PainSci summary of Higgins 1998?This page is one of thousands in the PainScience.com bibliography. It is not a general article: it is focused on a single scientific paper, and it may provide only just enough context for the summary to make sense. Links to other papers and more general information are provided at the bottom of the page, as often as possible. ★★★☆☆3-star ratings are for typical studies with no more (or less) than the usual common problems. Ratings are a highly subjective opinion, and subject to revision at any time. If you think this paper has been incorrectly rated, please let me know.
Researchers measured the change in the gastrocnemius when typical contrast therapy was used. This was a randomized controlled trial with two small groups: a 30-minute warm whirpoool (control), and a 30-minute contrast therapy group.
Although the study was a bit small, final conclusions were: “Contrast therapy did not lead to significant fluctuations in muscle tissue temperature at 4 cm below the skin's surface. Therefore, it seems unlikely that the physiologic effects attributed to these fluctuations occur. A 1-minute exposure to a cold whirlpool during a typical contrast treatment does not appear to be long enough to significantly decrease tissue temperature after exposure to the warm hydrotherapy environment.”
original abstract†Abstracts here may not perfectly match originals, for a variety of technical and practical reasons. Some abstacts are truncated for my purposes here, if they are particularly long-winded and unhelpful. I occasionally add clarifying notes. And I make some minor corrections.
OBJECTIVE: Contrast therapy has a long history of use in sports medicine. Edema and ecchymosis reduction, vasodilation and vasoconstriction of blood vessels, blood flow changes, and influences on the inflammatory response are physiologic effects attributed to the ability of this modality to evoke tissue temperature fluctuations. Our purpose was to measure the change in human gastrocnemius intramuscular tissue temperature during a typical contrast therapy treatment.
DESIGN AND SETTING: A randomized-group design was used to examine differences between 2 groups of subjects following a 31-minute warm whirlpool (control) and a 31-minute contrast therapy (experimental) treatment. A hydrotherapy room in a small- college sports medicine facility served as the test environment.
SUBJECTS: Twenty (7 females and 13 males) healthy college students (age = 20.9 ± 1.2 years; ht = 178.5 ± 11.1 cm; wt = 79.2 ± 21.7 kg) volunteered to participate in this study. Subjects were randomly assigned to either a control or a treatment group.
MEASUREMENTS: Intramuscular tissue temperatures in the gastrocnemius were recorded every 30 seconds.
RESULTS: There was a significant difference in mean overall temperature change between the experimental group (0.85°C ± 0.60°C) and the control group (2.10°C ± 1.50°C). In addition, there were significant differences between the 2 groups at 10, 15, 16, 20, 21, 25, 26, 30, and 31 minutes. At each recording point, the control group temperature change was significantly higher than that of the experimental group. There was no difference in absolute temperatures at the 11-minute recording point between the groups.
CONCLUSIONS: Contrast therapy did not lead to significant fluctuations in muscle tissue temperature at 4 cm below the skin's surface. Therefore, it seems unlikely that the physiologic effects attributed to these fluctuations occur. A 1-minute exposure to a cold whirlpool during a typical contrast treatment does not appear to be long enough to significantly decrease tissue temperature after exposure to the warm hydrotherapy environment.
One article on PainScience.com cites Higgins 1998 as a source:
- PS Contrast Hydrotherapy — “Exercising” tissues with quick changes in temperature, to help with pain and injury rehab (especially repetitive strain injuries)
This page is part of the PainScience BIBLIOGRAPHY, which contains plain language summaries of thousands of scientific papers & others sources. It’s like a highly specialized blog. A few highlights:
- Effectiveness of customised foot orthoses for Achilles tendinopathy: a randomised controlled trial. Munteanu 2015 Br J Sports Med.
- A Bayesian model-averaged meta-analysis of the power pose effect with informed and default priors: the case of felt power. Gronau 2017 Comprehensive Results in Social Psychology.
- The neck and headaches. Bogduk 2014 Neurol Clin.
- Agreement of self-reported items and clinically assessed nerve root involvement (or sciatica) in a primary care setting. Konstantinou 2012 Eur Spine J.
- Effect of NSAIDs on Recovery From Acute Skeletal Muscle Injury: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Morelli 2017 Am J Sports Med.