Sensible advice for aches, pains & injuries

The Insomnia Guide

Serious insomnia-fighting advice from a veteran of the sleep wars

updated (first published 2007)
by Paul Ingraham, Vancouver, Canadabio
I am a science writer and a former Registered Massage Therapist with a decade of experience treating tough pain cases. I was the Assistant Editor of for several years. I’ve written hundreds of articles and several books, and I’m known for readable but heavily referenced analysis, with a touch of sass. I am a runner and ultimate player. • more about memore about

This detailed self-help article is humbly offered to people suffering from severe insomnia, in the hopes that my expertise and personal experience can be of some use to you. Before you place your hopes in any of my recommendations, however, please ensure that there is no medical cause for your insomnia first.1 But many severe cases of insomnia are basically bad habits, and will respond to behavioural conditioning234 — and even if there is a medical cause for your insomnia, behavioural conditioning may still be your best defense.

Why do I have a big article about treating insomnia on a website about pain and injury? Because sleep deprivation is a major, common unsuspected factor in pain, and because I have a great deal of personal experience with it.

Insomnia is a glamorous term for thoughts you forgot to have in the day.

Alain de Botton

I am recovered from extreme insomnia

I slept poorly from the age of twelve on, and I suffered through three major episodes of extreme insomnia as an adult. In 2005, I feel as though I nearly died from insomnia so savage that I slept as little as an hour a night for days at a time, over a period of many months. I was basically immune to pharmaceutical sleep aids that could have put a horse in a coma, and I had given every imaginable popular remedy a fair try.

If you have insomnia, you know all too well that people like to suggest insomnia cures even more than they like cold and flu remedies! I certainly believed that I had “tried everything.”

Fortunately, I hadn’t actually tried everything.

It’s amazing how much I was willing to suffer before I really took the challenge seriously. After a long struggle and an exhaustive personal investigation into the science of sleep and insomnia, I finally treated myself successfully. It was quite challenging, and my sleep is still not perfect. However, I have now gone twelve years without any more severe insomnia — by far the longest period since I was a child.

Sleep is like a cat: it only comes to you if you ignore it.

Gillian Flynn, Gone Girl

Some consequences of sleep deprivation

Serious insomnia is nothing to mess around with. At my worst, I felt like I was made of glass, everything hurt, and I was seeing everything through a haze of mental distortions, exaggerated mental tangents, and minor hallucinations. From xkcd a popular geeky webcomic, here’s a strip about sleep deprivation that exactly describes how I felt in the summer of ‘05, and how any sleep-deprived person feels when they start to sink down to less than 3–5 hours per night. (Be sure to let your mouse cursor hover over the comic for an extra caption.)

“Still No Sleep”

xkcd #776 © by Randall Munroe

Hallucinations are just the beginning: sleep deprivation can actually kill. Laboratory animals subjected to extreme sleep deprivation die relatively swiftly of unknown causes — exactly what goes wrong is not clear, but their body temperatures start to drop and then they suffer rapid and widespread physiological failure.5 This is a very curious thing about biology, that sleep is actually required for life, and in fact required for all life — virtually every living thing sleeps, if it has any kind of a brain of any kind at all.6

There is even a rare genetic disease, fatal familial insomnia (FFI), that causes such severe insomnia that victims die:

The main symptom of FFI … is the inability to sleep. First the ability to nap disappears, then the ability to get a full night's sleep, until the patient cannot sleep at all. The syndrome usually strikes when the sufferer is in his or her 50s, ordinarily lasts about a year, and, as the name indicates, always ends in death.

The Secrets of Sleep,” National Geographic Magazine, May 2010

Insomnia is not commonly fatal, of course, because there are all kinds of self-preservation mechanisms that kick in — as long as you don’t have a disease like FFI that absolutely eliminates sleep, you will never come anywhere close to losing enough of the stuff to kill you. But the fact that sleep is so basic strongly suggests that sleep-deprivation is a dangerous problem, even when it falls short of being actually lethal.7 And in fact there is a considerable amount of science confirming exactly this. Here in Vancouver, University of British Columbia psychologist Stanley Coren8 describes sleep deprivation studies in humans showing a number of ominous effects, and his book Sleep Thieves: An eye-opening exploration into the science and mysteries of sleep generally comes to the conclusion that everyone needs to take sleep deprivation much more seriously than we generally do. Here are several examples:

This is just a sampling. For a complete discussion of how insomnia probably increases body pain of all kinds (and muscle pain in particular), see Insomnia Until it Hurts.

Sleep deprivation is serious. Take it seriously.

“Night owl” type insomnia (delayed sleep phase syndrome/disorder)

Delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS) is a sleep problem with a neurological cause. It is not a habit that can be broken. Like sleep apnea, it is relatively common — roughly 10% of insomnia cases are actually DSPS — but not nearly as well known. If you have a clear case of “night owl” insomnia, if you can’t get to sleep in the first place, you should read more about delayed sleep phase syndrome.

People with DSPS are not just night owls: they really are unable to fall asleep until later. Being a night owl is a lifestyle and a preference, possibly with some genetic basis, but it’s flexible. DSPD is not just a preference for staying up late and getting up late, and it’s not flexible. With DSPD, the body clock is not just delayed, it is also relatively carved in stone.

Insomnia as a bad habit

Some insomnia is caused by sleep disorders such as sleep apnea. Or sleep loss may be caused by the pain of another medical condition, such as rheumatoid arthritis. But most insomnia is basically just a bad habit — a learned behaviour, which is usually aggravated into a crisis by emotional stresses16 or by other medical problems. This kind of insomnia is called “behavioural insomnia.”

I resisted this idea at first. Actually, I strongly resented it for a long time. It sounded like an dismissive “all in your head” diagnosis to me. I certainly did not feel like I had a bad habit. I felt like a victim of some terrible malfunction of my central nervous system.

I thought I had a “real” problem.

But it turns out I was just a guy with a bad habit, and the proof was in the results. Granted, it was a really bad habit — or several of them — but it really did come down to just learning how to sleep again. The cure was ultimately simple, and consisted of a simple 2-point plan:17

  1. sleep environment upgrading
  2. behavioural conditioning

The magic is in the behavioural conditioning, and it’s what most of the rest of this article is about. Step one just paves the way, and is mainly a determined application of common sense…

‘Did you sleep well last night?’

‘No, I made a few mistakes.’

Comedian Steven Wright

Sleep environment upgrading

All the behavioural condition in the world will be useless if you sleep in bright, noisy, stuffy bedroom with a snoring spouse and a pesky cat. It is absolutely vital to have a sleep environment that is reasonably conducive to sleep, and it’s amazing how many things most insomniacs can do to improve their sleep environment.

Cover your windows with blackout curtains. Install sound-proofing eggshell foam. Find more comfortable earplugs. Get an air conditioner or a dehumidifier. Kick the dog out of bed. Get a squirt bottle and wage war on the cat until she learns that waking you up at 4:00 AM is going to get her nothing but soaking wet. Use a white noise machine or a fan. Buy the best mattress money can buy, get a deluxe pillow, and 900 thread count sheets. Fix the leaky tap. If your husband snores, get rid of him: separate bedrooms, separate lives, whatever it takes, even if it’s only until you learn to sleep again. Get rid of the phone too: permanently eliminate the possibility of it ever waking you up at 2:00 AM again.

If your husband snores, get rid of him.

Getting the idea?

Everyone’s circumstances are different, and the solutions will be unique, but stop at nothing to make your bedroom as sleep-friendly as humanly possible. And if you can’t do it — if there is something intrinsically sleep-hostile about your living space … move. Seriously. Why not? Remember what’s at stake here. People have transplanted themselves across oceans and continents for much less: jobs, boyfriends, and better scenery.

Another sleep deprivation comic from xkcd. I think xkcd creator Randall Munroe knows all about this problem …


xkcd #313 © by Randall Munroe

Sleep hygiene

Sleep is a complex human behaviour, and insomnia is a dysfunctional sleep behaviour — sleep behaviour that results in sleep that is at odds with what we want, usually not enough of it and at the wrong times. Either we start sleeping at the wrong time, and/or we can’t continue sleeping as long as we’d like, and/or we can’t sleep as deeply as we need to.

The sum of our sleep behaviours is called our “sleep hygiene.” Insomniacs usually have lousy sleep hygiene.

Sleep anthropologists — yes, that’s an actual field of sleep research, though admittedly a pretty small one — have taught us that “anything goes” with sleep. Sleep behaviour is quite variable and adaptable across cultures and situations, and we can learn and unlearn nearly any kind of sleep habit. And yet of course not all sleep hygiene actually works well. Just because we can learn to sleep in surprisingly sleep-hostile conditions doesn’t mean that it’s a good idea. That adaptability can work for or against us: it is easy to inadvertently teach ourselves sleeping habits with unpleasant long term consequences. It is less easy to deliberately teach ourselves better ones.

Without a doubt, my readers mostly suffer from civilization-induced insomnia. That is, they have learned bad sleeping habits that are strongly associated with an electrical world. It’s easy to stay up. There’s stuff to do at night.

We can learn nearly any kind of sleep habit — and unlearn it.

Many insomniacs will start protesting at this point: “But I try to go to sleep and I can’t!” Sure. But there are a thousand sneaky ways in which you teach your brain not to go to sleep. There are several common themes, but let’s start with one of the worst and most common ways of training to become a champion insomniac …

Most insomniacs, when they have trouble falling sleep, get frustrated, get up, and do something. This is dangerous. Depending on the activity, this is a message to your brain. The message is, “1:00 AM is for checking my email. Reading a book. Watching a bit of boring telly. Having a snack.” Your ancestors didn’t have those options. Through most of our biological history, they literally couldn’t even put on a light!

It’s this simple: whatever you repeatedly do at 1:00 AM, that is exactly what your brain will think 1:00 AM is about! You are teaching your nervous system not to sleep, and like the miraculously adaptable thing that it is … it learns.

Behavioural conditioning

Learning to sleep again is something like training a dog: endless repetition, and positive reinforcement. Only instead of doggy biscuit rewards … your reward is sleep.

Sounds good, doesn’t it?

Behavioural conditioning is most familiar to us in the context of animal training. Unfortunately, this does not mean that we can easily “get it.” As any dog trainer will tell you, people really suck at training animals, and generally need far more training than the animals.18

People are no better at training themselves, probably even worse. We’re biased, emotionally messy, full of appetites and neuroses, a soup of stress hormones and a lifetime of habits already so well-established that they seem like a permanent part of the fabric of our lives. Saying that behavioural insomnia is just a bad habit is like saying that cancer is just a few bad cells. Habits are the most powerful forces in our lives. Learned adaptation is one of the basic organizing principles of our nervous systems. Going up against that is never going to be easy. But it can be done, just like professional animal trainers can get results that seem almost impossible to amateurs.

But behavioural conditioning itself is a skill that has be learned. It isn’t intuitive.

The total time in bed (TTIB) problem

Most insomniacs spread their sleep too thin: for instance, maybe you go to bed early because you’re exhausted, wake up a lot during the night because you’re an insomniac, and then of course you sleep in as much as possible to try to recover from the fragmented sleep. Your total time in bed may be 9, 10, even 11 or 12 hours sometimes.

The problem is that it is not actually possible for anyone — except cats — to consistently sleep solidly through such a long period. If you go to bed at ten and don’t get out of bed until nine the next morning, gaps in your sleep are inevitable!

This “total time in bed” is such a crucial concept that it should be acronymized: TTIB! Basically, as long as you have a high TTIB, good luck sleeping through the night.

An insomniac reader provided this good description of his experience of the TTIB problem:

I have often slept in a little to recover from a rough night, but going to bed at 10:00pm is actually not a good plan if I actually want to sleep past five or six … which I usually try to do. I have actually been going to sleep too early because I am anticipating trouble with sleep … I know I’ll have trouble, so I want more time to recover before the next day starts, so I start trying to sleep sooner. You can see how that might lead to sleep getting stretched thinner and thinner, where I’m actually causing the same problem I’m trying to solve.

Although there may be many things that wreck your sleep, TTIB is one of the most controllable and significant aggravating behavioral factors. And TTIB is usually most obviously aggravated by an inconsistent waking time. Many insomniacs get the idea of focussing on getting to bed at a consistent time, but rarely worry about wake time and semi-regularly stay in bed as long as possible trying to recover from the bad night of sleep. Unfortunately, this simply stretches out your TTIB and strongly reinforces the tendency to wake up in the night.

To have any hope of sleeping through the night, you have to have a consistent bedtime and a consistent waking time. Which brings us to sleep compression therapy.

Sleep compression therapy

Training for recovery from behavioural insomnia is usually most easily cured by restricting sleep to an inadequate, fixed period each night, and then gradually increasing it. It’ll be unpleasant at first … but you’ve got nothing to lose.

The idea of sleep compression therapy is pretty much identical to the logic behind the method used to train cat not to be a fussy eater, which works like this:

Put a small dish of food out … for ten minutes only. If the cat doesn’t eat the food in that period of time, you take it away until the next meal time, by which time the cat is starting to feel a lot less choosy. After a few missed meals, even the fussiest of all possible cats is going to get hungry enough to eat whatever is in the bowl.

By compressing your TTIB into just a few hours, the message to the body is "this is all you're getting, so make the best of it."


  1. Start with a 6-hour period, give or take: less than you need, but more than you are getting.
  2. Set the waking time you want to stick with. Count six hours backwards from that time to get your new bedtime. i.e. if you want to get up at 7:00am for the rest of your life, your new training bedtime is 1:00am.
  3. Start this on a weekend or when you have a day or even a week off from work. You don’t want to operate heavy machinery, or make important decisions, when you’re starting this process! You will almost certainly lose even more sleep than usual. You’ll lose sleep during your sleep period and have no opportunity to recover … until the next night.
  4. Do not nap at all or strictly limit napping. This is a significant challenge in itself. Do whatever you have to do. For the serious insomniac, a lot is at stake. All I can tell you is that it’s worth it.19
  5. Repeat for 3-14 days. Decide in advance how long to try the strategy, and stick to it. Basically, the worse your insomnia, the longer you need to really reinforce the “idea” that you’ve only got a few hours to sleep each night.
  6. At the end of the first phase, move your training bedtime 15-30 minutes earlier, and repeat for another 3-14 days. Increase your sleep in smaller increments for difficult cases.

The sleep “pressure” will accumulate enough so that you can hardly imagine not sleeping in the time available.

Sleep compression therapy is the beating heart of this article. The remaining sections are basically about how to make it better, how to troubleshoot it.

Valuable no matter what

One of the most common objections I’ve heard to sleep compression therapy is that it doesn’t matter if your insomnia has a medical or psychiatric cause, such as pain, or severe anxiety.

This is not true. It matters more.

It may not work as well … but the need is actually greater. The more difficulty you have sleeping for any reason, the more important it is to have good sleep hygiene.

Consider pain, for example. There is no question that it can wreck sleep! And no amount of improvement in sleep hygiene is going to magically make that pain go away — obviously. But there is only one thing worse than sleep-destroying chronic pain, and that is chronic pain plus crappy sleeping habits. The chronic pain patient who makes every effort to maximize their chances of sleeping is going to be better off, every time, than the chronic pain patient who does not.

No matter what is wrong with you, no matter what is disturbing your sleep, it is important to have sleep behaviour that is as good as possible under the circumstances.

Sleep isn’t an escape, it’s an act of rest.

Jock McKeen & Bennet Wong, founders of Haven

The importance of ritual

This is particularly important for insomniacs who have trouble falling asleep.

Spend some time and create a carefully planned and scheduled bedtime ritual of at least half an hour to repeat every night until you are cured, and frequently for the rest of your life.

The purpose of the ritual is to (a) wind down, and (b) learn to associate your bedtime with a series of predictable steps. It actually makes a difference whether you wash your face and then brush your teeth, or brush your teeth and then wash your face — it doesn’t matter which order you do it in, but it does matter that you always do it in the same order. The more consistent the ritual, the more quickly your brain can learn that face washing followed by teeth brushing equals bedtime.

The timing should be really consistent, too. The ritual should start at exactly the same time every time.

Morning rituals also work well for insomniac’s who wake up too early, although not as well, for the obvious reason that the part we control — the ritual — comes after the part we wish we could control — the sleeping. Nevertheless, it’s just as important to teach your brain that waking time is well-defined.

What to do if you still can’t sleep

People who honestly stick to a basic sleep compression regimen rarely fail. When they fail, it is usually because they aren’t actually doing it — they are finding ways to “cheat.” However, some people have insomnia so severe that even a compressed sleep schedule does not work. I know this because I was one of those people! To make my sleep compression work, I had to up the ante. I needed to make myself even more exhausted.

If you need to up the ante, simply do whatever you have to do to be so exhausted that sleep is the only option. Just feeling tired doesn’t necessarily mean that you are exhausted enough to sleep, so don’t judge your sleep readyness only by how “tired” you are. Most insomniacs feel very tired, of course, but still can’t get to sleep. I have never been so tired in my life as I was during those long sleepless nights in 2005. A subjective feeling of tiredness is a poor measure. What you need is not just to "feel tired," but to actually "be exhausted." So you need to go to greater efforts to ensure that you are well and truly worn out: more fresh air, more exercise, a shorter sleep cycle, no naps, etc ... anything you can think of to make yourself more truly exhausted at bedtime.

And remember that this is behavioural conditioning. Simply keeping upping the deprivation ante until you reach the level where you can teach your body that your bedtime is the time when you fall asleep. Trust me, as long as there is no medical reason for your insomnia, there is a level of exhaustion at which even you will konk out!

Picture of a woman awake in bed, with the caption “Insomnia sufferers, look on the bright side, only 3 more sleeps until Christmas.”

How to fill those sleepless moments

Inevitably, there are going to be times when you find yourself awake when you don’t want to be, and one of the stickiest issues in insomnia management is what to do with those times. Even the most effective sleep compression regimen takes time to work. But trickier still is that being awake some during the night is probably perfectly normal, part of a healthy waking-up-at-an-ungodly-hour rhythm in human sleep. The science news:

We often worry about lying awake in the middle of the night — but it could be good for you. A growing body of evidence from both science and history suggests that the eight-hour sleep may be unnatural.

I agree that it is getting pretty clear that humans aren’t really built to sleep through the night (with the exception of my wife, apparently, who can sleep 10 hours without so much as rolling over). In fact, we probably have a natural wakeful period in the middle of the night in the same way that we are prone to naps in the afternoon — a sort of mirror image. They even tend to occur around the same section of the clock face: 2–4pm and 2–4am.

So you want to respect the fact that being awake may be fine, while at the same time being quite careful that you’re not awake for the wrong reasons or for dysfunctionally long. The distinction between healthy and unhealthy wakeful patches can get pretty blurry and confusing, especially for the groggy, exasperated insomniac.

Blinded by insomnia recovery success

I’d actually known about this idea of a normal awake patch for several years. I first learned about it from a terrific radio documentary back in 2006. It probably didn’t really sink in because I was in the middle of my first major successful recovery from insomnia, and there just wasn’t much room in my head for another wrinkle. My recovery progressed more or less normally, even though I continued to wake up in the middle of the night. I tried just standing on the deck in midwinter, quite cold and uncomfortable, doing nothing until I couldn’t stand it any more and was desperate to get back into bed.It wasn’t a failure to be up for a bit, as long as I could get back to sleep in a reasonable time. Which I did.

My intention at the time was to make it downright unappealing to be awake — to actively discourage it, to break any habit of being awake at that time. I thought the goal was to avoid “rewarding” my nervous system for being awake by doing anything pleasant. That was the advice in this tutorial for years, and it dovetailed well with sleep compression therapy.

But I never really followed my own advice!

I tried a few times. For instance, I tried just standing on the deck in midwinter, quite cold and uncomfortable, doing nothing until I couldn’t stand it any more and was desperate to get back into bed. But that kind of nonsense didn’t last long. Over a year or two, I “fought” wakefulness less with discomfort, and settled into the mild-mannered compromise that I’m still working with today: I don’t turn on any lights, and I don’t do any work or “engage” with the world at all; but I do make myself comfortable, and do something pleasant but mellow, like reading or listening to an audiobook. I’m usually quite content for 20-30 minutes, after which I can hardly imagine staying awake.

I did that for years without thinking about it much, accepting my wakeful patches for the wrong reason, treating them like a minor, vestigial remnant of my insomnia that wasn’t worth fighting — rather than a natural, healthy part of my circadian rhythm that actually should be embraced, not resisted.

So now what? Why it may still make a lot of sense to stay mellow all night, even if you are awake

It may be healthy and normal to have a little early AM wakefulness … but it’s still problematic for insomniacs.

It is psychologically important for insomniacs not to indulge in much night-time activity. It would be foolish to turn on all the lights, pump up the volume, and catch up on household chores — not because it’s at odds with biology at that time of night, but because that would probably be part of a much bigger life problem (workaholism, overstimulation, anxiety) that tends to wreak havoc on sleep at all other times. It probably would be okay for non-insomniacs to get quite active for a spell during the night, just like it’s okay to have a hard two-hour nap after lunch (if you’ve got that in you). A healthy person can fall asleep after midnight romps.

But probably not someone with terrible insomnia! The insomniac has to be a little more careful — maybe a lot more careful — not to let a little natural alert period get out of hand.

I’m content to defy my natural biological rhythms a little by keeping things pretty low-key all night long, because it helps me keep my workaholic demons at bay. Plus it’s just practical to mostly go with the “sleep all night” cultural flow. My wife is never awake at that time, and it would be a bit problematic if I were to start making a habit of consistently getting up for a couple hours in the middle of the night. Not awful, just awkward. I suspect this is how most people will feel.

At the same time, it’s not necessary to aggressively fight that wakeful patch, however. There’s no need to deprive yourself of all comfort in an effort to drive yourself back to bed, as my tutorial has recommended for years. So my advice these days is to respect the fact that it’s probably normal and healthy to be awake a bit in the middle of the night. It has little to do with most insomnia, especially if you stay calm and just — quietly, calmly — go along with it.

Here’s a more step-by-step summary:

Repeat until asleep.

How long will it take?

Some improvements in sleep hygiene combined with sleep compression therapy alone will resolve behavioural insomnia for most people within 4-6 weeks. I had such a severe case that I took three times that long, and progress in the first month was sketchy — but it still worked. Eventually I removed the sleep compression restrictions and stopped using the rigid bedtime ritual, but I still return to these tactics regularly, whenever I suspect there’s a need to shore up my defenses — and now they always work quite quickly. In fact, it’s amazing how I start getting sleepy as soon I start to go through the steps of the bedtime ritual. Like a well-trained dog!

Sleep wreckers: other miscellaneous things that interfere with sleep that you may not know about

I’ll add to this section slowly over time. For now, it’s just …

Creatine for insomnia

Late in 2012 I reversed a carelessly anti-creatine position. I reconsidered this supplement and publicly acknowledged that it is a safe and effective ergogenic aid, capable of reducing muscle fatigue at the gym. And then I tried it. And that went badly. I developed severe insomnia — and this was before I read that some people may have trouble sleeping when they take creatine. I can now add to that ancedotal evidence.

My own sleep troubles over the years are almost exclusively with “sleep maintenance” — I get to sleep just fine, but then I wake up. This creatine-powered insomnia was a mirror-image of that: I had a lot of trouble getting to sleep, but then I’d finally crash hard and even sleep in. This was all quite peculiar and unprecedented, and it didn’t take me long to get suspicious. Normal sleep was restored within 48 hours of stopping creatine. I performed pretty poorly at the gym during that 3-week period… probably because I was so fatigued!

So my creatine experiment was a bust, but that doesn’t mean creatine doesn’t work. My vulnerability to sleep problems is nothing new. Almost anything can wreck my sleep: a hangnail, a thrilling episode of Big Bang Theory, a good idea, you name it. Creatine gets added to my list of sleep-wreckers, but I’m sure most people probably don’t have a problem with it.

Nevertheless, it seems to be well worth mentioning.

Lighting and gadgets: a neglected sleep hygiene issue

Be cautious with turning on lights during the night: light is a strong message to your brain, and the message ain’t “go to sleep.” Turn on only the dimmest lights for short periods, avoid blue lights in particular, and consider making a couple of lights just for night time use: lights with very low wattage, warm bulbs.

If you can’t avoid computer screens at night, please install apps like f.lux (Apple, Windows) or Lux (Android). These apps adjust the colour balance of displays at night to make them yellower and mellower, because:

We know that night-time exposure to blue light keeps people up late. We believe that f.lux adjusts colors in a way that greatly reduces the stimulating effects of blue light at night.21

Sad, bad news about e-books (well, not really all that bad)

Reading backlit devices like iPads before bed probably hurts sleep, according to an early 2015 study.22

How disheartening! E-books are one of the best things about The Future. They are the main reason I’ve bought any mobile device for almost a decade. They’ve changed my life as much as any technology ever has — like earning a living from selling them, for instance — but perhaps in worse ways than I realized.

But perspective! Only a half dozen study subjects read e-books for four hours each evening. That’s a lot of reading. I’m lucky to squeeze in a half hour at the end of the day. And I mostly read on a well-dimmed iPad, usually with inverted colours, which probably emits an order of magnitude less light than what was studied here.

And there are also other options, like e-ink devices, or shifting the display colour away from daylight hues with like f.lux (sadly, unavailable on iThings23). With some precautions, the risk is probably not great — or at least no greater than many other ubiquitous challenges to sleep in modern living.

Using medications to prevent minor aches and pains from interfering with sleep

If any kind of chronic/serious pain is interfering with your sleep, obviously you should do whatever you can to diagnose and treat that problem in the most appropriate way possible. However, many insomniacs have relatively minor, annoying aches and pains that have no obvious explanation or treatment, and they get in the habit of popping pills to try to prevent the pain from interfering with sleep. It’s a bad, dangerous habit.

And yet the pills can be useful. It’s just very important to use them strategically and minimally. To do that right, you need to understand them. The types and risks and benefits of common pain-killers are bewildering. Here’s a very carefully prepared summary of all of them:

Over-the-counter (OTC) pain medications are fairly safe in moderation and work in different ways, so do experiment…cautiously. There are four kinds: acetominophen/paracetamol (Tylenol, Panadol), plus three non-steroidal anti-inflammatories (NSAIDs): aspirin (Bayer, Bufferin), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), and naproxen (Aleve, Naprosyn). Don’t take any of them chronically — risks go up over time, and they can even backfire and cause pain (rebound headaches). Acetominophen is good for fever and pain, and is one of the safest of all drugs at recommended dosages, but overdose can badly hurt livers and it doesn’t work well (at all?) for musculoskeletal pain. The NSAIDs are a better bet (Derry 2015): they reduce inflammation as well as pain and fever, but at any dose they can cause heart attacks and strokes and they are “gut burners” (they can badly irritate the GI tract, even taken with food, and especially with booze). Aspirin is usually best for joint and muscle pain, but it’s the most gut-burning of them all. Voltaren® Gel is an ointment NSAID, safer for treating superficial pain.

The trick is to experiment cautiously over time, and only use them occasionally when the pain is worst and the need for sleep is greatest: they may genuinely help in that situation.

About Paul Ingraham

Headshot of Paul Ingraham, short hair, neat beard, suit jacket.

I am a science writer, former massage therapist, and I was the assistant editor at for several years. I have had my share of injuries and pain challenges as a runner and ultimate player. My wife and I live in downtown Vancouver, Canada. See my full bio and qualifications, or my blog, Writerly. You might run into me on Facebook or Twitter.

Related Reading

What’s new in this article?

Eight updates have been logged for this article since publication (2007). All updates are logged to show a long term commitment to quality, accuracy, and currency. more When’s the last time you read a blog post and found a list of many changes made to that page since publication? Like good footnotes, this sets apart from other health websites and blogs. Although footnotes are more useful, the update logs are important. They are “fine print,” but more meaningful than most of the comments that most Internet pages waste pixels on.

I log any change to articles that might be of interest to a keen reader. Complete update logging of all noteworthy improvements to all articles started in 2016. Prior to that, I only logged major updates for the most popular and controversial articles.

See the What’s New? page for updates to all recent site updates.

New section about delayed sleep phase syndrome.

Science update: evidence for CBT for insomnia is now quite strong, see Trauer.

Added section “Using medications to prevent minor aches and pains from interfering with sleep.”

Added section about lighting and gadgets.

Rewrote section, “How to fill those sleepless moments.” The section now deals with the likelihood that it is actually healthy and normal to be awake for a little bit in the middle of the night. A small thing, but the section pretty much had to be completely revised.

Added a small but imortant point about the trouble with hot baths.

Added this quote: “Sleep isn’t an escape, it’s an act of rest.” (McKeen)

Added two interesting references and the XKCD comic strip about sleep deprivation.



  1. Sometimes insomnia is a symptom of another condition or a side-effect of a medication; a few kinds of insomnia have biological origins that will defy any attempt at self-help (e.g. delayed sleep phase disorder, discussed briefly below). BACK TO TEXT
  2. Jacobs GD, Pace-Schott EF, Stickgold R, Otto MW. Cognitive behavior therapy and pharmacotherapy for insomnia: a randomized controlled trial and direct comparison. Arch Intern Med. 2004;164(17):1888–1896. PubMed #15451764. PainSci #55914.

    From the abstract: “These findings suggest that young and middle-age patients with sleep-onset insomnia can derive significantly greater benefit from cognitive-behavioral insomnia therapy (CBT) than pharmacotherapy and that CBT should be considered a first-line intervention for chronic insomnia. Increased recognition of the efficacy of CBT and more widespread recommendations for its use could improve the quality of life of a large numbers of patients with insomnia.”

  3. Edinger JD, Wohlgemuth WK, Radtke RA, Marsh GR, Quillian RE. Does cognitive-behavioral insomnia therapy alter dysfunctional beliefs about sleep? Sleep. 2001;24(5):591–599. PubMed #11480656.

    From the abstract: “[Cognitive-behavioral insomnia therapy] is effective for reducing dysfunctional beliefs about sleep and such changes are associated with other positive outcomes in insomnia treatment.”

  4. Trauer JM, Qian MY, Doyle JS, Rajaratnam SM, Cunnington D. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Chronic Insomnia: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med. 2015 Aug;163(3):191–204. PubMed #26054060. From the abstract: “cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-i) is now commonly recommended as first-line treatment for chronic insomnia.BACK TO TEXT
  5. Science may produce an explanation for this over the next few years, and some very interesting clues have already emerged. For instance, in 2007 the radio show Radio Lab did a whole show about sleep, quite brilliantly reporting this tidbit that I’d never heard before: that sleep deprivation may do its dirty work by (somehow) interfering with protein folding (starting about minute 29, transcription a bit imprecise because of the complex mix of sound bytes):

    Dr. Allan Pack, a “rabid biologist,” has been looking at sleep at the cellular level, and one of the things he’s found over and over and over — shown in mice, shown in rats, shown in fruit fly — is that certain cells in all those different types of animals, when they are sleep-deprived … what happens is that you don’t get proteins properly folded.

    Excuse me? Proteins properly folded? This is a phenomenon called the unfolded protein response. But what on earth does that mean? Why do you need proteins to “properly fold”? Well, you’re made of proteins. Proteins are the essence of you. If your proteins are misshapen, if they’re not folded properly, if they don’t have the right three-dimensional structure, and as a result they start accumulating inside the cell, then these unfolded proteins can start to aggregate together and form clumps inside the cell and essentially clog it up and it’s really quite toxic. Clumpiness equals tiredness!

    But when you get sleep, a group of cleaner-uppers have gone through your cells and removed the misshapen proteins so that, in effect, sleep is the best housemaid you’ve ever had, in the hotel of you.

  6. Coren S. Sleep thieves: an eye-opening exploration into the science and mysteries of sleep. Simon & Schuster; 1997. Stanley Coren discusses this sort of thing in considerable detail in his book. Very interesting stuff! BACK TO TEXT
  7. U.S. Department of Health. Perceived Insufficient Rest or Sleep Among Adults — United States, 2008. Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report. 2009 Oct 30;58(42):1175–1179. PainSci #55373.

    This report by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services’s presents evidence that sleep-deprivation is common and serious: about 30% of American adults are getting less than 7 hours per night (and of course many of those are getting much less), and at least 10% of people have gotten “insufficient rest or sleep on all days during the preceding 30 days.” That’s one in ten people getting inadequate rest every night for 30 days in a row!

    Consider: if 1 in 10 people have gotten inadequate rest every night for 30 days … how many got inadequate rest for 29 days? 28? 27? The report concludes:

    The importance of chronic sleep insufficiency is under-recognized as a public health problem, despite being associated with numerous physical and mental health problems, injury, loss of productivity, and mortality. … Health-care providers should consider adding an assessment of chronic rest or sleep insufficiency to routine office visits so they can make needed interventions or referrals to sleep specialists.

    I have long believed that this was an almost completely neglected consideration in chronic pain care.

  8. Best known for his work on dog intelligence, but also a sleep expert. BACK TO TEXT
  9. Bennett RM, Jones J, Turk DC, Russell IJ, Matallana L. An internet survey of 2,596 people with fibromyalgia. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2007;8:27. BACK TO TEXT
  10. Tang NK, Wright KJ, Salkovskis PM. Prevalence and correlates of clinical insomnia co-occurring with chronic back pain. J Sleep Res. 2007;16(1):85–95. PainSci #55909. Although of course it may be low back pain that is keeping these people awake, in fact my clinical experience suggests that this is by no means the case: chronic low back pain patients are often poor sleepers, and insomnia may routinely precede episodes of pain! BACK TO TEXT
  11. Alstadhaug K, Salvesen R, Bekkelund S. Insomnia and circadian variation of attacks in episodic migraine. Headache. 2007 Sep;47(8):1184–8. PubMed #17883523. BACK TO TEXT
  12. Akerstedt T, Kecklund G, Alfredsson L, Selen J. Predicting long-term sickness absence from sleep and fatigue. J Sleep Res. 2007;16(4):341–345.

    From the abstract: “… disturbed sleep and fatigue are predictors of long-term absence [from work due to sickness] and it is suggested that impaired sleep may be part of a chain of causation, considering its effects on fatigue.”

  13. Cohen S, Doyle WJ, Alper CM, Janicki-Deverts D, Turner RB. Sleep Habits and Susceptibility to the Common Cold. Arch Intern Med. 2009 Jan 12;169(1):62–67. PubMed #19139325. PainSci #56092. For a good summary of this research, see Sleepless Nights Equal More Colds In U.S. Study. BACK TO TEXT
  14. Ohayon MM, Roth T. Place of chronic insomnia in the course of depressive and anxiety disorders. J Psychiatr Res. 2003;37(1):9–15. BACK TO TEXT
  15. Neckelmann D, Mykletun A, Dahl AA. Chronic insomnia as a risk factor for developing anxiety and depression. Sleep. 2007;30(7):873–880.

    The results of this large and well-conducted survey are “consistent with insomnia being a risk factor for the development of anxiety disorders.”

  16. It’s been well-established by scientific research that insomnia is strongly linked to stress. For instance, see Knutson: Bad sleeps — quantity and quality, probably especially if caused by stress — are associated with elevated blood pressure, according to a side project of the big CARDIA study of coronary artery disease. They used wrist gadgets to monitor sleep and blood pressure in more than 500 adults in their 30s and 40s. The authors say the sleep-BP link is supported by previous research and “laboratory evidence of increased sympathetic nervous activity as a likely mechanism underlying the increase in BP after sleep loss.” BACK TO TEXT
  17. Waters WF, Hurry MJ, Binks PG, et al. Behavioral and hypnotic treatments for insomnia subtypes. Behav Sleep Med. 2003;1(2):81–101.

    From the text: “There are good theoretical and empirical reasons to believe that SHE [sleep hygiene education] improves sleep.” In other words, reading this will put you to sleep!

  18. Recently I heard a woman on the street outside my apartment angrily yell at her dog, “Come here right now, dammit!” Yeah, that’s gonna work … BACK TO TEXT
  19. I chose to carefully restrict napping rather than eliminating it altogether, because I felt it was a necessary compromise in my circumstances. I couldn’t take time off. A 20-minute nap helped me get through the second half of the day, without sabotaging the whole project. My sleep debt was so large that tiny naps really didn’t put a dent in it, and I was still able to sleep through the compressed night. Do what you need to make it work for you, but respect the principle: if you nap too much, obviously it undermines your chances of sleeping at night. BACK TO TEXT
  20. Once in a blue moon I have chosen to deal with some life problem that is bothering me especially badly, and can be addressed relatively easily. If there’s an easy win, and you’ll feel heaps better, go for it. But beware — this is definitely a slippery slope. Try to keep any such efforts tightly contained and get back to being mellow ASAP! BACK TO TEXT
  21. F.lux website research page: “Blue Light Affects Sleep (and here’s why).” BACK TO TEXT
  22. Chang AM, Aeschbach D, Duffy JF, Czeisler CA. Evening use of light-emitting eReaders negatively affects sleep, circadian timing, and next-morning alertness. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2015 Jan;112(4):1232–7. PubMed #25535358. PainSci #54150. A dozen people were studied for 14 days, half reading regular books and half reading backlit e-books each evening. Blood tests, brain waves, and other measures showed that the e-book readers were less sleepy, took longer to fall asleep, shifted their circadian rhythm later, were less alert the next morning, and produced much less melatonin (the time-to-go-to-sleep hormone).

    Reading a light-emitting eBook in the hours before bedtime likely has unintended biological consequences that may adversely impact performance, health, and safety.

  23. F.lux on your iPad would be perfect, right? Ah, but there’s a catch: because of Apple’s strict control over what apps can and cannot do on their devices, f.lux just does not work on iThings. Unless you “jailbreak” them (an advanced, hacky option that hardly anyone bothers with these days). BACK TO TEXT