PainSci summary of Behrend 2012?This page is one of thousands in the PainScience.com bibliography. It is not a general article: it is focused on a single scientific paper, and it may provide only just enough context for the summary to make sense. Links to other papers and more general information are provided at the bottom of the page, as often as possible. ★★★☆☆?3-star ratings are for typical studies with no more (or less) than the usual common problems. Ratings are a highly subjective opinion, and subject to revision at any time. If you think this paper has been incorrectly rated, please let me know.
This study added to the pile of evidence that smoking is “associated with low back pain, intervertebral disc disease” along with many other medical complications. Their conclusion, after studying the records of more than 5000 patients with “axial or radicular pain from a spinal disorder,” was that there is a “need for smoking cessation programs for patients with a painful spinal disorder.” Very likely both neck and back, of course.
~ Paul Ingraham
original abstract†Abstracts here may not perfectly match originals, for a variety of technical and practical reasons. Some abstacts are truncated for my purposes here, if they are particularly long-winded and unhelpful. I occasionally add clarifying notes. And I make some minor corrections.
BACKGROUND: Smoking is associated with low back pain, intervertebral disc disease, inferior patient outcomes following surgical interventions, and increased rates of postoperative complications. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of smoking and smoking cessation on pain and disability in patients with painful spinal disorders.
METHODS: We examined a prospectively maintained database of records for 5333 patients with axial or radicular pain from a spinal disorder with regard to smoking history and the patient assessment of pain on four visual analog scales during the course of care. Confounding factors, including secondary gain, sex, age, and body mass index, were also examined. The mean duration of follow-up was eight months. Multivariate statistical analysis was performed with variables including smoking status, secondary gain status, sex, depression, and age as predictors of pain and disability.
RESULTS: Compared with patients who had never smoked, patients who were current smokers reported significantly greater pain in all visual analog scale pain ratings (p < 0.001). The mean improvement in reported pain over the course of care was significantly different between nonsmokers and current smokers (p <0.001). Compared with patients who had continued to smoke, those who had quit smoking during the course of care reported significantly greater improvement in pain in visual analog scale pain ratings for worst (p = 0.013), current (p < 0.05), and average weekly pain (p = 0.024). The mean improvement in the visual analog scale pain ratings was clinically important in patients in all three groups of nonsmokers. As a group, those who had continued smoking during treatment had no clinically important improvement in reported pain.
CONCLUSIONS: Given a strong association between improved patient-reported pain and smoking cessation, this study supports the need for smoking cessation programs for patients with a painful spinal disorder.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Specifically regarding Behrend 2012:
These five articles on PainScience.com cite Behrend 2012 as a source:
- PS Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain Syndrome — A guide to the unfinished science of muscle pain, with reviews of every theory and self-treatment and therapy option
- PS Save Yourself from Low Back Pain! — Low back pain myths debunked and all your treatment options reviewed
- PS Save Yourself from Neck Pain! — A complete guide to chronic neck pain and the disturbing sensation of a “crick”
- PS Your Back Is Not Out of Alignment — Debunking the obsession with alignment, posture, and other biomechanical bogeymen as major causes of pain
- PS Smoking and Chronic Pain — We often underestimate the power of (tobacco) smoking to make things hurt more and longer
This page is part of the PainScience BIBLIOGRAPHY, which contains plain language summaries of thousands of scientific papers & others sources. It’s like a highly specialized blog. A few highlights:
- A Bayesian model-averaged meta-analysis of the power pose effect with informed and default priors: the case of felt power. Gronau 2017 Comprehensive Results in Social Psychology.
- Association of Spinal Manipulative Therapy With Clinical Benefit and Harm for Acute Low Back Pain: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Paige 2017 JAMA.
- Incidence of Spontaneous Resorption of Lumbar Disc Herniation: A Meta-Analysis. Zhong 2017 Pain Physician.
- How much is too much? (Part 1) International Olympic Committee consensus statement on load in sport and risk of injury. Soligard 2016 Br J Sports Med.
- Chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy for migraine: a three-armed, single-blinded, placebo, randomized controlled trial. Chaibi 2016 Eur J Neurol.