PainSci summary of Lempke 2018?This page is one of thousands in the PainScience.com bibliography. It is not a general article: it is focused on a single scientific paper, and it may provide only just enough context for the summary to make sense. Links to other papers and more general information are provided at the bottom of the page, as often as possible. ★★★★☆4-star ratings are for bigger/better studies and reviews published in more prestigious journals, with only quibbles. Ratings are a highly subjective opinion, and subject to revision at any time. If you think this paper has been incorrectly rated, please let me know.
This is a review of five studies that tested both typical static stretching and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching, an allegedly superior method that is widely known. In one study, PNF produced better results; in the other four, there was no significant difference. The authors concluded that “both static and PNF stretching effectively increase ROM; however, one does not appear to be more effective than the other.” PNF is not so advanced after all.
original abstract†Abstracts here may not perfectly match originals, for a variety of technical and practical reasons. Some abstacts are truncated for my purposes here, if they are particularly long-winded and unhelpful. I occasionally add clarifying notes. And I make some minor corrections.
Clinical Scenario: Stretching is applied for the purposes of injury prevention, increasing joint range of motion (ROM), and increasing muscle extensibility. Many researchers have investigated various methods and techniques to determine the most effective way to increase joint ROM and muscle extensibility. Despite the numerous studies conducted, controversy still remains within clinical practice and the literature regarding the best methods and techniques for stretching.
Focused Clinical Question: Is proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching more effective than static stretching for increasing hamstring muscle extensibility through increased hip ROM or increased knee extension angle (KEA) in a physically active population?
Summary of Key Findings: Five studies met the inclusion criteria and were included. All 5 studies were randomized control trials examining mobility of the hamstring group. The studies measured hamstring ROM in a variety of ways. Three studies measured active KEA, 1 study measured passive KEA, and 1 study measured hip ROM via the single-leg raise test. Of the 5 studies, 1 study found greater improvements using PNF over static stretching for increasing hip flexion, and the remaining 4 studies found no significant difference between PNF stretching and static stretching in increasing muscle extensibility, active KEA, or hip ROM.
Clinical Bottom Line: PNF stretching was not demonstrated to be more effective at increasing hamstring extensibility compared to static stretching. The literature reviewed suggests both are effective methods for increasing hip-flexion ROM.
Strength of Recommendation: Using level 2 evidence and higher, the results show both static and PNF stretching effectively increase ROM; however, one does not appear to be more effective than the other.
- “Extensibility of the hamstrings is best explained by mechanical components of muscle contraction, not behavioral measures in individuals with chronic low back pain,” PW Marshall, J Mannion, and BA Murphy, PM & R: The Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation, 2009.
- “A randomized controlled trial for the effect of passive stretching on measures of hamstring extensibility, passive stiffness, strength, and stretch tolerance,” Paul WM Marshall, Anthony Cashman, and Birinder S Cheema, Journal of Science & Medicine in Sport, 2011.
- “Influence of static stretching on hamstring flexibility in healthy young adults: Systematic review and meta-analysis,” Diulian M Medeiros, Anelize Cini, Graciele Sbruzzi, and Cláudia S Lima, Physiother Theory Pract, 2016.
- “The effect of time and frequency of static stretching on flexibility of the hamstring muscles,” W D Bandy, J M Irion, and M Briggler, Physical Therapy, 1997.
- “Comparison of ballistic and static stretching on hamstring muscle length using an equal stretching dose,” Christopher A Covert, Melanie P Alexander, John J Petronis, and D Scott Davis, Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 2010.
One article on PainScience.com cites Lempke 2018 as a source:
- PS Save Yourself from Low Back Pain! — Low back pain myths debunked and all your treatment options reviewed
This page is part of the PainScience BIBLIOGRAPHY, which contains plain language summaries of thousands of scientific papers & others sources. It’s like a highly specialized blog. A few highlights:
- Effectiveness of customised foot orthoses for Achilles tendinopathy: a randomised controlled trial. Munteanu 2015 Br J Sports Med.
- A Bayesian model-averaged meta-analysis of the power pose effect with informed and default priors: the case of felt power. Gronau 2017 Comprehensive Results in Social Psychology.
- The neck and headaches. Bogduk 2014 Neurol Clin.
- Agreement of self-reported items and clinically assessed nerve root involvement (or sciatica) in a primary care setting. Konstantinou 2012 Eur Spine J.
- Effect of NSAIDs on Recovery From Acute Skeletal Muscle Injury: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Morelli 2017 Am J Sports Med.