One article on PainSci cites Bandy 1997: The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain
PainSci commentary on Bandy 1997: ?This page is one of thousands in the PainScience.com bibliography. It is not a general article: it is focused on a single scientific paper, and it may provide only just enough context for the summary to make sense. Links to other papers and more general information are provided wherever possible.
This study checked for an effect of static stretching frequency and duration on hamstring flexibility, which was measured by testing the range of motion of knee extension. The results suggest that there is nothing gained by stretching longer than 30 seconds, or doing it more than 2-3 times a day, but stretching did help ROM. ROM did not improve in the control group, which did no stretching at all.
~ Paul Ingraham
original abstract †Abstracts here may not perfectly match originals, for a variety of technical and practical reasons. Some abstacts are truncated for my purposes here, if they are particularly long-winded and unhelpful. I occasionally add clarifying notes. And I make some minor corrections.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Frequency and duration of static stretching have not been extensively examined. Additionally, the effect of multiple stretches per day has not been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal time and frequency of static stretching to increase flexibility of the hamstring muscles, as measured by knee extension range of motion (ROM).
SUBJECTS: Ninety-three subjects (61 men, 32 women) ranging in age from 21 to 39 years and who had limited hamstring muscle flexibility were randomly assigned to one of five groups. The four stretching groups stretched 5 days per week for 6 weeks. The fifth group, which served as a control, did not stretch.
METHODS: Data were analyzed with a 5 x 2 (group x test) two-way analysis of variance for repeated measures on one variable (test).
RESULTS: The change in flexibility appeared to be dependent on the duration and frequency of stretching. Further statistical analysis of the data indicated that the groups that stretched had more ROM than did the control group, but no differences were found among the stretching groups.
CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION: The results of this study suggest that a 30-second duration is an effective amount of time to sustain a hamstring muscle stretch in order to increase ROM. No increase in flexibility occurred when the duration of stretching was increased from 30 to 60 seconds or when the frequency of stretching was increased from one to three times per day.
- “Extensibility of the hamstrings is best explained by mechanical components of muscle contraction, not behavioral measures in individuals with chronic low back pain,” PW Marshall, J Mannion, and BA Murphy, PM & R: The Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation, 2009.
- “A randomized controlled trial for the effect of passive stretching on measures of hamstring extensibility, passive stiffness, strength, and stretch tolerance,” Paul WM Marshall, Anthony Cashman, and Birinder S Cheema, Journal of Science & Medicine in Sport, 2011.
- “Influence of static stretching on hamstring flexibility in healthy young adults: Systematic review and meta-analysis,” Diulian M Medeiros, Anelize Cini, Graciele Sbruzzi, and Cláudia S Lima, Physiother Theory Pract, 2016.
- “Comparison of ballistic and static stretching on hamstring muscle length using an equal stretching dose,” Christopher A Covert, Melanie P Alexander, John J Petronis, and D Scott Davis, Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 2010.
- “The Effectiveness of PNF Versus Static Stretching on Increasing Hip-Flexion Range of Motion,” Landon Lempke, Rebecca Wilkinson, Caitlin Murray, and Justin Stanek, Journal of Sport Rehabilitation, 2018.
This page is part of the PainScience BIBLIOGRAPHY, which contains plain language summaries of thousands of scientific papers & others sources. It’s like a highly specialized blog. A few highlights:
- Association of Lumbar MRI Findings with Current and Future Back Pain in a Population-based Cohort Study. Kasch 2022 Spine (Phila Pa 1976).
- A double-blinded randomised controlled study of the value of sequential intravenous and oral magnesium therapy in patients with chronic low back pain with a neuropathic component. Yousef 2013 Anaesthesia.
- Is Neck Posture Subgroup in Late Adolescence a Risk Factor for Persistent Neck Pain in Young Adults? A Prospective Study. Richards 2021 Phys Ther.
- Sudden amnesia resulting in pain relief: the relationship between memory and pain. Choi 2007 Pain.
- Photobiomodulation therapy is not better than placebo in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Guimarães 2021 Pain.