Sensible advice for aches, pains & injuries

How Many Muscles?

A (slightly tongue-in-cheek) tally of the body’s many muscles

updated (first published 2004)ARCHIVEDArchived pages are rarely or never updated. Most featured articles on are updated regularly over the years, but not archived pages.
by Paul Ingraham, Vancouver, Canadabio
I am a science writer and a former Registered Massage Therapist with a decade of experience treating tough pain cases. I was the Assistant Editor of for several years. I’ve written hundreds of articles and several books, and I’m known for readable but heavily referenced analysis, with a touch of sass. I am a runner and ultimate player. • more about memore about

Articles in the Biological Literacy series are fun explorations of how the human body works. See below for a complete listing of articles in the series.

There are about 300 skeletal muscles in the human body. Sort of. It depends on how you count them.

How many muscles really?

It’s surprisingly hard to tell. You wouldn’t think the total number would be ambiguous, but it’s difficult to know what to include and exclude, and anatomists don’t always agree. Some muscle tissue really can’t be separated into countable muscles. And, believe it or not, the science of anatomy is still advancing. No, entirely new muscles aren’t being discovered — but novel variations in individual muscle anatomy are found more or less constantly,1 and supernumerary muscles — extra muscles — are not unusual.2 Many muscles, like the four-part quadriceps, are normally split into different parts that may or may not traditionally count as separate muscles3 — but then some people’s muscles are more divided than others. It makes a firm count just about impossible.

There are only about 200 muscles that anyone, even a massage therapist, might actually be interested in knowing about. When most people ask how many muscles are in the human body, they mean the serious bone-movers — Pecs, delts, lats, traps, glutes, biceps & triceps, hams & quads & let’s not forget the cloits & dloits!muscles that do real work, muscles like pecs, delts, lats, traps, glutes, biceps and triceps, hams and quads, and let’s not forget the cloits and dloits!4

There are maybe another hundred muscles if you include the fiddly little muscles of the hands and feet, and the major face muscles. In school, I had to learn the Latin for all them!

No, really, how many muscles are there?

All right, all right — if you really must know, there are just shy of 700 named skeletal muscles.5

But that’s including about 400 muscles that, mostly, no one cares about except specialists. I am aware of a few that have clinical importance to a massage therapist, but I’m mostly just barely aware of their existence — like the smaller facial muscles, like the mess of little muscles around and under the tongue and around the voice box, like the muscles around the eyeball, or the crazy trampoline of muscles on the pelvic floor.

But believe it or not, although that’s all of the muscles you can count, that’s still not all of the muscle — not even close.

There’s more? Oh hell yes

Muscles comes in three types:

  1. skeletal, which moves us
  2. cardiac, which moves our blood
  3. smooth, which moves our bowels … and a lot more

If we include smooth muscle in our census, the job becomes truly impossible. Smooth muscle is the muscle of organs, the muscle that does the work of the autonomic nervous system, squeezing and squishing stuff in tubes mostly, but also raising hairs, focussing eyes, raising hairs,6 and pushing out babies.7 Smooth muscle blends with other smooth muscle, and exists at every scale from microscopic. You have single cells of smooth muscle wrapped around capillaries, and you have organs like your stomach that are wrapped completely in three thick layers of smooth muscle. It’s impossible to say where one smooth muscle stops and the next begins. Perhaps that’s why they call it smooth.8

At the other counting extreme, of course there’s that singular cardiac muscle: a category of one. Unless you’re a Klingon or a Time Lord, you have only one cardiac muscle, but hopefully it’s a big one.

Doing the muscle math

This is how I calculate it. We have …

So I’m going to go with a grand total of approximately 50,100,000,701 muscles, accurate to within 99%.

About Paul Ingraham

Headshot of Paul Ingraham, short hair, neat beard, suit jacket.

I am a science writer, former massage therapist, and I was the assistant editor at for several years. I have had my share of injuries and pain challenges as a runner and ultimate player. My wife and I live in downtown Vancouver, Canada. See my full bio and qualifications, or my blog, Writerly. You might run into me on Facebook or Twitter.

Related Reading

Here are the ten most popular articles on on the theme of health and biological literacy: what I think of as “owner’s manual stuff.”

What’s new in this article?

Substantial miscellaneous improvements. Added a couple notable citations about anatomical variations. New featured image.


  1. Natsis K, Totlis T, Konstantinidis GA, et al. Anatomical variations between the sciatic nerve and the piriformis muscle: a contribution to surgical anatomy in piriformis syndrome. Surg Radiol Anat. 2014 Apr;36(3):273–80. PubMed #23900507.

    This dissection study of 275 dead buttocks found that 6.4% of them had variations of sciatic nerve and piriformis muscle anatomy, with considerable variety in the variation. They found several different arrangements, and concluded: “Some rare, unclassified variations of the sciatic nerve should be expected during surgical intervention of the region.” Prepare to be surprised, surgeons!

    All of these differences are potentially clinically significant, probably especially in the cases where the nerve (or part of it) passes right through the muscle. For a couple case studies, see Arooj 2014 and Kraus 2015.

  2. Hislop M, Tierney P. Anatomical variations within the deep posterior compartment of the leg and important clinical consequences. Journal of Science & Medicine in Sport. 2004;7:392–399. “… anatomical variations may be present, such as supernumerary muscles, thickened fascial bands or variant courses of nerves and blood vessels, which can themselves manifest as acute or chronic conditions that lead to significant morbidity or limitation of activity.” BACK TO TEXT
  3. The quadriceps is always counted as 4 separate muscles (vastus medialis, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and rectus femories). But the biceps and triceps muscles are also clearly bifurcated into distinct heads, and yet do not count as seperate muscles. Why? Maybe just to keep things interesting for anatomy students. BACK TO TEXT
  4. There are no such thing as cloits or dloits, of course. This is a reference to anatomy according to Strong Bad, which is hilarious, and included here entirely for the sake of comic relief. Kind of like the whole article, come to think of it. I beg the indulgence of the creators of Strong Bad for using his likeness without permission — a copyright infringment for sure, but I have this (probably delusional) idea that they would perceive it as charming (rather than illegal) that I love Strong Bad so much that I would spread the word about him via an anatomy article. BACK TO TEXT
  5. Tortora GJ, Grabowski SR. Principles of anatomy and physiology. 8th ed. Harper Collins College Publishers; 1996. BACK TO TEXT
  6. The muscles that wave our body hairs around are a good example of the impossibility of counting smooth muscle. They are a sub-type of smooth muscle: not exactly like all the other smooth muscle, and yet not like miniature versions of your traps and pecs either. There’s several million of these little micro muscles, but, fortunately, they all have the same name: “Hi, my name is arrector pilli” x 7,000,000. BACK TO TEXT
  7. Which is, technically, “squeezing and squishing stuff in a tube,” now that I think about it. A very specialized tube, but most of our tubes are. In men, smooth muscle also handles ejaculation. BACK TO TEXT
  8. Actually, they call it that because it’s non-striated, and so it looks smooth in a microscope compared to skeletal muscle, which is distinctively striped (striated) due to a much more regular arrangement of sarcomeres. Sarcomeres, by the way, are really cool. BACK TO TEXT