a reference about the poor overall quality of online information about common injuries. See Starman. [Section: Introduction.]

2011Minor update: Added an item about swimming to the “activities that may strain the knee” chart. [Section: The art of rest: the challenge and the opportunity for patients who have supposedly “tried everything”.]

2011Major update: Major improvements to the table of contents, and the display of information about updates like this one. Sections now have numbers for easier reference and bookmarking. The structure of the document has really been cleaned up in general, making it significantly easier for me to update the tutorial — which will translate into more good content for readers. Care for more detail? Really? Here’s the full announcement.

2011New section: Finally, long overdue, a new section on this topic (for all the running injury tutorials, in fact). [Section: Should you run naked? On faddish running styles and running shoes (or the lack thereof).]

2011Important new info: Where’s the fire? Recently I published a major new article about repetitive strain injuries, in which I explain that these injuries are rarely actually inflamed. Instead of being “on fire,” excessively stressed tissues tend to break down without inflammation — a kind of rot. For the full scoop on inflammation and repetitive strain injuries, see: Repetitive Strain Injuries Tutorial: Five surprising and important facts about repetitive strain injuries like carpal tunnel syndrome, tendinitis, or iliotibial band syndrome.

2010New section: New short section for both this book and the iliotibial band syndrome book covering potentially confusing alternative diagnoses, such as popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES). [Section: Other possible diagnoses and sources of diagnostic confusion.]

2010New section: Brief new section — just a note, really, but quite important to some readers. [Section: About patellofemoral pain in teens.]

2010Minor update: Added some data on the incidence of PFPS in cyclists. [Section: Treating for inflammation: is there any point?]

2010New cover: At last! E-book finally has a “cover.”

2010New section: No notes. Just a new section. [Section: Glucosamine, chondroitin sulphate and other “nutraceuticals” have failed every large, fair test.]

2010Major improvements: Substantial changes related to new science summarized in Am I wrong? An update on the conventional wisdom. [Section: A Modern Perspective: Patellofemoral pain as “the itch you can’t scratch”.]

2010Major improvements: Substantial changes related to new science summarized in Am I wrong? An update on the conventional wisdom. [Section: Weak and uncoordinated muscles, perhaps?]

2010Major improvements: Substantial changes related to new science summarized in Am I wrong? An update on the conventional wisdom. [Section: Misc other possible biomechanical bogeymen.]

2010New section: A flurry of substantive updates and re-writing today inspired by some new scientific papers. [Section: Am I wrong? An update on the conventional wisdom.]

2010New section: No notes. Just a new section. [Section: Steroid injections are powerful, but where would you put the needle?]

2010New section: No notes. Just a new section. [Section: Prolotherapy is not relevant to patellofemoral pain syndrome.]

2010Minor update: Miscellaneous upgrades, and a nice anecdote from a reader [Section: Other Treatments: What else can you do about PFPS?]

2010Minor update: Added thoughts about the effect of and some other minor updates. [Section: The art of rest: the challenge and the opportunity for patients who have supposedly “tried everything”.]

Older updatesListed in a separate document, for anyone who cares to take a look.


  1. Clarsen B, Krosshaug T, Bahr R. Overuse Injuries in Professional Road Cyclists. Am J Sports Med. 2010 Sep. PubMed #20847225. BACK TO TEXT
  2. Taunton JE, Ryan MB, Clement DB, et al. A retrospective case-control analysis of 2002 running injuries. Br J Sports Med. 2002;36(2):95–101.

    This report on two year’s worth of injuries among Vancouver runners — many of whom I probably run with every day on Vancouver’s sea wall — found that “patellofemoral pain syndrome was the most common injury, followed by iliotibial band friction syndrome, plantar fasciitis, meniscal injuries of the knee, and tibial stress syndrome.”

  3. In 2010, the Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery reported that “the quality and content of health information on the internet is highly variable for common sports medicine topics,” such as knee pain and low back pain — a bit of an understatement, really. Expert reviewers examined about 75 top-ranked commercial websites and another 30 academic sites. They gave each a quality score on a scale of 100. The average score? Barely over 50! For more detail, see Starman et al. BACK TO TEXT
  4. Grant HM, Tjoumakaris FP, Maltenfort MG, Freedman KB. Levels of Evidence in the Clinical Sports Medicine Literature: Are We Getting Better Over Time? Am J Sports Med. 2014 Apr;42(7):1738–1742. PubMed #24758781.

    Things may be getting better: “The emphasis on increasing levels of evidence to guide treatment decisions for sports medicine patients may be taking effect.” Fantastic news, if true! On the other hand, maybe I should be careful what I wish for, since my entire career is based on making some sense out of the hopeless mess that is sports and musculoskeletal medicine…

  5. The science of this controversial claim will be discussed in great detail below. BACK TO TEXT
  6. Doctors lack the skills and knowledge needed to care for most common aches, pains, and injury problems, especially the chronic cases, and even the best are poor substitutes for physical therapists. This has been proven in a number of studies, like Stockard et al, who found that 82% of medical graduates “failed to demonstrate basic competency in musculoskeletal medicine.” It’s just not their thing, and people with joint or meaty body pain should take their family doctor’s advice with a grain of salt. See The Medical Blind Spot for Aches, Pains, and Injuries: Most doctors are unqualified to care for many common pain and injury problems. Especially the stubborn ones.
    Cartoon of a man sitting in a doctor’s office. The doctor is holding a clipboard with a checklist with just two items on it: stress related and age related. The caption reads: “An extremely general practitioner.”

    Cartoon by Loren Fishman,

  7. Sports medicine specialists are probably the least of all evils — although no professional category seems generally well-informed about PFPS, you probably stand a somewhat better chance of getting competent help from a sports medicine doctor than from any other kind of health care professional. Although they are more or less as prone to the toeing the line of conventional wisdom as any other health care professional, at least their expertise is directly concerned with non-surgical management of conditions like PFPS — and so there is at least some respectable chance that a doctor in this speciality will have paid some attention to the scientific controversies. BACK TO TEXT
  8. Orthopaedic surgeons are surgeons — not only do surgeons strongly tend to perceive musculoskeletal problems only in terms of surgical solutions, but they are (quite correctly) professionally preoccupied with their surgical expertise and professional development, which means that they are typically not knowledgeable about conservative physical therapy methods for relatively minor overuse injuries like PFPS. Many of them certainly try to make a professional point of avoiding the overprescription of surgery, but that doesn’t necessarily make them experts in what to do instead of surgery. And PFPS is a particularly bad problem to take to a surgeon for the simple reason that, among knee injuries, PFPS is just about the last one that you’d want to operate on. This will be fully explained as we continue with the tutorial. BACK TO TEXT
  9. Surgeons often oversimplify patellofemoral pain syndrome as simply a case of “arthritis” of that joint, and recommend a debridement (filing or smoothing) of the knee cartilage, either of the patellofemoral joint, or of the main joint between the tibia and femur (which is particularly irrelevant to patellofemoral pain). However, debridement has been proven to be ineffective even for arthritis (let alone PFPS, which isn’t arthritis), originally and most spectacularly by Moseley in 2002, then most authoritatively by The Cochrane Collaboration in early 2008 (see Laupattarakasem), and most recently by New England Journal of Medicine in September 2008 (see Kirkley). This is one of the most straightforward scientific slam dunks in surgery research in recent history — surgical debridement doesn’t work! BACK TO TEXT
  10. There isn’t even a reasonably reliable surgical Plan B for patellar pain, as there are with several other common joint problems. BACK TO TEXT
  11. Dixit S, DiFiori JP, Burton M, Mines B. Management of patellofemoral pain syndrome. Am Fam Physician. 2007;75:194–202. PubMed #17263215. PainSci #56699. “ …although management can be challenging, a well-designed, non-operative treatment program usually allows patients to return to recreational and competitive activities.” BACK TO TEXT
  12. As we’ll discuss in detail below, most “basic” physical therapy for PFPS consists of minor interventions of dubious value — mostly corrective exercises, stretching, ultrasound, taping and strapping — yet the clinical impression of most professionals is that mild patellofemoral pain does go away with conservative advice. The most likely explanation for this — and it’s a common “problem” in physical therapy — is simply that most of those cases would have gotten better regardless of the therapy. Of course, in some cases, some good advice may be mixed in with bad advice, and that may help. And there may be some placebo effect: being therapized really does help a lot of people to feel better, regardless of whether or not the therapy makes any sense, and yes this phenomenon can occur even with something as seemingly un-psychological as knee pain! See Moseley. BACK TO TEXT
  13. In practice the diagnosis is more inclusive — as is this book, much of which is useful even for the patient who turns out in the end to have something a little better defined. BACK TO TEXT
  14. Reid DC. The myth, mystic and frustration of anterior knee pain. Clin J Sport Med. 1993;3:139–43. PainSci #56702. BACK TO TEXT
  15. Wilk KE, Davies GJ, Mangine RE, Malone TR. Patellofemoral disorders: a classification system and clinical guidelines for nonoperative rehabilitation. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy. 1998;28(5):307–322. BACK TO TEXT
  16. Juhn MS. Patellofemoral pain syndrome: a review and guidelines for treatment. Am Fam Physician. 1999;60(7):2012–2022. PainSci #56687. BACK TO TEXT
  17. A one-minute excerpt from his 2008 stand-up show Chewed Up is embedded below, but you can also watch the full segment (2:30) on YouTube. Funny stuff! BACK TO TEXT
  18. Näslund J, Näslund UB, Odenbring S, Lundeberg T. Comparison of symptoms and clinical findings in subgroups of individuals with patellofemoral pain. Physiotherapy Theory and Practice. 2006 Jun;22(3):105–18. PubMed #16848349. In this study of 80 patients with a diagnosis of PFPS, with all other likely diagnoses already eliminated from consideration, signs of pathology were found in only 17 of 75 patients, and the authors conclude that even these “cannot be detected from ... commonly used clinical tests.” That’s quite a few mysteriously painful knees. BACK TO TEXT
  19. Piva SR, Fitzgerald GK, Irrgang JJ, et al. Associates of physical function and pain in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2009 Feb;90(2):285–95. PubMed #19236982.

    Researchers tested 74 patients diagnosed with patellofemoral pain syndrome for the presence of several factor that are commonly suspected to be associated with that condition, the “usual biomechanical suspects”: muscle weakness and tightness, coordination, and postural and anatomical abnormalities. They also considered psychological factors, which is quite unusual for a study of knee pain.

    They found no correlation at all with between the biomechanical factors and chronic anterior knee pain.

    Interestingly, the researchers did find that “psychologic factors [anxiety and fear-avoidance beliefs about work and physical activity] were the only associates of function and pain in patients with PFPS.”


There are 239 more footnotes in the full version of this book. I like footnotes & I try to have fun with them whenever possible.

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