Five articles on PainSci cite Ebraheim 2009: 1. The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain 2. A Guide to Sciatica Treatment for Patients 3. Complete Guide to Low Back Pain 4. The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks 5. Nerve Pain Is Overdiagnosed
PainSci notes on Ebraheim 2009:
Researchers dislocated neck joints in corpses to measure the effect on the size of the intervertebral foramina. (Interesting chore!) Dislocation made the spaces quite a bit larger, indicating that any nerve root pain associated with these injuries “is probably due to distraction rather than due to direct nerve root compression.”
original abstract †Abstracts here may not perfectly match originals, for a variety of technical and practical reasons. Some abstacts are truncated for my purposes here, if they are particularly long-winded and unhelpful. I occasionally add clarifying notes. And I make some minor corrections.
BACKGROUND: Many investigators have conducted studies to determine the biomechanics, causes, complications and treatment of unilateral facet joint dislocation in the cervical spine. However, there is no quantitative data available on morphological changes in the intervertebral foramen of the cervical spine following unilateral facet joint dislocation. These data are important to understand the cause of neurological compromise following unilateral facet joint dislocation.
METHODS: Eight embalmed human cadaver cervical spine specimens ranging from level C1-T1 were used. The nerve roots of these specimens at C5-C6 level were marked by wrapping a 0.12mm diameter wire around them. Unilateral facet dislocation at C5-C6 level was simulated by serially sectioning the corresponding ligamentous structures. A CT scan of the specimens was obtained before and after the dislocation was simulated. A sagittal plane through the centre of the pedicle and facet joint was constructed and used for measurement. The height and area of the intervertebral foramen, the facet joint space, nerve root diameter and area, and vertebral alignment both before and after dislocation were evaluated.
RESULTS: The intervertebral foramen area changed from 50.72+/-0.88mm(2) to 67.82+/-4.77mm(2) on the non-dislocated side and from 41.39+/-1.11mm(2) to 113.77+/-5.65mm(2) on the dislocated side. The foraminal heights changed from 9.02+/-0.30mm to 10.52+/-0.50mm on the non-dislocated side and 10.43+/-0.50mm to 17.04+/-0.96mm on the dislocated side. The facet space area in the sagittal plane changed from 6.80+/-0.80mm(2) to 40.02+/-1.40mm(2) on the non-dislocated side. The C-5 anterior displacement showed a great change from 0mm to 5.40+/-0.24mm on the non-dislocated side and from 0mm to 3.42+/-0.20mm on the dislocated side. Neither of the nerve roots on either side showed a significant change in size.
CONCLUSIONS: The lack of change in nerve root area indicates that the associated nerve injury with unilateral facet joint dislocation is probably due to distraction rather than due to direct nerve root compression.
This page is part of the PainScience BIBLIOGRAPHY, which contains plain language summaries of thousands of scientific papers & others sources. It’s like a highly specialized blog. A few highlights:
- Is Neck Posture Subgroup in Late Adolescence a Risk Factor for Persistent Neck Pain in Young Adults? A Prospective Study. Richards 2021 Phys Ther.
- Photobiomodulation therapy is not better than placebo in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Guimarães 2021 Pain.
- No effect of creatine monohydrate supplementation on inflammatory and cartilage degradation biomarkers in individuals with knee osteoarthritis. Cornish 2018 Nutr Res.
- The CANBACK trial: a randomised, controlled clinical trial of oral cannabidiol for people presenting to the emergency department with acute low back pain. Bebee 2021 Med J Aust.
- Relationships Between Sleep Quality and Pain-Related Factors for People with Chronic Low Back Pain: Tests of Reciprocal and Time of Day Effects. Gerhart 2017 Ann Behav Med.