PainSci summary of Junior 2016?This page is one of thousands in the PainScience.com bibliography. It is not a general article: it is focused on a single scientific paper, and it may provide only just enough context for the summary to make sense. Links to other papers and more general information are provided at the bottom of the page, as often as possible. ★★★☆☆3-star ratings are for typical studies with no more (or less) than the usual common problems. Ratings are a highly subjective opinion, and subject to revision at any time. If you think this paper has been incorrectly rated, please let me know.
Do runners with anatomical quirks get more injuries than symmetrical and aligned runners? This study was another attempt to settle an old question that just won’t die.
It was the right kind of study (prospective), but perhaps a bit underpowered with only 89 subjects and just 12 weeks of monitoring for new injuries. I wish I could see the same data for a couple hundred runners over six months. Subtle vulnerabilities might take quite a while to crop up, particularly in runners who have already gotten through at least six months without any injury. Still, 24 of these runners did get injured in those twelve weeks — which is a lot! — and “we did not find significant associations between lower limb length discrepancy, Q-angle, subtalar angle and plantar arch index and injury occurrence.”
Surprise surprise. And so, as we’ve known for years, either’s there’s no relationship between running injuries and anatomical imperfections at all … or it’s too subtle to detect easily, in which case who really cares? These things are mostly impossible to fix anyway.
original abstract†Abstracts here may not perfectly match originals, for a variety of technical and practical reasons. Some abstacts are truncated for my purposes here, if they are particularly long-winded and unhelpful. I occasionally add clarifying notes. And I make some minor corrections.
There is conflicting evidence on the association between lower limb alignment characteristics and the incidence of running-related injury (RRI). Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to investigate the association between lower limb alignment characteristics and the incidence proportion of running-related injury in a convenience sample of recreational runners. A total of 89 recreational runners were included in this prospective cohort study. These participants had been running for at least six months and were injury-free at baseline. Lower limb alignment measurements were conducted in order to calculate lower limb discrepancy, Q-angle, subtalar angle and plantar index. All participants also answered a baseline and biweekly online surveys about their running routine, history of RRI and newly developed RRI over a period of 12 weeks. The prevalence of previous RRI and the 12-week incidence proportion of new RRI were calculated. Logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the association between lower limb length discrepancy, Q-angle, subtalar angle and plantar ach index with the incidence proportion of RRI. The prevalence of previous RRI was 55.1% (n = 49). The 12-week incidence proportion of new RRI was 27.0% (n = 24). Muscle injuries and tendinopathies were the main types of RRI identified. The lower leg and the knee were the main anatomical regions affected. We did not find significant associations between lower limb length discrepancy, Q-angle, subtalar angle and plantar arch index and injury occurrence.
- “Suspected Mechanisms in the Cause of Overuse Running Injuries: A Clinical Review,” Reed Ferber, Alan Hreljac, and Karen D Kendall, Sports Health: A Multidisciplinary Approach, 2009.
- “A Biomechanical Perspective of Predicting Injury Risk in Running,” A Hreljac and R Ferber, International SportMed Journal, 2006.
- “Lower limb joint kinetics in walking: the role of industry recommended footwear,” Geoffrey S Keenan, Jason R Franz, Jay Dicharry, Ugo Della Croce, and D Casey Kerrigan, Gait & Posture, 2011.
- “Risk factors and mechanisms of knee injury in runners,” Stephen P Messier, Claudine Legault, Casey R Schoenlank, Jovita Jolla Newman, David F Martin, and Paul DeVita, Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 2008.
- “Comparison of symptoms and clinical findings in subgroups of individuals with patellofemoral pain,” Jan Näslund, Ulla-Britt Näslund, Sten Odenbring, and Thomas Lundeberg, Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, 2006.
- “Veteran Biomechanics Expert Benno Nigg Doubts That Barefootin', Forefootin' Or Pronation-Control Will Change Injury Rates,” Amy Burfoot, Runnersworld.com.
- “A prospective investigation of biomechanical risk factors for patellofemoral pain syndrome: the Joint Undertaking to Monitor and Prevent ACL Injury (JUMP-ACL) cohort,” Michelle C Boling, Darin A Padua, Stephen W Marshall, Kevin Guskiewicz, Scott Pyne, and Anthony Beutler, American Journal of Sports Medicine, 2009.
- “Re-evaluating the functional implications of the Q-angle and its relationship to in-vivo patellofemoral kinematics,” Benjamin R Freedman, Timothy J Brindle, and Frances T Sheehan, Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon), 2014.
- “Frontal plane biomechanics in males and females with and without patellofemoral pain,” Theresa Helissa Nakagawa, Érika Tiemi Uehara Moriya, Carlos Dias Maciel, and And Fábio Viadanna Serrão, Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 2012.
- “Somatosensory and Biomechanical Abnormalities in Females with Patellofemoral Pain,” Brian Noehren, Logan Shuping, A Jones, David A Akers, Heather M Bush, and Kathleen A Sluka, The Clinical Journal of Pain, 2015.
- “Relation between running injury and static lower limb alignment in recreational runners,” V Lun, W H Meeuwisse, P Stergiou, and D Stefanyshyn, British Journal of Sports Medicine, 2004.
- “A Systematic Review of Clinical Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Meniscectomy,” Michael J Salata, Aimee E Gibbs, and Jon K Sekiya, American Journal of Sports Medicine, 2010.
- “Incidence and determinants of lower extremity running injuries in long distance runners: a systematic review,” R N van Gent, D Siem, M van Middelkoop, A G van Os, S M A Bierma-Zeinstra, and B W Koes, British Journal of Sports Medicine, 2007.
These eight articles on PainScience.com cite Junior 2016 as a source:
- PS Save Yourself from IT Band Syndrome! — All your treatment options for Iliotibial Band Syndrome reviewed in great detail, with clear explanations of recent scientific research supporting every key point
- PS Save Yourself from Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome! — Patellofemoral pain syndrome (aka runner’s knee) explained and discussed in great detail, including every imaginable self-treatment option and all the available scientific evidence
- PS Save Yourself from Plantar Fasciitis! — Plantar fasciitis explained in great detail, including every possible treatment option, and all supported by recent scientific research
- PS Save Yourself from Shin Splints! — Causes and treatment options for shin splints explained and discussed in great detail, especially shin pain caused by myofascial trigger points, compartment syndrome, medial tibial stress syndrome, and stress fracture
- PS Are Orthotics Worth It? — A consumer’s guide to the science and controversies of orthotics, special shoes, and other allegedly corrective foot devices
- PS IT Band & Patellofemoral Pain Defy Common Sense — The science shows that you can’t blame runner’s knee on structural quirks that seem like “obvious” problems
- PS Your Back Is Not Out of Alignment — Debunking the obsession with alignment, posture, and other biomechanical bogeymen as major causes of pain
- PS Does barefoot running prevent injuries? — A dive into the science so far of barefoot or minimalist “natural” running
This page is part of the PainScience BIBLIOGRAPHY, which contains plain language summaries of thousands of scientific papers & others sources. It’s like a highly specialized blog. A few highlights:
- A Bayesian model-averaged meta-analysis of the power pose effect with informed and default priors: the case of felt power. Gronau 2017 Comprehensive Results in Social Psychology.
- The neck and headaches. Bogduk 2014 Neurol Clin.
- Agreement of self-reported items and clinically assessed nerve root involvement (or sciatica) in a primary care setting. Konstantinou 2012 Eur Spine J.
- Effect of NSAIDs on Recovery From Acute Skeletal Muscle Injury: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Morelli 2017 Am J Sports Med.
- Association of Spinal Manipulative Therapy With Clinical Benefit and Harm for Acute Low Back Pain: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Paige 2017 JAMA.