One article on PainSci cites Higgins 1998: Contrast Hydrotherapy
PainSci notes on Higgins 1998:
Researchers measured the change in the gastrocnemius when typical contrast therapy was used. This was a randomized controlled trial with two small groups: a 30-minute warm whirpoool (control), and a 30-minute contrast therapy group.
Although the study was a bit small, final conclusions were: “Contrast therapy did not lead to significant fluctuations in muscle tissue temperature at 4 cm below the skin's surface. Therefore, it seems unlikely that the physiologic effects attributed to these fluctuations occur. A 1-minute exposure to a cold whirlpool during a typical contrast treatment does not appear to be long enough to significantly decrease tissue temperature after exposure to the warm hydrotherapy environment.”
original abstract †Abstracts here may not perfectly match originals, for a variety of technical and practical reasons. Some abstacts are truncated for my purposes here, if they are particularly long-winded and unhelpful. I occasionally add clarifying notes. And I make some minor corrections.
OBJECTIVE: Contrast therapy has a long history of use in sports medicine. Edema and ecchymosis reduction, vasodilation and vasoconstriction of blood vessels, blood flow changes, and influences on the inflammatory response are physiologic effects attributed to the ability of this modality to evoke tissue temperature fluctuations. Our purpose was to measure the change in human gastrocnemius intramuscular tissue temperature during a typical contrast therapy treatment.
DESIGN AND SETTING: A randomized-group design was used to examine differences between 2 groups of subjects following a 31-minute warm whirlpool (control) and a 31-minute contrast therapy (experimental) treatment. A hydrotherapy room in a small- college sports medicine facility served as the test environment.
SUBJECTS: Twenty (7 females and 13 males) healthy college students (age = 20.9 ± 1.2 years; ht = 178.5 ± 11.1 cm; wt = 79.2 ± 21.7 kg) volunteered to participate in this study. Subjects were randomly assigned to either a control or a treatment group.
MEASUREMENTS: Intramuscular tissue temperatures in the gastrocnemius were recorded every 30 seconds.
RESULTS: There was a significant difference in mean overall temperature change between the experimental group (0.85°C ± 0.60°C) and the control group (2.10°C ± 1.50°C). In addition, there were significant differences between the 2 groups at 10, 15, 16, 20, 21, 25, 26, 30, and 31 minutes. At each recording point, the control group temperature change was significantly higher than that of the experimental group. There was no difference in absolute temperatures at the 11-minute recording point between the groups.
CONCLUSIONS: Contrast therapy did not lead to significant fluctuations in muscle tissue temperature at 4 cm below the skin's surface. Therefore, it seems unlikely that the physiologic effects attributed to these fluctuations occur. A 1-minute exposure to a cold whirlpool during a typical contrast treatment does not appear to be long enough to significantly decrease tissue temperature after exposure to the warm hydrotherapy environment.
This page is part of the PainScience BIBLIOGRAPHY, which contains plain language summaries of thousands of scientific papers & others sources. It’s like a highly specialized blog. A few highlights:
- Association of Lumbar MRI Findings with Current and Future Back Pain in a Population-based Cohort Study. Kasch 2022 Spine (Phila Pa 1976).
- A double-blinded randomised controlled study of the value of sequential intravenous and oral magnesium therapy in patients with chronic low back pain with a neuropathic component. Yousef 2013 Anaesthesia.
- Is Neck Posture Subgroup in Late Adolescence a Risk Factor for Persistent Neck Pain in Young Adults? A Prospective Study. Richards 2021 Phys Ther.
- Sudden amnesia resulting in pain relief: the relationship between memory and pain. Choi 2007 Pain.
- Photobiomodulation therapy is not better than placebo in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Guimarães 2021 Pain.