One article on PainSci cites Ferreira 2010: The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain
PainSci commentary on Ferreira 2010: ?This page is one of thousands in the PainScience.com bibliography. It is not a general article: it is focused on a single scientific paper, and it may provide only just enough context for the summary to make sense. Links to other papers and more general information are provided wherever possible.
Studies of exercise for low back pain are often a bit underwhelming: some of them show some benefit, but it’s never a big deal. We’re always left wondering if another way of exercising (or testing) might have worked out better. There are so many ways to exercise, and the science of exercise therapy is generally plagued by this complexity: no matter what the research says, there’s always the real possibility that you might get better results by dialing up a different combination of variables.
This statistical analysis of a whole bunch of exercise experiments tried to identify not only if exercise works for back pain, but (importantly) which variables matter. This is quite different than testing to see what kinds of exercise work (and we already know there is no obviously superior exercise for back pain). The point was to see which variables affect study outcomes the most, including things like customization of the exercises and supervision. They found only one that stood out: “only dosage was found to be significantly associated with effect sizes.” Nothing else mattered very much, just how much exercise was done. Specifically, the number of exercises sessions. Quantity, not quality?
And even that didn’t matter much. The effect of exercise was small in any case — real, but small. In fact, the effect on pain was barely there: “arguably these effects were too small to be of clinical significance.” The effect on disability was a little more promising, thankfully.
These results suggest that second guessing what kind of exercise therapy to do for what patients might be bit of a fool’s errand: it doesn’t much matter who does what, just that you do it. If you do enough, you’ll probably get some benefit. But there’s also a real problem of diminishing returns: a large dose of exercise doesn’t (usually) produce a large benefit. But it will probably secure a modest benefit, at least.
~ Paul Ingraham
original abstract †Abstracts here may not perfectly match originals, for a variety of technical and practical reasons. Some abstacts are truncated for my purposes here, if they are particularly long-winded and unhelpful. I occasionally add clarifying notes. And I make some minor corrections.
BACKGROUND: Exercise programs may vary in terms of duration, frequency, and dosage; whether they are supervised; and whether they include a home-based program. Uncritical pooling of heterogeneous exercise trials may result in misleading conclusions regarding the effects of exercise on chronic low back pain (CLBP).
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to establish the effect of exercise on pain and disability in patients with CLBP, with a major aim of explaining between-trial heterogeneity.
DATA SOURCES: Six databases were searched up to August 2008 using a computerized search strategy.
STUDY SELECTION: Eligible studies needed to be randomized clinical trials evaluating the effects of exercise for nonspecific CLBP.
OUTCOMES: Of interest were pain and disability measured on a continuous scale.
DATA EXTRACTION: Baseline demographic data, exercise features, and outcome data were extracted from all included trials.
DATA SYNTHESIS: Univariate meta-regressions were conducted to assess the associations between exercise effect sizes and 8 study-level variables: baseline severity of symptoms, number of exercise hours and sessions, supervision, individual tailoring, cognitive-behavioral component, intention-to-treat analysis, and concealment of allocation.
LIMITATIONS: Only study-level characteristics were included in the meta-regression analyses. Therefore, the implications of the findings should not be used to differentiate the likelihood of the effect of exercise based on patient characteristics.
CONCLUSIONS: The results show that, in general, when all types of exercise are analyzed, small but significant reductions in pain and disability are observed compared with minimal care or no treatment. Despite many possible sources of heterogeneity in exercise trials, only dosage was found to be significantly associated with effect sizes.
- “Death by effectiveness: exercise as medicine caught in the efficacy trap!,” Chris Beedie, Steven Mann, Alfonso Jimenez, Lynne Kennedy, Andrew M Lane, Sarah Domone, Stephen Wilson, and Greg Whyte, British Journal of Sports Medicine, 2016.
- “Neck muscle training in the treatment of chronic neck pain: a three-year follow-up study,” J Ylinen, A Häkkinen, M Nykänen, H Kautiainen, and E-P Takala, Europa Medicophysica, 2007.
- “Backward Walking: A Possible Active Exercise for Low Back Pain Reduction and Enhanced Function in Athletes,” Janet, Dufek, Anthony, House, Brent, Mangus, Geoffrey, Melcher, and John Mercer, Journal of Exercise Physiologyonline, 2011.
- “An update of stabilisation exercises for low back pain: a systematic review with meta-analysis,” Benjamin E Smith, Chris Littlewood, and Stephen May, BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 2014.
- “An aerobic walking programme versus muscle strengthening programme for chronic low back pain: a randomized controlled trial,” Ilana Shnayderman and Michal Katz-Leurer, Clinical Rehabilitation, 2013.
Specifically regarding Ferreira 2010:
This page is part of the PainScience BIBLIOGRAPHY, which contains plain language summaries of thousands of scientific papers & others sources. It’s like a highly specialized blog. A few highlights:
- No long-term effects after a three-week open-label placebo treatment for chronic low back pain: a three-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial. Kleine-Borgmann 2022 Pain.
- Exercise and education versus saline injections for knee osteoarthritis: a randomised controlled equivalence trial. Bandak 2022 Ann Rheum Dis.
- Association of Lumbar MRI Findings with Current and Future Back Pain in a Population-based Cohort Study. Kasch 2022 Spine (Phila Pa 1976).
- A double-blinded randomised controlled study of the value of sequential intravenous and oral magnesium therapy in patients with chronic low back pain with a neuropathic component. Yousef 2013 Anaesthesia.
- Is Neck Posture Subgroup in Late Adolescence a Risk Factor for Persistent Neck Pain in Young Adults? A Prospective Study. Richards 2021 Phys Ther.