PainSci summary of Soligard 2008?This page is one of thousands in the PainScience.com bibliography. It is not a general article: it is focused on a single scientific paper, and it may provide only just enough context for the summary to make sense. Links to other papers and more general information are provided at the bottom of the page, as often as possible. ★★★★☆4-star ratings are for bigger/better studies and reviews published in more prestigious journals, with only quibbles. Ratings are a highly subjective opinion, and subject to revision at any time. If you think this paper has been incorrectly rated, please let me know.
Research has shown for years now that good ol’ stretching doesn’t really prevent athletic injuries. So what does? Warmups that “improve strength, awareness, and neuromuscular control” might just do the trick. Practicing coordination and control, basically (see Panics et al). In 2008, Norwegian researchers compared injuries in over a thousand female footballers who participated in such a warmup for a season, to another several hundred who didn’t. Athletes who warmed up had fewer traumatic injuries and fewer overuse injuries. Moreover, the injuries they did have were less severe. Static stretching was not part of the warmup, but “active” stretching was (i.e. Mobilize!).
original abstract†Abstracts here may not perfectly match originals, for a variety of technical and practical reasons. Some abstacts are truncated for my purposes here, if they are particularly long-winded and unhelpful. I occasionally add clarifying notes. And I make some minor corrections.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of a comprehensive warm-up programme designed to reduce the risk of injuries in female youth football.
DESIGN: Cluster randomised controlled trial with clubs as the unit of randomisation.
SETTING: 125 football clubs from the south, east, and middle of Norway (65 clusters in the intervention group; 60 in the control group) followed for one league season (eight months).
PARTICIPANTS: 1892 female players aged 13-17 (1055 players in the intervention group; 837 players in the control group).
INTERVENTION: A comprehensive warm-up programme to improve strength, awareness, and neuromuscular control during static and dynamic movements.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Injuries to the lower extremity (foot, ankle, lower leg, knee, thigh, groin, and hip).
RESULTS: During one season, 264 players had relevant injuries: 121 players in the intervention group and 143 in the control group (rate ratio 0.71, 95% confidence interval 0.49 to 1.03). In the intervention group there was a significantly lower risk of injuries overall (0.68, 0.48 to 0.98), overuse injuries (0.47, 0.26 to 0.85), and severe injuries (0.55, 0.36 to 0.83).
CONCLUSION: Though the primary outcome of reduction in lower extremity injury did not reach significance, the risk of severe injuries, overuse injuries, and injuries overall was reduced. This indicates that a structured warm-up programme can prevent injuries in young female football players.
- “Effect of proprioception training on knee joint position sense in female team handball players,” G Panics, A Tallay, A Pavlik, and I Berkes, British Journal of Sports Medicine, 2008.
These four articles on PainScience.com cite Soligard 2008 as a source:
- PS Sports Injury Prevention Tips — A few evidence-based ways to reduce your risk of injury
- PS Mobilize! — Dynamic joint mobility drills are an alternative to stretching that “massage with movement”
- PS Quite a Stretch — Stretching science has shown that this extremely popular form of exercise has almost no measurable benefits
- PS Save Yourself from Muscle Strain! — Muscle strain (pulled muscle) and muscle pain explained and discussed in great detail, plus every imaginable treatment option
This page is part of the PainScience BIBLIOGRAPHY, which contains plain language summaries of thousands of scientific papers & others sources. It’s like a highly specialized blog. A few highlights:
- A Bayesian model-averaged meta-analysis of the power pose effect with informed and default priors: the case of felt power. Gronau 2017 Comprehensive Results in Social Psychology.
- The neck and headaches. Bogduk 2014 Neurol Clin.
- Agreement of self-reported items and clinically assessed nerve root involvement (or sciatica) in a primary care setting. Konstantinou 2012 Eur Spine J.
- Effect of NSAIDs on Recovery From Acute Skeletal Muscle Injury: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Morelli 2017 Am J Sports Med.
- Association of Spinal Manipulative Therapy With Clinical Benefit and Harm for Acute Low Back Pain: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Paige 2017 JAMA.