Detailed guides to painful problems, treatments & more

2550 Archived Updates for PainScience.com

Like good footnotes, update logging sets PainScience.com apart from most other health websites and blogs. It’s fine print, but important fine print, in the same spirit of transparency as the editing history available for Wikipedia pages. I log any change to articles that might be of interest to a keen reader. This is an all-time list of changes only. For a broader overview of recent new content, see What’s New on PainScience.com?

showing of 2550 all-time updates

LJul 5Many Pages — Significant under-the-hood upgrade to the site. PainSci grew out of two different “content management systems,” which has slowly become a major publishing challenge. This update begins the process of merging them. While largely invisible to visitors, there are a few useful changes: for instance, bibliography pages now “know about” blog posts, and can say which five posts they’ve been cited in. That was a long time coming, I can tell you!
MJul 4Knee Replacement Surgery Doubts — New section: “Severe arthritis: does ‘bone-on-bone’ mean you need surgery? You should be more worried about surgeons who say BOB than your arthritis.”
MJul 4Bone on Bone — Miscellaneous minor improvements, added audio versions, integrated with other closely related articles, especially Knee Replacement Surgery Doubts.
LJul 3Bone on Bone — Extensive minor improvements.
LJul 1Bone on Bone — Publication.
MJun 29DMSO for Pain — Added a section about DMSO2.
MJun 28DMSO for Pain — Numerous improvements, individually minor, collectively significant. Great example of a “day after” update! Twenty-four hours ago I felt done and I was out of ideas, but I just spent 90 minutes improving it.
LJun 24Opioids for Chronic Aches & Pains — Major improvements and updates, adding more information and perspective about the drug war, opioid phobia, and more and newer evidence about the efficacy of opioids for acute and chronic pain.
SJun 19You Might Just Be Weird — Minor improvements.
MJun 11Chronic Pain as a Conditioned Behaviour — A bunch of editing.
MJun 4The Trouble with Chairs — Science update. After flip-flopping repeatedly over the years on the question of whether or not sedentariness is a threat to backs, I have given up and shifted this article to an “it’s complicated” position. Good contradictory studies have now been cited. The story is now about the perpetual controversy and uncertainty.
MJun 4Alternative Medicine’s Choice — Science update. Added a couple citations about the harm that can be done by health care institutions and (closely related) physicians who lack empathy.
MMay 31The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Minor addition, posture chapter — Added a bit of a rant, some summary perspective and colour: “Chasing posture as a cause of back pain is a dead end.”
SMay 29The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Editing, multiple topics — Just editing, but a noteworthy batch of edits to several chapters. I made minor corrections and adjustments to every recently added or revised chapter, and some small but (I hope) meaningful clarifications to how “resting” is presented as a treatment strategy.
LMay 27The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — New chapter, risk factors — New chapter, inspired by new evidence, about how being out of shape is probably worse for your spine than biomechanical glitches, and how back pain patients are eat more junk food.
MMay 22The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Revised, vicious cycle hypothesis — This is mostly an old chapter, but reframed, revised, with significant clarifications and caveats added. Despite being mostly the same, it’s quite different!
LMay 22The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — New chapter, anxiety and back pain.
SMay 16Reluctantly Reconsidering RESTORE — Conversion from a members-only blog post to a free article in the main PainSci library, with a variety of minor adjustments.
MMay 15The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — More detail — More and better information about the dramatic over-prescription of anticonvulsants.
MMay 15The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Addition — Added an important clarification and citation about Nachemson’s famous flexion loading chart.
LMay 9Bone on Bone — First “draft” published as a blog post (actually it was quite a polished members-only post, but also destined to be the introduction to this longer article).
LMay 5Chronic Pain as a Conditioned Behaviour — Added a substantial new review of the science and plausibility of conditioned pain, especially regarding a new experiment by Kang et al.
SMay 438 Surprising Causes of Pain — Added another good example of early onset Parkinson’s that looked like typical sports injuries.
LMay 2The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — New sub-topic, patellofemoral joint replacement — Added a substantial discussion of patellofemoral joint replacement, and made a number of other modest improvements to the surgery chapter.
LApr 17Whole Body Cryotherapy for Pain — New section: “Ice baths for performance? No!”
LApr 16The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — New chapter.
LApr 15Water Fever and the Fear of Chronic Dehydration — New section: “Dehydration itself may be less potent than fearing it.”
SApr 14The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Added exercise advice — Oddly, the summary of all treatment recommendations chapter had nothing to say about exercise until now. Better late than never!
LApr 14Achilles Tendinitis Treatment Science — New section: “Treating calcific Achilles tendinitis with surgery.”
SApr 13The Trouble with Chairs — Science update. Added another new citation about the weekend warrior exercise pattern, and it’s another quite reassuring one (O’Donovan et al).
LApr 13The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Substantial re-write, exercise chapter — I added a new section about the science of back exercise, based largely on a major new review (IJzelenberg) … and then kept going and significantly improved the whole chapter.
SApr 3The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Minor upgrades, patellofemoral joint pressure — After publishing part of this chapter as an excerpt, I made several minor improvements, and added one simple diagram.
MMar 27Whole Body Cryotherapy for Pain — Significant improvements to the safety section. Always a good section to improve.
SMar 22A Rational Guide to Fibromyalgia — Minor improvements, alcohol section — Added some reader comments, a footnote about neuroticism and alcohol, and did a little editing.
LMar 20A Rational Guide to Fibromyalgia — New section, about alcohol use disorder and alcohol hyperalgesia.
SMar 16Chronic Pain and Inequality — Science update: cited Boyd on poor demographic reporting and representation in pain research.
LMar 5The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — New chapter, self-exam for patellofemoral joint tenderness.
MMar 4The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Science update, Botox injection — There is no significant new evidence, but the chapter was missing some significant old evidence. I added that, and did some general editing and revising while I was at it. Bottom line unchanged.
MMar 3Painful Lessons — Added two new items: “Pain is mainly a function of complex and messy physiology,” and “Quackery and crankery is the rule for chronic pain treatment, not the exception.” Elaborated on “the science is a mess.”
MMar 1Reviews of Pain Professions — Added “Manual therapy (a category of professions).”
SMar 1Manual Therapy: What is it, and does it work? — Substantial editing, with particularly meticulous improvements to the article summary, which is widely reproduced wherever relevant around the site. “Integration” with the rest of the library is a standard production step for all articles — linking to and from other articles — but it was particularly extensive here, because the topic is so important to PainScience.com as a whole. There are many dozens of appropriate places to summarize manual therapy, or some aspect of it, and link to more information, so it was very important to have a highly polished summary.
MFeb 29Whole Body Cryotherapy for Pain — Added a few citations. More detail and polish throughout the article.
MFeb 28A Historical Perspective On Aches ‘n’ Pains — General improvements and modernization. I particularly fleshed out the “new” section (from 6 years ago!) about why “poor quality healthcare for chronic pain and injury is still the rule.”
MFeb 27Painful Lessons — Added more thoughts about how skepticism goes wrong, and the accessibility and importance of resistance training.
SFeb 26The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — Added detail, chinook headaches — Added some conspicuously missing detail about how cinook headaches work.
SFeb 17You Might Just Be Weird — Added an item about variants of the shape of nasal passages and sinuses being a plausible explanation for the phenomenon of chinook headaches.
SFeb 10Massage Therapy Side Effects — Added citation to a case study of a gluteal blood vessel seriously damaged by “deep tissue” massage (see Sun). Also added a fairly substantive footnote about the reaction this item got on social media.
LFeb 9The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — New section, gait retraining.
SFeb 8Tissue Provocation Therapies in Musculoskeletal Medicine — Minor editing. Added a more or less complete list of “provocation therapies,” also serving as a partial table of contents.
MFeb 2Does Fascia Matter? — Added information, origins section — Discussed naprapathy as a great example of the older, deeper roots of modern fascia pseudoscience.
MJan 31Does Posture Matter? — Editing, conclusion — “Just” a bunch of editing and polish. Sometimes that is a “just,” but in this case I actually worked really hard on the language. I’ve been saying this stuff for many years… it deserves a really good summary and mic drop! Also added an image and some supplementary detail.
LJan 22Tissue Provocation Therapies in Musculoskeletal Medicine — I shared a quote from this article about scraping massage, and it was extremely popular, so I decided to do a wave of updates to this article for the first time in several years. I upgraded the summary, added detail and citations to the eccentric loading section, and added two whole new sections: “The SAID principle: another basic concept in adaptation” and “Is trigger point therapy “provocative”? I also added a more detailed description of the “potency bias.”
MJan 20Guide to Repetitive Strain Injuries — Updated citations for the claim that "a lot of regular exercise does not inevitably destroy joints." I added a couple news ones (Voinier, Weng), a couple old ones (Luke, Williams), and improved the annotations.
MJan 19Anxiety & Chronic Pain — Extensive improvements to the section, “Reasonable doubt: the special threat of health anxiety (hypochondria).” Nothing of substance has changed, it’s just more and better on an important sub-topic. The section is in this guide’s members-only area, but the section is also available as a free post for a while. I added a new audio version.
SJan 12Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — Minor improvements, recommendations round-up — Integrated and updated barefoot running advice, and other minor changes.
MJan 12Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — New content, barefoot running effects — Added specific information about the effect of barefoot running on plantar fasciitis, and related minor editing. This chapter now fits in better with the new one about barefoot walking.
LJan 11Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — New chapter, barefoot walking.
SJan 3Neuropathies Are Overdiagnosed — More and better detail on the over-prescription of anticonvulsants.
LDec 22The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — New content, tight IT band chapter — Added a fascinating and extreme case study that perfectly illustrates the potential relationship between ITBS and patellofemoral pain (though still exasperatingly unclear). Includes audio version.
LDec 22The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — New content, iliotibial tightness chapter — Added a fascinating and extreme case study that perfectly illustrates the potential relationship between ITBS and patellofemoral pain (though still exasperatingly unclear). Includes audio version.
LDec 20The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Revised and expanded, trigger points chapter — The section had been short and basic for many years, and many readers would never have guessed how much more I’ve written about this topic. It’s now more thorough and more in tune with the times, including the modern skeptical pespective on trigger points, and a more nuanced discussion of what role they might or might not have in patellofemoral pain.
SDec 19The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Minor editing, patellofemoral pain vs ITBS — Just a few little improvements, especially harmonizing with the IT band tightness chapter.
LDec 12The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Many improvements, differential diagnosis — After greatly expanding this chapter in 2022, it was a bit of a mess: thorough but disorganized. I eliminated some egregious rambling (was I drunk?).
MDec 9The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — New topic, analgesics chapter — Added a small section: “Be careful what you wish for: pain relief can be problematic.”
MDec 9The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Major revision, intro to diagnosis — I pretty much just started from scratch and re-wrote this chapter. It’s now better in all the ways, I think.
MDec 9The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — Minor update, cervicogenic headache chapter — Added more detail about occipital neuralgia.
LDec 8The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — New section, criteria for discontinuing running.
LDec 8The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — New sub-topic, cartilage thickness — Added a substantive new sub-topic: “Built for pressure: How thick is the patellofemoral joint cartilage? And the patella?”
LDec 4The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Evidence update — Updated several references throughout the introductory sections, along with many related edits and improvements.
MDec 2The Medical Blind Spot for Aches, Pains & Injuries — Fairly extensive modernization of the article, reflecting substantial evolution in my views over the last decade.
LNov 22The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — New section.
MNov 22The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — Minor update, cervicogenic headache chapter — Discussed the special case of occipital neuralgia.
SNov 10Cramps, Spasms, Tremors & Twitches — Added hemifacial spasm to the list of examples of pathological contractions.
SOct 30Vulnerability to Chronic Pain — Added a little evidence and evidence-informed speculation about the possibility of more short-term anti-inflammatory benefits of a healthier diet.
LOct 30Chronic, Subtle, Systemic Inflammation — New section, on junk food as an inflammation driver.
SOct 28Marijuana for Pain — Science update about the efficacy and safety of CBD — all bad news, I’m afraid. But it’s not surprising.
MOct 19The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Revision, MDT review chapter — Just a bunch of miscellaneous revision as I prepared the chapter for publication as an excerpt.
MOct 7Neuropathies Are Overdiagnosed — Science update with some substance, a bit more than just a citation: Peet et al really adds to the case that the fraudulent marketing of anticonvulsants was a pain care catastrophe, resulting in extreme over-prescription.
LOct 5The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — New section.
LSep 21The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Rewritten, back pain as an overuse injury — Like-new re-write. Before: simplistic and old-school by my 2023 standards. After: not very scientifically rigorous, but much more informed and wide-ranging speculation. And kinda fun.
SSep 20Marijuana for Pain — Added a citation to Gedin on the role of placebo, poor blinding, and media buzz.
SSep 18Ten Trillion Cells Walked Into a Bar — Added a fresh citation (first note) about the number of cells we have: roughly thirty trillion, according to a new paper.
SSep 7Opioids for Chronic Aches & Pains — Edited. Made several minor clarifications, most notably emphasizing that opioids are indeed effective for some kinds of chronic pain (despite being surprisingly ineffective for so many others).
MSep 2Trigger Point Doubts — Added a very substantial (bloated?) new footnote, in which I (finally) provide my best guesses for “what really happened” in a trigger point therapy success story. There’s also a blog post.
MAug 30A Deep Dive into Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness — A variety of modest improvements to the sections on active recovery, particularly the evidence.
LAug 27The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — New chapter, treating rib subluxations.
LAug 27The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — New chapter, rib subluxations — Not just a new chapter, but a particularly huge one, based on interesting new science, with plenty of value. (PainSci Members can also read this in a recent blog post, “Extra, extra! Extra floating ribs are way more common than anyone knew.”)
LAug 26Chronic, Subtle, Systemic Inflammation — Rewritten, psychologically triggered neuroinflammation — Significant revision of all neuroinflammation content.
LAug 26Chronic, Subtle, Systemic Inflammation — Rewritten, neuroinflammation dysfunction — Significant revision of all neuroinslammation content.
LAug 26Chronic, Subtle, Systemic Inflammation — Rewritten, neuroinflammation with subtle triggers — Significant revision of all neuroinflammation content.
LAug 26Chronic, Subtle, Systemic Inflammation — Rewritten, sickness behaviour — Significant revision of all neuroinflammation content.
LAug 26Chronic, Subtle, Systemic Inflammation — Rewritten, neuroinflammation intro — Significant revision of all neuroinflammation content.
SAug 25The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Science update, strengthening — Added an important footnote with a bunch of detail about exactly what kind of strength training was tested by Hansen et al.
LAug 24Quite a Stretch — New section, stretching for hypertrophy.
MAug 2338 Surprising Causes of Pain — Added small new section about foreign objects, inspired by a good new example (a bullet embedded in someone's hand for decades before it started to hurt).
LAug 21The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Science update, new strengthening evidence — After almost a decade without a meaningful update, new evidence from Hansen et al has forced a rewrite of this chapter!
LAug 20The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — New chapter.
SAug 4Quackery Red Flags — Added new section: “Are we intuitive about our health? Hell no! On animals and the limits of self-care.”
LJul '23Vulnerability to Chronic Pain — Added new section, “Drink less alcohol.”
LJun '23Water Fever and the Fear of Chronic Dehydration — New section: “The fountain of youth is probably not your kitchen faucet.”
LJun '23Vulnerability to Chronic Pain — Added new section, “Don’t worry about … lots of other things.” More about wellness “optimization.”
LJun '23The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — New content, sarcomere chapter — Added an interesting sidebar about how we can actually lose sarcomeres. And I finally added two very complex new diagrams of muscle structure and sarcomere function — a project I avoided for years, because it was really hard! But also very important for this subject matter.
LJun '2338 Surprising Causes of Pain — Two new main sections about pollutants and food additives, radiculopathy (especially multiple-level radiculopathy), plus a new appendix about how “Pain demands an explanation.” Miscellaneous revision and editing.
LJun '23Chronic, Subtle, Systemic Inflammation — New section.
MJun '23The Double-Edged Sword of Imaging to Diagnose Pain — Added two new short sections: “Patients are part of the medical incompetence equation,” and “When should you imaging be considered?”
SJun '23Speculation-Based Medicine — Added several examples of treatments that were popular long before they were proven to be ineffective.
MJun '23Medical Errors in Perspective — Editing and several new links and footnotes to shore up the thesis and put it in context.
LJun '23Ten Trillion Cells Walked Into a Bar — Added two short new sections about muscular hydrostats, bipedality, and variations in spinal posture — some riffs on the theme of “standing up” that seemed like a long overdue way of making this weird article more relevant to the rest of the website (which is always was, but it’s quite a bit clearer now). I also did some general editing … and was a little freaked out by how much useful work there was to do on this ancient page.
MJun '23Spinal Fracture Bracing and Fixation — Revised the introduction and put the topic more in context, relating to it to other topics on the site. Eventually this is going to become part of a larger article about the “medical impulse to stop or limit movement”: bracing in general.
SJun '23We Are Full of Critters — This article does not need many updates, but today I added a short section: “Why an article about cells on a pain website?” Because it is a bit odd.
MJun '23How Many Muscles Are In the Human Body? — Small new section, “There’s even more? Sarcomeres are basically ‘micro muscles’ … and there are many trillions of those.”
MJun '23Vulnerability to Chronic Pain — Added a short new section, “The basics versus wellness ‘optimization’: a cautionary tale.”
SJun '23Confirmation Bias — Added a small new section about confirmation bias as a driver of both cherry-picking and nitpicking of studies.
LJun '23Does Posture Matter? — Added content — Added much more information about stability cushions, mostly imported from a minor old article and improved.
MJun '23Does Posture Matter? — Science update — Added two citations: one about the reliability of lumbar curvature assessment; and a thoroughly annotated one to the paper that sparked the “cells phone usage causes horns” idea (Shahar). There’s basically a whole blog post in that footnote!
LJun '23Does Posture Matter? — Rewriting and editing — Many small and medium improvements. I mostly worked on recommendations for changing posture. I also threw out the article's summary and started over, and the new one is 10x better. (A new summary doesn't sound like much, but crafting really good summaries in incredibly challenging. And ChatGPT really just cannot do it like I can do it. 😉)
MJun '23The Trouble with Chairs — Editing. Top-to-bottom content tidying and tuning. It’s uncomfortably rare for me to just throughly re-read one of my own articles. It took two full hours just to go through it carefully fixing minor issues along the way and taking notes on more substantive updates I’d like to do.
SJun '23The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Science update, posture — Cited Schmidt on lordosis assessment reliability (there is none).
SJun '23Reassurance for Massage Therapists — Filled out the extro a little. Just a bit more detail and context.
LMay '23Chronic, Subtle, Systemic Inflammation — New section.
MMay '23The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Edited, directional preference chapter — Numerous minor corrections and improvements. Added ‘focalization’ as a clearer alternative to ‘centralization.’ Added two images. There's also now a blog post version of this chapter for PainSci members, and an audio version of the chapter embedded here.
MMay '23Vitamin D for Pain — Added a tiny new section about vitamin D as a possible therapy for statin-associated muscle soreness. Also removed the position statement on vitamin D and COVID. It was more interesting in 2020, but since then the relationship between vitamin D and COVID has become a big nothing burger, and it’s beyond the scope of this article in any case.
SMay '23The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Small additions — Post-publication editing and polishing, most notably a couple more citations about MDT efficacy, and an interesting point about the implications of centralization’s origin story.
SMay '23Reviews of Pain Professions — Added several images. Obviously just a minor update, but in this context some visual cues are quite helpful. A few minor edits while I was here.
MMay '23Does Posture Matter? — Improvements, posture article conclusion — This was just a reiteration of a few keys points for a long time. Now it’s more colourful rant and battle cry — death to posturology!
LMay '23The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — New chapter, McKenzie Method® of Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy® (MDT)
LMay '23Mind Over Pain — New section, resilience rant — Added a section about the overuse and abuse of the idea of “resilience,” from a 2021 members-only post now made public.
MMay '23Mind Over Pain — Science update, confidence cure section — Cited and critically analyzed that big new study of cognitive functional therapy (Kent) — more on this to come, but the process of citing it widely on PainSci has begun.
SMay '23Mind Over Pain — Many minor adjustments, overview of all mind-over-pain ideas — I remember crafting this summary extremely carefully back in 2021. But it’s amazing how steadily my ideas evolve — especially on this topic in the last two years — and I saw a need for a whole bunch of edits. The idea that you could create something like this and leave it alone is kind of laughable.
LMay '23What’s New on PainScience.com? — An update to the updates page?! It’s so meta! It’s not going to happen often, but I just finished improving the whole update-logging system in several ways. Most of the upgrades are "under the hood," but there is now much better filtering for the update list, and the foundations have been laid for more improvements in the future.
MMay '23Neurodynamic Stretching — Added a lovely anecdote about a dramatic success with neurodynamic stretching.
SMay '23The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — Improvements, knee pain diagnosis — Added information about pain referral from the hip joint, plus some other minor clarifications.
LMay '23Vulnerability to Chronic Pain — Added new section, “Health and luck: the non-modifiable risk factors.”
LMay '23Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Chronic Pain — Added a substantial new section, “What about conventional treatment with a psychological spin?” And it will get more substantive, because there’s more to do on that topic. I also cited Johnsen on CBT for depression, added a note about the tendency of all psychological therapies to get gaslighty, and some clarifications and a link in defense of acceptance and commitment therapy.
MMay '23Placebo Power Hype — Added a new conclusion: “Placebo enthusiasm cannot be curbed.”
LMay '23The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — New chapter, centralization and directional preference.
LApr '23Chronic Low Back Pain Is Not So Chronic — Rewrite and major upgrade. The previous reassurance-is-good-for-back-pain slant has been replaced with a much more nuanced perspective on the relationship between back pain and psychological factors. And there are useful new sections on risk factors.
LApr '23The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Rewritten and expanded, back pain prognosis chapter — This chapter was completely overhauled and greatly increased in size. Although still primarily based on a 2009 study, it’s now a much more general chapter about back pain prognosis and chronicity. There’s more and recent detailed follow-up evidence. There are some new graphs and imagery. There’s much more useful information about risk factors. And the previous reassurance-is-good-for-back-pain slant has been replaced with a much more nuanced perspective on the relationship between back pain and psychological factors.
SApr '2338 Surprising Causes of Pain — Cited a case study about mistaking Parkinsonian dystonia for a knee injury.
SApr '23Diagnosing Runner’s Knee — Cited a case study about mistaking Parkinsonian dystonia for a knee injury.
SApr '23Cramps, Spasms, Tremors & Twitches — Cited a case study about mistaking Parkinsonian dystonia for a knee injury.
SApr '23The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Science update, knee pain diagnosis — Cited a case study about mistaking Parkinsonian dystonia for a knee injury.
SApr '23The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — Science update, knee pain diagnosis — Cited a case study about mistaking Parkinsonian dystonia for a knee injury.
SApr '23How Many Muscles Are In the Human Body? — Corrected a minor error: capillaries are not muscular. Hat tip to reader M.C. for reminding me of that.
LApr '23Why SaveYourself.ca Became PainScience.com — A rare update to this mostly archived page about PainScience.com itself, which I thought I’d never touch again: “2023 update: ‘PainScience’ turns out to have problems too!”
SApr '23Ozone Therapy for Pain — Minor revisions and updates. Added a couple of citations.
LApr '23Chronic Low Back Pain Is Not So Chronic — Added a new section with more recent and detailed follow-up evidence, a new table, and two diagrams. Edited the whole thing.
MMar '23The Medical Blind Spot for Aches, Pains & Injuries — Added a section: “Patients are part of the medical incompetence equation.”
MMar '23The Art of Bioenergetic Breathing — Added information about the physiology of breathing and a major new citation about the real potential for anti-inflammatory benefits of hyperventilatory breathing.
SMar '23A Rational Guide to Fibromyalgia — Added content — Added fast breathing exercises (hyperventilation) to the list of treatment options worth considering.
MMar '23Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Chronic Pain — Added short new section about anti-depressants as a chronic pain treatment.
LMar '23Mobilize! — Complete descriptions of all mobilization exercises are now integrated into this page. The table of contents also got an upgrade.
SMar '23Massage Therapy for Low Back Pain (So Low That It’s Not In the Back) — Minor editorial upgrades and polish.
LMar '23Chronic, Subtle, Systemic Inflammation — New section.
LFeb '23Zapped! Does TENS work for pain? — New section about TENS for menstrual pain.
LFeb '23Icing for Injuries, Tendinitis, and Inflammation — New section: “Kooky new pain treatment: smart ice implants.”
SFeb '23The Tyranny of Yoga and Meditation — Science updated. Cited one important new paper on meditation harms, Kuyken 2022.
SFeb '23Massage Therapy for Tension Headaches — Science updated. Added a citation about the relationship between trigger points and headaches, and updated related footnotes a bit.
MFeb '23The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Revised, specific diagnosis — After several years without much attention, this chapter has finally gotten a variety of improvements.
MJan '23Cramps, Spasms, Tremors & Twitches — Upgrades to the relatively new Botox section, including a few more citations, especially about harms and safety.
MJan '23Does Pandiculation “Reset” Muscle Tone? — Added information about the link between pandiculation, sex, and — another fun new word — “chasmology.” Added a new emphasis that pandiculation isn’t just about stretching, and added a fun cat video, and some reader reports.
SJan '23Quite a Stretch — Science update, injury prevention — Identified some non-trivial flaws in a trial that dared to challenge my bias. 😜
LJan '23The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — New chapter, green light therapy.
SJan '23The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Reorganization, differential diagnosis — Just a bit of housekeeping: rearranged the content and edited for clarity. Probably not enough, but it’s a start.
MJan '23Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — Rewritten — Expanded the scope of the section to include dry needling generally, and not just Sconfienza's peculiar version of it. Added some citations. Confirmed that the “Sconfienza protocol” trial remains unpublished (fifteen years later).
LJan '23Quite a Stretch — New section, effect on arterial stiffness.
SJan '23Quite a Stretch — Added a pop quiz — Fun, right?
SJan '23The 3 Basic Types of Pain — Added a footnote about whether it’s okay to call nociceptors “pain fibres.”
SJan '23Does Pandiculation “Reset” Muscle Tone? — Minor additions and corrections that arose in the aftermath of publication.
SJan '23Strength Training for Pain & Injury Rehab — Added a fun sidebar “Train like Gandalf.”
MJan '23The Insomnia Guide for Chronic Pain Patients — Science update. Short new section about the use of anti-depressants for insomnia.
MJan '23Quite a Stretch — Science update, injury prevention — Updated and added some citations, including one that challenges my bias (for the first time).
LJan '23Quite a Stretch — New section, pandiculation.
SJan '23The Tyranny of Yoga and Meditation — Minor improvements related to integration with the new yoga chapter in my back pain book.
MJan '23What Works for Chronic Pain? — Science update. Beefed up the exercise section with four fresh good-news studies.
MJan '23Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — Refinements, orthotics chapter — Several minor improvements and additions, mostly about foot straps, taping, and heel lifts (as opposed to support), adding up to a solid chapter upgrade.
MDec '22The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Upgraded, movement snacks and general exercise — Added more about the role of general exercise in treating back pain.
MDec '22The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Upgraded, heat/ice chapter — Revised and expanded to include a discussion of Hydrocollators.
MDec '22Pain is Weird — New section, The rhythm of throbbing pain.
LNov '22The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Rewritten, scoliosis treatment chapter — Completely rebooted, all new everything about scoliosis treatment.
LNov '22The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Rewritten, scoliosis etiology chapter — Some of the original chapter remains, but mostly I just started over.
SNov '22The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Minor revision, ‘specific’ back pain chapter — Polished and tweaked. Nothing fancy, just good old fashioned editing.
SOct '22When to Worry About Low Back Pain — Added an important citation to O’Sullivan about back pain myths to the introduction.
SOct '22Zapped! Does TENS work for pain? — Science update for transcranial stim: cited Bilir et al regarding fibromyalgia, and O’Connell regarding back pain.
MOct '22Many Pages — At last, footnotes and other “popups” can be dismissed with the ESC key or by clicking outside the popup. This is one of the most overdue “quality of life” feature updates for the salamander’s domain in years. It’s such a small thing! But not actually all that small, considering how many footnotes there are. It is no longer necessary to move the mouse to the popup closure button! Hooray!
MOct '22Placebo Power Hype — Added a small section, “Honest placebo: now longer lasting?”
LOct '22The Tyranny of Yoga and Meditation — Major revisions and improvements. Over the years, this article had gotten to be a bit muddled and meandering, and it lacked citations for some key points about efficacy/safety. Unacceptable! Some formatting glitches had even crept into it. I had a bunch of fresh yoga science in my head after writing a new yoga chapter for my back pain book — a perfect time to reboot this page.
LOct '22The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Major revision, yoga-not-for-everyone chapter — Major revisions and improvements. Over the years, this chapter got a bit muddled and obsolete, just an old rant I hadn't properly updated in over a decade. I had a bunch of fresh yoga science in my head after writing the new yoga chapter, and so this was a perfect time to reboot the chapter.
MOct '22The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Additions, yoga — Restored some selected passages lost in the rewrite (and it’s now one of the longest chapters in the book, maybe the very longest, and longer than most standalone articles on the topic). Turning into a book within a book!
SOct '22Pain is Weird — Science update — Added a sidebar about the failure of phantom limb pain as a major example of pain without injury, citing Ilfeld.
LOct '22The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Rewritten, yoga — A complete reboot of my coverage of the topic of yoga for back pain, with much more (and more recent) science.
SOct '22Does Posture Matter? — Science update — Added a citation to Having ‘good’ posture doesn’t prevent back pain, and ‘bad’ posture doesn’t cause it.
SSep '22Pain is Weird — Editing — And still more minor improvements and clarifications in several sections.
MSep '22The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Science update — Added a much more detailed explanation of how the sensitivity of muscle has been demonstrated experimentally, based on Graven-Nielsen et al.
LSep '22Vibration Therapies, from Massage Guns to Jacuzzis — Added new section, “That bizarre 2021 study of ‘robotic mouse massage.’”
MSep '22Chronic, Subtle, Systemic Inflammation — New section.
LSep '2238 Surprising Causes of Pain — Added a new section about cancer in general as a cause of some kinds of seemingly simple musculoskeletal pain.
MAug '22Chronic Pain and Inequality — New section: “Disastrously dismissing women’s symptoms.” Plus a science update: Madden on how injured women are more likely to be assaulted by a boyfriend or husband.
MAug '22A Deep Dive into Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness — A minor (but particularly interesting) science update: Roman et al on muscle nuclei migrating to sites of microtrauma for repairwork.
LAug '22Pain is Weird — Revision — Many changes to acknowledge uncertainties and controversies about the hypothesis that pain can be out of proportion to sensation, or that it can exist without any tissue damage at all. Some new citations.
SAug '22Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — Addition, hall of treatment shame — Added “toe spreaders” to the hall of shame.
MAug '22Should You Get A Lube Job for Your Arthritic Knee? — Science update. A huge new review from the British Medical Journal is very “nail in the coffin” for viscosupplementation.
MAug '22Does Ultrasound Therapy Work? — Added a sidebar: “Self-serve shockwave therapy? Buyer beware”
LAug '2213 Kinds of Bogus Citations — Added two sections: “Mechanism masturbation” and “Dozens of studies can still be wrong.”
LAug '22Many Pages — Improved login UX for PainSci members, enabling “quick login” at paywalls for members-only content around the site, revealing the content in a single step rather than the several steps the old way required. More information and examples.
SAug '22Does Posture Matter? — Science update, muscle balance — Cited Guan as a particularly good example of how limited the science of muscle balance is.
LAug '22The Role of Eccentric Contractions in Rehab — New section: “Is running downhill healthier than running up, because of braking contractions?”
LAug '22Does Massage Therapy Work? — New section, foam rolling — Well, this is rather overdue.
LAug '22The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — New chapter, Pain Reprocessing Therapy — A major addition to the book, months in the making, 1000 words about the most sensational back pain science claim of 2022: that PRT works dramatically better than anything else.
LAug '22The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — New chapter, CBT for back pain — A major addition to the book, months in the making, 1500 words and a dozen new citations, all about “the elephant in the mind-game room.”
LAug '22The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — New chapter, overview of the psychology of back pain — An announcement and summary of key ideas on the theme of the psychology of back pain coming to the book throughout the middle of 2022.
SAug '2238 Surprising Causes of Pain — Science update. Added rheumatic symptoms from Long COVID to post-viral syndrome section.
MAug '22Vulnerability to Chronic Pain — Added useful new tip: “How vulnerable are you? Take the stork test of doom!” Based on Araujo.
MAug '22Trigger Points on Trial — Added a sidebar: “Please! Stop saying trigger points ‘don’t exist’.”
SAug '22Reassurance for Massage Therapists — Science update. Added a citation about tolerance of medical uncertainty (Begin).
LAug '22Cramps, Spasms, Tremors & Twitches — Substantial upgrades to the section “The hiccup hack” section.
SAug '22The Trouble with Chairs — Science update. Added a citation to Santos about weekend warriorism.
SJul '22Marijuana for Pain — Added a citation to Gazendam. Clarified a couple minor points. Emphasized that cannabis is safe and plausible enough to be worth trying for many patients.
MJul '22Homeopathy Schmomeopathy — Science update, cited Gartlehner.
SJul '22Pain is Weird — Editing — Many minor improvements and clarifications in several sections.
LJul '22Cramps, Spasms, Tremors & Twitches — Revised and expanded the introduction and summary; added menstrual cramps to the master list of familiar spasms; added a new small section, “The hiccup hack: forced inspiratory suction and swallow.”
LJul '22Many Pages — Article summaries have been restored after a long absence and some overdue rejiggering of how they are displayed. Most of the longer articles on PainScience.com once again have an “abstract.”
SJul '22Electromagnetic Sensitivity Absurdity — Added more information about non-ionizing radiation and the epidemiology data on wireless gadgets and cancers.
LJul '22Pain is Weird — New section, pain asymbolia.
LJun '22You Might Just Be Weird — Added a couple good citations about vertebrae and pelvic bone shapes, with some good images, and a new section: “Feeling for crookedness of the vertebra and pelvis.”
LJun '22Vitamins, Minerals & Supplements for Pain & Healing — Added a section about probiotics and the microbiome. Can gel caps full of “good bacteria” treat pain outside the gut?
SJun '22Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — Addition, differential diagnosis section — Added a discussion of a possible link between plantar fasciitis and hallux limitus.
SJun '22The Complete Guide to Muscle Strains — More information, imaging section — Added an additional reason for imaging: some “strains” turn out to be stress fractures.
SJun '22The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Minor addition — Added a little information for cyclists about the effect of pedal crank length on knee loading.
LJun '22Vitamins, Minerals & Supplements for Pain & Healing — Added a section about Coenzyme Q10 and statin-associated myalgia (SAM).
MJun '22Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Chronic Pain — Added a short section about Ashar et al: “That 2022 Pain Reprocessing Therapy study is way too good to be true.”
SJun '22The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — Small improvement — Added some useful reader perspective on their experiences asking surgeons for assistance.
MJun '22Strength Training for Pain & Injury Rehab — Science update and a small new section, “Lift faster, function better,” based on Balachandran et al.
MJun '22Icing for Injuries, Tendinitis, and Inflammation — Added a bunch of important detail to the RSI section about acute versus chronic inflammation.
SJun '22The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — Science update, secondary headaches — Added headache as a side effect of Duloxetine.
MJun '22Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — Minor addition, movement therapy — Added a small sub-section to recommend the “pendulum” exercise. Simple but nice.
LJun '22Microbreaking — General upgrade with lots of revision and modernization. Added more information about strength training and other kinds of micro-exercise. Introduced a focus on the social aspects of micro-exercise at work. Several new citations, and there’s a blog post with much more detail about the most important one (Andersen): “Itty bitty workouts prevent some workplace injuries.
SMay '22Your Back Is Not Out of Alignment — Science update, alternatives to structuralism — Inspired by Cormack, I finally cited Engel (as I should have long ago).
MMay '22Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — New chapter, muscle strain.
LMay '22What Works for Chronic Pain? — Added section: “Icing and heating work (not dramatically, but accessibly and comfortingly in many painful situations).”
SMay '22Placebo Power Hype — Added some classic citations, most notably to Beecher and Hróbjartsson.
SMay '22The Complete Guide to Muscle Strains — Science update, muscle balance chapter — Cited Guan, a good review of all inter-limb asymmetry evidence.
MMay '2238 Surprising Causes of Pain — Added a section about adenosine monophosphate deaminase 1 (AMPD1) deficiency.
MMay '22Cramps, Spasms, Tremors & Twitches — New section about using Botox to treat unwanted contractions.
SMay '22Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — Science update — Added a minor but neat point about how much joint fluid volume is lost in frozen shoulder.
LMay '22The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Major upgrade, differential diagnosis chapter — Added more detail and several more uncommon diagnoses to consider.
SMay '22Strength Training for Pain & Injury Rehab — Added a little information about supplementation and especially vitamin D.
MMay '22Stuck in My Throat — Added an update and some thoughts on what I’d do differently if I had to wrestle with globus again.
MMay '22Vitamin D for Pain — Science update, citing Bolland and Bislev on the (undetectable) value of vitamin D supplementation for healthy patients.
MApr '22Chronic, Subtle, Systemic Inflammation — Correction, stress and neuroinflammation — Removed some excessively speculative claims that serious neuroinflammation might be driven by perceived threats (stress), as opposed to actual ones (serious injury and illness).
LApr '22Pain is Weird — New section
LApr '22Chronic Pain as a Conditioned Behaviour — New section about amnesia as analgesia.
MApr '22The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Improvements, hamstring stretching chapter — Just a bunch of miscellaneous clarifications and minor elaborations.
MApr '22The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — New introduction, alignment chapter — Added a new introduction that makes this chapter officially the main posture chapter in the book. It now explains how poor posture supposedly causes back pain, which was previously missing, and is important context for other chapters (like hamstring stretching).
SMar '22The Science of Pain-Killers — Added brief summary of Arcoxia (etoricoxib).
SMar '22Zapped! Does TENS work for pain? — Added some context about simple, “static” magnet therapy to the pulsed electromagnetic field therapy section.
SMar '2238 Surprising Causes of Pain — Minor science update: added an interesting citation about the infectious roots of multiple sclerosis (Bjornevik).
SMar '22A Rational Guide to Fibromyalgia — Science update — Added an interesting citation about the infectious roots of multiple sclerosis (Bjornevik).
SMar '22The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Science update — Added an interesting citation about the infectious roots of multiple sclerosis (Bjornevik).
SMar '22Pain is Weird — Science update, corrected an old citation — Replaced a citation to Beecher (on pain in wounded soldiers) with the correct original citation and a better summary. See Beecher.
SMar '22The Science of Pain-Killers — Minor science update, added a citation to Aidar about the effect of ibuprofen on recovery from intense exercise.
SMar '22Don’t Worry About Lifting Technique — Added an important clarification and citation about Nachemson’s famous flexion loading chart.
SMar '22A Deep Dive into Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness — Minor science update, added a citation to Aidar et al about the effect of ibuprofen on strength and fatigue.
SMar '22Autonomous Sensory Meridian Response — Editing and a few minor clarifications and additions.
LMar '22Don’t Worry About Lifting Technique — Added discussion of Nachemson’s 1981 flexion loading chart, plus a small but important section about osteoporosis: “Your back isn’t fragile … unless it literally is.”
SMar '22Icing for Injuries, Tendinitis, and Inflammation — Added a small but useful cautionary tale about the consequences of accidentally icing excessively — by falling asleep with an ice pack on!
SMar '22What Works for Chronic Pain? — New sidebar: “The price of honesty and humility.”
LMar '22Ten Trillion Cells Walked Into a Bar — A little bit of editing, some new colour about microbiology, and a new citation about the role of biotensegrity in cells and molecules.
MMar '22Vitamins, Minerals & Supplements for Pain & Healing — Added a section, “‘Big Suppla’ is now evidence-based debunking.”
MMar '22Modality Empires — New section: “The price of honesty and humility.”
LMar '22We Are Full of Critters — Added a section, “Microscopes versus telescopes.”
SMar '22Does Massage Therapy Work? — Minor addition — Added “nostril yanking therapy” as an example of pseudoscience in massage.
SMar '22The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Minor addition — Added “lack of personal experience” to the list of reasons professionals fail with back pain treatment.
SMar '22The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — Trivial update — A trivial update, but fun, using ice cream headaches as an interesting example of referred pain that is directly relevant to headache.
SMar '22Use the Force! The myth of healing energy in massage and bodywork — Expanded a little on the concept of a “deepity” and how it applies to matter/energy equivalence in energy medicine.
SMar '22The Complete Guide to Muscle Strains — Minor update — Added neuropathy as a risk factor for strain.
MMar '22The Complete Guide to Muscle Strains — Added sub-topic — Discussed the potential value of neural mobilization in strain rehab.
MFeb '22Vitamins, Minerals & Supplements for Pain & Healing — Added important disclaimer about adulteration and contamination, regarding concerns about the accuracy of a key paper on that topic.
LFeb '22Neurodynamic Stretching — New section: “A humbler goal: maybe it’s just nerve exercise?”
SFeb '22What Works for Chronic Pain? — Added some comic relief: the dead-or-pretending meme, the you-keep-using-that-word meme, plus a sidebar, “What people think I do for a living….” (which is fun, but also goes a little deeper).
SFeb '22Shin Splints Treatment, The Complete Guide — Minor addition — Added tibiofibular pain to the list of possible causes of shin pain.
MFeb '22The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — Minor improvement — Added significantly more information about proximal tibiofibular joint injury. Not many readers need it, but it will be helpful for those who do.
MFeb '22Shin Splints Treatment, The Complete Guide — More information, orthotics — Technically this is a new section, but I’ve created it just by transplanting and elaborating on the brief dismissal of orthotics that was in the “hall of shame” section for years. It is more substantive, but it says essentially the same thing.
LFeb '22Shin Splints Treatment, The Complete Guide — Minor upgrade, pronation — Just a couple elaborations and refinements, based on new risk factor evidence.
LFeb '22Shin Splints Treatment, The Complete Guide — New chapter, peak breaking force — This is a chapter that is entirely about a single citation, one interesting experiment: Napier et al.
LFeb '22Shin Splints Treatment, The Complete Guide — Major upgrade, risk factors — This is a huge upgrade to this section, which is now both more interesting and consequential than I expected when I started it. I’ve added significantly more detailed and referenced information about risk factors.
LFeb '22What Works for Chronic Pain? — New section: “Actually using best practices in musculoskeletal medicine,” plus a bunch of editing throughout the article. Almost ready for prime time!
MFeb '2213 Kinds of Bogus Citations — No change in substance, but a bunch of editing and improvements to formatting and presentation.
SJan '22Does Posture Matter? — Updated, ergonomics section — Added a minor rant about the amount of nonsense in ergonomics.
MJan '22Does Arnica Gel Work for Pain? — Science update, the first on this topic in ages, thanks to a shiny new review — which is, unfortunately, a classic example of garbage-in-garbage-out junk science (see Gaertner).
LJan '22Counterstimulation, Counterirritation, and Gate Control — New section: “Counterstimulation as the obscure seed of truth powering a lot of quackery.”
LJan '22Does Acupuncture Work for Pain? — Added new section, “Is acupuncture FDA approved?”
SJan '22The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Added footnote, “woke up with it” neck pain — Explained and justifed my opinion that morning onset cricks may often be related to the combination of chilling neck skin at night.
MJan '22Ozone Therapy for Pain — Improved the back pain section significantly. My first version was a little too ranty and dismissive. It is now more thoughtful and thorough and looks a little closer at the rationale. Still ranty! But the ranting is now a sauce instead of the main dish. Also, I paywalled the back pain section — the first example of a small members-only section, just one key piece of an article reserved for members, and also available in a book.
LJan '22The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — New chapter, ozone therapy.
LJan '22Ozone Therapy for Pain — Added a section about injected ozone for back pain. Also made a number of minor editorial corrections, added a couple images, and brief mentions of veterinary uses of ozone, and vaginal insufflation of ozone. The article is now “ready for prime time.”
MJan '22The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Added sub-topic, ozone therapy — Added a discussion of ozone therapy, which just barely qualifies as a “regenerative” therapy, and my only advice is to avoid it, so it’s a minor addition here — but an interesting one.
LDec '21A Rational Guide to Fibromyalgia — New section, ozone therapy.
SDec '21Popular but Weird & Dangerous Cures — Added ozone therapy to the list, with fascinating photos of a bizarre vintage ozone therapy device. Updated information on Miracle Mineral Solution (because the perperatrators were indicted this year).
MDec '21Neuropathies Are Overdiagnosed — Correction. I excessively demonized gabepentin and pregabalin based on an oversimplification of their legal history and inadequate attention to the evidence on efficacy for neuropathy. In fact, these drugs are efficacious for some neuropathies.
MDec '21The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Correction, neuropathy chapter — I excessively demonized gabepentin and pregabalin based on an oversimplification of their legal history and inadequate attention to the evidence on efficacy for neuropathy. In fact, these drugs are efficacious for some neuropathies.
MDec '21The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Correction, anticonvulsants chapter — I excessively demonized gabepentin and pregabalin based on an oversimplification of their legal history and inadequate attention to the evidence on efficacy for neuropathy. In fact, these drugs are efficacious for some neuropathies. While those were genuine errors in need of correction, the key message was accurate: they aren’t useful for back pain, and corruption is the only reason they were ever given to patients for that purpose.
MDec '21Does Epsom Salt Work? — Upgrade, hypomagnesemia — Much more and clearer information about hypomagnesemia and it’s possible role in pain.
MDec '21The Complete Guide to Muscle Strains — Upgraded, water and electrolytes chapter — Added much more information about magnesium: cramping, supplementation, and dietary sources. Also beefed up the warning about excessive hydration and its effect on electrolytes (hyponatremia).
SDec '21The Complete Guide to Muscle Strains — More information, epsom salts — Added information about the role of magnesium.
MDec '21The Complete Guide to Muscle Strains — Upgraded, spasm chapter — More and clearer information. A new citation to some basic spasm science.
MDec '21Water Fever and the Fear of Chronic Dehydration — Added extra information and citations about cramping and magnesium.
MDec '2138 Surprising Causes of Pain — Minor science update: added a couple citations about magnesium.
SDec '21Does Epsom Salt Work? — Science update — Added citations and extra information about cramping and magnesium.
MDec '21Cramps, Spasms, Tremors & Twitches — Added more information and science about exertional cramping and the role of magnesium in cramping.
MDec '21Vitamins, Minerals & Supplements for Pain & Healing — Substantive science update on the efficacy of treating pain with magnesium.
LDec '21Does Epsom Salt Work? — Major upgrade, magnesium as a pain killer — Added much more detail (and science) about the efficacy of treating chronic pain with magnesium supplementation. Merged with previous information on managing post-surgical pain.
LDec '21The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Major upgrade, magnesium deficiency — Dramatically improved quantity and quality of information about magnesium deficiency and using it as a treatment for pain or cramping.
MDec '21The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Upgrade, vitamin C deficiency — More and better information, especially a science-based revised of vitamin C dosing advice.
LDec '21Heat for Pain and Rehab — Major upgrade to information on capsaicin and “spice therapy.” A huge new members-only area has been added with extremely detailed information on this fascinating sub-topic, almost doubling the length of the article, and longer itself than most independent articles. But even the freely available summary is substantially upgraded, much more detailed and accurate.
SDec '21Many Pages — It’s a small thing, but a nice thing: PainSci members (premium newsletter subscribers) will no longer see “subscribe now!” blurbs (when logged in).
LDec '21Many Pages — For the first time in the history of the business, some articles are now behind a paywall, accessible only to members — just a handful for now, eventually about 15% of the content.
LDec '21The Insomnia Guide for Chronic Pain Patients — Completely rebooted all content about light, blue light, screens, and gadgets features like Night Shift and Night Light. New science, all new commentary.
MDec '21Voltaren Gel: Does It Work? — Meaningful science update, kind of the opposite of a “nail in the coffin” — topical diclofenac has now been clearly established by extensive testing as effective and safe. This is about as close to “proven” as we get in this business.
SDec '21The Science of Pain-Killers — Minor science update, new citation for the safety and efficacy of topical diclofenac.
LDec '21Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — New chapter — A substantive new chapter about the possible role of the mind and muscle guarding in frozen shoulder.
SNov '21The Role of “Spasm” in Frozen Shoulder — Minor clarifications to the submersion tip.
MNov '21How to Treat Sciatic Nerve Pain — Small but valuable safety update: better red flag information based on Angus et al.
LNov '21The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Major upgrade — Substantial clarifications and new information about ominous neuropathy symptoms, based primarily on Hoeritzauer and Angus, and initially inspired by Tom Jesson’s writing about the prevalence of cauda equina syndrome.
SNov '21When to Worry About Low Back Pain — Minor science update, added information and data about the rarity of cauda equina syndrome.
LNov '21The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — New chapter, back pain as a disease of civilization.
LNov '21A Deep Dive into Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness — Added a major new section about active recovery.
MNov '21Pain is Weird — New section — At last! This article has long needed a definition and explanation of nociception. It finally has one.
MNov '21The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Science update, dry needling chapter — Almost an echo of last year’s science update on this topic: a second study of needling for neck pain, also quite good, and also quite negative.
MNov '21The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Science update, dry needling chapter — Almost an echo of last year’s science update on this topic: a second study of needling for neck pain, also quite good, and also quite negative.
LNov '21When to Worry About Neck Pain … and when not to! — New red flag. Added “facial numbness,” based on Ugradar et al.
SNov '21The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — New red flag — Added “facial numbness,” based on Ugradar et al.
SNov '21The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — New red flag — Added “facial numbness,” based on Ugradar et al.
SOct '21Pain is Weird — Editing — Some cleanup and clarification.
SOct '21Vitamins, Minerals & Supplements for Pain & Healing — Added warning about the slaughter of sharks required for collagen production.
LOct '21Proprioception, the True Sixth Sense — This may be the first update this article has ever gotten, since I first wrote it in the mid-2000s. For its age, it wasn’t in terrible shape! But I corrected some overconfident speculations, got a little more specific with some of the science, added a number of interesting details, especially a lot more information about Piezo1 and Piezo2 receptors… science that won a Nobel prize in 2021, but was done back when this was first written! The article doubled in size.
SOct '21Opioids for Chronic Aches & Pains — Clarified the distinction between standard opioid receptor downregulation versus the stranger phenomenon of opioid hyperalgesia.
MOct '21A Deep Dive into Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness — Important corrections and clarifications, acknowledging ongoing debate about the relationship between lactate, lactic acid, and acidosis. Importantly, however, this is only relevant to the biology of fatigue, not soreness.
MOct '21Reviews of Pain Professions — Added orthopedics.
SOct '21Strength Training Frequency — Science update. Added a citation to Sheng et al about the excellent fitness bang-for-buck delivered by walking, building on the point that there’s a theme of efficiency throughout exercise science.
SOct '21Vulnerability to Chronic Pain — Science update. Added a citation to Sheng et al about the excellent fitness bang-for-buck delivered by walking.
SOct '21Does Massage Increase Circulation? — Science update. Added a citation to Sheng et al about the excellent fitness bang-for-buck delivered by walking.
MOct '21A Deep Dive into Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness — Substantial upgrade to the debunking of the lactic acid myth, from a sidebar with a couple key points to a new section of the article.
SOct '21The Trouble with Chairs — Science update. Added a citation to Sheng et al about the excellent fitness bang-for-buck delivered by walking.
SOct '21The Art of Rest — Science update. Added a citation to Sheng et al about the excellent fitness bang-for-buck delivered by walking.
MOct '21The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — Science update, cervicogenic headache — Updated the chapter with a citation to an important new study showing that there are no obvious neck abnormalities in headache patients.
MOct '21Massage Therapy for Bruxism, Jaw Clenching, and TMJ Syndrome — Added a short section about the (bogus) relationship between jaw pain and a tight lingual frenulum.
SOct '21The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — New silly treatment, frenuloplasty — Added frenuloplasty to the hall of treatment shame.
MOct '21The Complete Guide to Muscle Strains — Correction — I misinterpreted a study of the relationship between range of motion and recovery time. While the general principle was sound — greater ROM loss correlates strongly with recovery time) — my more specific “rule of thumb” based on it was a bit wonky. So I fixed that.
LOct '21The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — New chapter, tongue-ties as a cause of headache — Adapted from the recent blog post, with some substantive extra speculation about the plausibility of a tight frenulum causing headaches.
LOct '21The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Modernized — Dramatically improved the tone of the introduction to the “medical” section of the book with a healthy dose of skepticism. I’ve added what I hope is a persuasive warning about how easy and dangerous it is to start blaming things we don’t really understand.
MOct '21Pain is Weird — Update — New short section about the modern alternative to the “naive view” of pain, so basically a definition and explanation of the “neuromatrix.”
SOct '21Does Posture Matter? — Science update — Cited Richards, a study with a delightfully counter-intuitive result, and extremely helpful to the thesis of this article.
MOct '21The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Polishing — Long overdue proofreading of the entire book, correcting several dozen typos that have snuck into it over the years. This is by far the longest of my books, and so it had by far the most typos, and no doubt there are still a few — but it’s greatly improved. Also for this project, I updated all references made to my work as a massage therapist, a great many of which still read like I have appointments schedule next week, when in fact I haven’t seen massage therapy client in over a decade now.
MSep '21The Science of Pain-Killers — Science and safety update about acetaminophen safety during pregnancy. See Bauer.
SSep '21The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Added anecdote — Added a solid anecdote from a physician reader about “appendicitis” cases treated with lidocaine injections in the abdominal muscles. Also added some extra medical information about pain in this area.
MSep '21Mind Over Pain — Added examples, sensory novelty section — The big idea of this section here was too abstract, so I added several concrete examples of how you “change something about how a painful area feels.”
LSep '21Mind Over Pain — New section, cognitive behavioural therapy.
MSep '21Vaginismus — Several minor improvements for Vaginismus Awareness Day. I added a list of good Twitter accounts to follow, some statistics, a good quote, and some clarifications about the relationship of vaginismus to other kinds of pain (with more links). Lorna Meehan’s work is now included in the resources.
SSep '21The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Science update — Added a citation and expert opinion.
SSep '21The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Minor improvements, alignment — Added some colour and did a little editing.
LSep '21Achilles Tendinitis Treatment Science — Two new sections about muscle: “Massage for Achilles tendinitis” and “The role of the plantaris muscle in Achilles tendinitis.”
MSep '21Achilles Tendinitis Treatment Science — Science updated: added two citations and an expert quote on the topic of eccentric training.
SSep '21A Rational Guide to Fibromyalgia — New sidebar — Added a bit of comic relief: “Demon tries to inhabit my body … and regrets it.”
LSep '21The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — New section, about plantaris hypertonia.
MSep '21A Rational Guide to Fibromyalgia — Revised — Significant improvements to the clarity of some tricky concepts.
MAug '21Medical Errors in Perspective — Added a new intro with more information and citations about the claim that medicine is the “third leading cause of death in America.” (It’s not.)
MAug '21Cold Laser Therapy Reviewed — Added a small new section, “Lasers versus LEDs,” explaining one of the hottest ongoing controversies about photobiomodulation therapy (and much ado about not much).
MAug '21Cramps, Spasms, Tremors & Twitches — Added mentions of restless leg syndrome and myoclonus, clarified the description of clonus, and expanded on my own experience with fasciculations.
MAug '21Mind Over Pain — More information, the story of “power posing”
LAug '21Mind Over Pain — New section, The power of positive thinking versus toxic positivity.
MAug '2138 Surprising Causes of Pain — Added a section about pain as a learned behaviour (classical conditioning).
LAug '21Pain is Weird — New section, pain as a conditioned behaviour.
LAug '21Mind Over Pain — New section, unlearning learned pain.
LAug '21Mind Over Pain — New section, on pain hacks and false hope.
LJul '21Chronic Pain as a Conditioned Behaviour — New section about threat hyper-vigilance, with a cool analogy to pet reward hyper-vigilance.
LJul '21Cold Laser Therapy Reviewed — Added detailed analysis of a major new trial of laser therapy for back pain.
LJul '21A Rational Guide to Fibromyalgia — New section, fibromyalgia transplanted to mice in blood.
SJul '21Reassurance for Massage Therapists — Adjusted to be more inclusive of other kinds of professionals, not just massage therapists, plus some other polishing, especially rejiggered main list of reassurances to make it much more readable, less of a “wall of text.”
MJul '21The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Proofreading — Top-to-bottom check for typos and other minor errors. They creep in over the years as I work on updates to the book. A good three dozen of the little buggers identified and fixed this time.
MJul '21Does Fascia Matter? — New section, alleged fascia-COVID link.
M2021Cramps, Spasms, Tremors & Twitches — Added a personal anecdote about successful treatment of a chronically twitching eyelid.
L2021What Works for Chronic Pain? — New section: “Pain relief in the future.”
S2021Zapped! Does TENS work for pain? — Science update: cited Zhang on pain relief from brain implants.
S202138 Surprising Causes of Pain — Added a small but good citation to a case study of circulatory impairment in a cyclist causing leg pain (Brindisino).
M2021The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — Proofreading — First top-to-bottom proofreading for this book since launch, catching many minor erros that crept in doing about a dozen updates over the last year and half.
S2021Use the Force! The myth of healing energy in massage and bodywork — Explained the relevance of autonomous sensory meridian response in a small new section, “Satisfaction guaranteed by primate neurology.”
S2021Reassurance for Massage Therapists — Added minor references to counterstimulation and autonomous sensory meridian response.
L2021Mind Over Pain — Science update, novel sensory input section — Added a new sub-section… which is larger than the entire original section. Previously I made the recommendation without much explanation. This update thoroughly explores the scientific rationale.
M2021Mind Over Pain — New strategy — Added a new sub-section explaining that cultivating ASMR (autonomous sensory meridian response) is a clear, specific, substantive way to “be kind to your nervous system.”
S2021Does Massage Therapy Work? — Science update — Added the particularly interesting example of autonomous sensory meridian response to the discussion of the power of touch.
M2021Does Craniosacral Therapy Work? — Explored the relevance of autonomous sensory meridian response in a small new section, “More than relaxing: satisfaction guaranteed by autonomous sensory meridian response (weird euphoric head tingles).”
L2021Zapped! Does TENS work for pain? — Elaborated significantly on the mechanism of action of TENS, especially distinguishing between simple counterstimulation and the "fancier" version of counterstimulation: descending modulation triggered by novel sensory input.
S2021The Science of Pain-Killers — Added minor clarifications about the upper limits of efficacy, and contraindications for NSAIDs.
L2021Opioids for Chronic Aches & Pains — New section: “How opioids can cause pain: the insidious trap of downregulation”
L2021The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — New section, about the “dysfunctionality” of the tensor fascia latae muscle.
L2021Mind Over Pain — New section, about analgesic catharsis or “emotional release”
S2021Does Acupuncture Work for Pain? — Science update: acknowledged the drafted change in acupuncture recommendations from the UK’s influential guidelines from the National Institute for Health Care Excellence (NICE).
M2021Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — Added information — Added extra detail about the implications of what little data we have, in particular about the unsolved riddle of whether low versus high estrogen is the risk factor.
S2021Vitamins, Minerals & Supplements for Pain & Healing — Added minor new citation and commentary: “Survey says most people don’t care what the science says.”
L2021Mind Over Pain — New section, different mind-over-pain perspectives.
L2021Pain is Weird — Focus! — Migrated a large portion of this article to a new page dedicated to the topic of Mind Over Pain. It was just getting out of hand, trying to cover both the weirdness of pain and it’s mind-over-pain implications all on one page.
M2021Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — Proofreading — It was time for an annual book tune-up: a few dozen minor errors have been corrected.
S2021Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — Science update — Small but fascinating science update about Ascani et al, exploring a possible link between frozen shoulder and COVID.
M2021Neurodynamic Stretching — Miscellaneous editing and revision after publication as an independent article. Added artwork and pull quotes.
L2021Mind Over Pain — New section, on limiting pain talk.
M2021Knee Replacement Surgery Doubts — New section based on Hamilton et al: “Confidence and optimism versus the truth.”
L2021Pain is Weird — New section — Third of three new or rebooted sections about pain chronification and the types of chronic pain.
L2021Pain is Weird — New section — Second of three new or rebooted sections about pain chronification and the types of chronic pain. This one particularly fills a gap I have known about for ages, and I’m delighted to finally fill it.
L2021Pain is Weird — New section — First of three new or rebooted sections about pain chronification and the types of chronic pain.
L2021Pain is Weird — Major editorial cleanup — Extensive rewriting and reorganization. This page has evolved haphazardly over many years and had turned into more of a collection of overlapping mini-essays and musings than a cohesive article. It has been reorganized quite a bit now.
L2021Mind Over Pain — Major expansion — Much more detail about several of the mind-over-pain tips.
L2021The Science of Pain-Killers — New section, “One of the best uses of NSAIDs: treating menstrual cramps.” I am embarrassed that this wasn’t in the first version! A major oversight.
M2021Pain is Weird — More detail — Significantly more detailed “advice for professionals” in the final sections of the article.
M2021The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Improvements — More detail and polish, strain-counterstrain chapter.
M2021The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Improvements, strain-counterstrain chapter — More detail and polish.
M2021The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Improvements, strain-counterstrain chapter — More detail and polish.
M2021Mind Over Pain — Revision and expansion — More and better information about one of the most specific, practical pieces of mind-over-pain advice in the article.
L2021Mind Over Pain — New section, “Doubt diagnosis” — A dense new item to the list of mind-over-pain strategies, on the importance of avoiding nocebo by being very skeptical of all theories about how broken/fragile you are.
M2021Vitamins, Minerals & Supplements for Pain & Healing — Several miscellaneous edits after promoting the rebooted version of this article. Most notably, I added some safety information about curcumin, and a full-blown science update about tart cherry juice for insomnia, but there have been many other minor changes.
S2021Marijuana for Pain — Added two token citations about cannabis for fibromyalgia. “Token” because the evidence barely exists.
S2021A Rational Guide to Fibromyalgia — Science update — Added two token citations about cannabis for fibromyalgia. “Token” because the evidence barely exists.
M2021Vitamins, Minerals & Supplements for Pain & Healing — Tied up some loose ends and corrected a bunch of minor errors that crept in during the wave of recent updates. Page is in great shape now, I think. The main thing missing? Some popular supplements! Mostly in the vitamins/minerals category. I will chip away at them over time, of course.
M2021Knee Replacement Surgery Doubts — Some editorial polishing and three new images.
L2021Knee Replacement Surgery Doubts — Science update and new section: “Total versus partial knee replacement: Is more surgery better? Is less worse?” Also cited more evidence on the role of the anxiety and fear in post-surgical pain. Updated Skou 2015 with data from Skou 2018 and added a full description of that research. Clarified the importance of sham-controlled surgical trials.
M2021Vitamins, Minerals & Supplements for Pain & Healing — Many minor improvements to the topics of Glutamine and arginine, branched-chain amino acids, and collagen.
M2021Vitamins, Minerals & Supplements for Pain & Healing — Science and citation update on the topic of supplement contamination and adulteration.
S2021The Dubious Science of Kinesiology Tape — Minor science update, just piling on with another new negative trial of taping (McManus).
L2021Vitamins, Minerals & Supplements for Pain & Healing — A thorough science update on bromelain — such as it is. More like an update on the lack of science. But the section is much more informative now, even if disappointingly so.
L2021Vitamins, Minerals & Supplements for Pain & Healing — Complete overhaul of everything about ergogenic aids in general, their possible relevance to pain, and creatine as the primary example — still actually effective for muscle fatigue (hooray, something that works!), but probably not for pain.
S2021Does Massage Therapy Work? — Edited — Proofreading and minor editorial polish.
L2021Vitamins, Minerals & Supplements for Pain & Healing — Rewrote the fish oil section, with significant science updates.
S2021Vitamins, Minerals & Supplements for Pain & Healing — Added an adapted version of Peter Brannen’s highly relevant joke about the simplicity of supplementation versus the complexity of metabolic pathways.
M2021Vitamins, Minerals & Supplements for Pain & Healing — Revision and science updates for the glucosamine and chondroitin section. I was particularly exasperated by and sassy about these embarrassingly unimpressive supplements.
L2021Vitamins, Minerals & Supplements for Pain & Healing — Major reorganization of the article to make it more useful and comprehensive. Added topics, removed others. A variety of other science updates to come.
L2021Marijuana for Pain — Greatly expanded information about cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome.
M2021Massage Therapy Side Effects — New and upgraded citations of case studies of massage dislodging blood clots and causing dangerous pulmonary emboli. There are now six interesting summaries of these alarming stories.
M2021Does Massage Increase Circulation? — New and upgraded citations of case studies of massage dislodging blood clots and causing dangerous pulmonary emboli. There are now six interesting summaries of these alarming stories.
M2021Marijuana for Pain — I consider most single citation updates to be minor, but this one is a bigger deal: Bebee et al, a decisively negative, well-designed trial of pure CBD for back pain, noteworthy for several reasons.
S2021The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — Minor polishing — A little editorial polish, and a bit of elaboration about the role of psychotropic effects.
S2021Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — Minor polishing — A little editorial polish, and a bit of elaboration about the role of psychotropic effects.
L2021Vibration Therapies, from Massage Guns to Jacuzzis — A stronger focus on massage guns, and much more detailed analysis of the science of vibration preventing muscle soreness. There’s a new section about whole body vibration. I also elaborated on exactly how vibration might be useful for frozen shoulder. Plus several other minor improvements.
L2021Marijuana for Pain — Added a citation about the prevalence of reasons for using cannabis. Added two new short sections: “CBD versus THC for pain,” “So many studies, so little good science.” Added a point about cannabis versus cannabis-based medications.
M2021Modality Empires — New section: “What are the alternatives? Academic continuing education.”
L2021Marijuana for Pain — Wrote a new intro, expanded on the pain evidence, added a short new section about anxiolytic effects, and a whimsical sidebar about a bizarre headache “caused” by cannabis.
S2021Anxiety & Chronic Pain — Some fresh new references about cannabis as an anti-anxiety medication.
L2021Quite a Stretch — New section, stretching for cramps.
M2021Quite a Stretch — Rebooted — Over the last couple weeks, this article has been upgraded and expanded in many ways. It is now about 33,000 words long, which gives it the dubious distinction of being the first PainSci article to match the length of the shortest PainSci book. Henceforth, I will call this page a “book.”
S2021Quite a Stretch — New section, ballistic stretching.
M2021Quite a Stretch — Rewritten — Much more and clearer information about other types of stretching, with new references, plus a rewritten explanation of allegedly “advanced” stretching.
S2021Quite a Stretch — Science update — Added citations about neck pain, fibromyalgia, headache, runner’s knee.
S2021Quite a Stretch — Science update — Added two citations to systematic reviews of research on proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation.
S2021Trigger Point Doubts — Just a good round of polish and editing.
S2021Vitamins, Minerals & Supplements for Pain & Healing — Proofreading and editorial polish: corrected about 20 minor errors.
S2021The Respiration Connection — Proofreading and editorial polish: corrected about 16 minor errors.
L2021Quite a Stretch — Completely rewritten — A total reboot of my coverage of the topic of sensory tolerance for stretch.
L2021Quite a Stretch — New section — A tour of all the major ways that flexibility supposedly works.
L2021Quite a Stretch — Major revision — The introduction to flexibility has not been completely re-written, but close: thoroughly revised and tuned to reflect many changes in this part of the article.
L2021Quite a Stretch — Major updates — Extensive improvements: more sub-topics, more references, more detail. Also added a good anecdote about stretching too much.
L2021Quite a Stretch — New section, nerve stretching.
M2021Quite a Stretch — Science update — Added a bunch more detail and references about the negative effects of stretch on performance.
M2021Does Acupuncture Work for Pain? — New section, “Bonus acupuncture myth: no, acupuncture cannot induce labour in pregnant women.”
S2021The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) — Substantial batch of minor corrections.
M2021Does Massage Therapy Work? — Added a myth — Added an old massage myth I should have added long ago: the idea that rubbing certain acupuncture points can induce labour. It really can’t. Just not a thing.
S2021Many Pages — The PainScience.com store checkout has been rebooted. Specifically, I have migrated from Stripe’s legacy checkout system to their new-fangled hosted checkout. See the official announcement for a few details, or my personal blog for a behind-the-scenes look: The new online store story (“If only I had procrastinated more”).
M202138 Surprising Causes of Pain — Rewrote the section on neuroinflammation. It had been hastily excerpted and abridged from another article. Now it’s a proper standalone summary and much clearer.
S2021Pseudo-Quackery in Physical Therapy — Added “posturology” to the list of pseudo-quackeries.
S2021Does Posture Matter? — Added links — Added six reading recommendations, all with mini-reviews.
L2021A Deep Dive into Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness — New section: “Waiting it out or working through it: the role of rest and more exercise in DOMS treatment” in which I address two key questions I should have answered here long ago: “Should you exercise while sore?” and “Can exercising while sore actually help?”
L2021Quite a Stretch — New section, Stretching for back pain.
L2021Zapped! Does TENS work for pain? — Added summary and citations for non-invasive brain stim. Added two new scientific review citations to the “Overview of TENS reviews” table. Added a new section, “Just the right settings.” Added a dense couple paragraphs about the unclear role of muscle stim in treating arthrogenic muscle inhibition.
S2021The Chiropractic Controversies — Added citation to a new survey of chiropractic students showing that anti-scientific subluxationism continues to substantially define the profession around the world.
S2021Tennis Elbow Guide — Thorough proofreading, correcting an unusual number of minor errors — not surprising after the huge recent update.
S2021Many Pages — More words! I identified and fixed a bug in content management system that was resulting in article and book word counts that were quite a bit too low. In many cases the actual word counts are at least 30% higher than what was being advertised before.
L2021Tennis Elbow Guide — Complete article reboot and expansion, roughly tripling in length to about 15,000 words. The most substantively upgraded sub-topics are etiology and risk factors, recovery time, steroids, denervation, massage, and strengthening.
L2021Neuropathies Are Overdiagnosed — Modernized, expanded. Most importantly, I added some more basic useful information and citations about neuropathy and muscle pain. This page is still technically just an abridged excerpt, but it now stands a little taller on its own. Some improvements also transplanted back into the tutorials this page came from.
M2021The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Upgrades — More and better information, mostly achieved in this case by consolidating information from other books in the PainSci library.
M2021The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Upgrades — More and better information, mostly achieved in this case by consolidating information from other books in the PainSci library.
M2021The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Upgrades — More and better information, mostly achieved in this case by consolidating information from other books in the PainSci library.
L2021A Deep Dive into Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness — Added a fun image of Anti-Stiff, an old-timey snake oil for muscle soreness (good historical perspective, too). Added discussion of worst-case scenarios, especially rhabdomyolysis, and DOMS that’s out of proportion to overexertion. Added examples of pathological vulnerability to DOMS, and some speculation about mechanism (neuroinflammation).
L2021The Dubious Science of Kinesiology Tape — Major upgrade, a complete reboot of the article: more of everything, especially citations. Previously it was just a brief “position statement” on the topic, now it’s a full-fledged critical analysis. The bottom line is still the same: skeptical. The biggest single change is the strong emphasis on the interesting fact that therapeutic taping was a chiropractor’s invention from back in the 1970s, and a relatively obscure one until the 2012 Olympics, not a staple of physical therapy and rehab. This really helps make the important point that therapeutic taping is more about marketing than medicine.
L2021Voltaren Gel: Does It Work? — Major additions, more than a thousand words on “other topical pain-killers: from literal snake oil to the perfectly cromulent salicylates.”
M2021The Chiropractic Controversies — Transplated and updated information about chiropractic’s legal battles from a separate page. Also, the whole article got a proofreading for the first time in quite a while, correcting a few minor errors.
L2021Quite a Stretch — Re-expansion — In mid-2020 the article was split up into four separate articles as an experiment. That experiment failed; I decided that it’s better as one mighty article, and restored it to its original state. Technically there’s no new content, but this page is nevertheless “like new” — it has never been this comprehensive before.
L2021Achilles Tendinitis Treatment Science — New section: “Achilles tendonitis recovery time.”
L2021The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Upgrade, alternate explanations of trigger points — Today I dug much deeper into the idea that trigger points are a kind of “injury,” especially an overuse injury. I am quite pleased with this update — genuinely interesting stuff.
M2021The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Improved, misdiagnosis chapter — I have added much clearer and more thorough information about the difference between a strain (clear mechanism involving structural damage) and a trigger point (unclear mechanism, no obvious structural component).
M2021The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — More and better, thermotherapy section — It’s not an important sub-topic for patellofemoral pain, but it certainly deserved more and better advice than I had previously offered. An obsolete point or two removed, and a more modern perspective added.
M2021The Tyranny of Yoga and Meditation — Added section about the links between yoga and pseudoscience, anti-vaccination, and Qanon, and another about the “Fuck you, Namaste!” phenomenon.
L2021A Rational Guide to Fibromyalgia — New section — An entire new section dedicated to a correction: fibromyalgia is not (clearly or officially) a “diagnosis of exclusion.” However, it’s an interesting question to dive into, so I wrote a whole new section about it.
L2021The Complete Guide to Muscle Strains — More info, strength chapter — More detailed information and advice about training for “muscle balance” between the quads and hamstrings.
S2021Shin Splints Treatment, The Complete Guide — Improvements — A bit more and clearer information on the role of radiculopathy/sciatica in differential diagnosis of shin pain.
S2021Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Chronic Pain — Science update, added citation and discussion of Mascarenhas et al on cognitive behavioural therapy for fibromyalgia.
S2021Missing Serious Symptoms — Revised and significantly expanded.
M2021A Rational Guide to Fibromyalgia — Science update — Added citation and significant discussion of Mascarenhas et al, a huge 2020 meta-analysis of treatments for fibromyalgia. I gave some extra attention to the evidence on cognitive behavioural therapy.
S2021A Rational Guide to Fibromyalgia — Clarification — Added some new emphasis on how difficult fibromyalgia treatment is. People seem to think there must be a treatment for it, but there really isn’t. This disease remains extremely puzzling and generally untreatable, and that point needed to be made more strongly.
S202038 Surprising Causes of Pain — Added short commentary on the ethics of sharing “high-grade hypochondriac nightmare fuel.”
M2020Reviews of Pain Professions — Another thorough proofreading, and many minor clarifications.
S2020A Rational Guide to Fibromyalgia — Good news update — Added superb news about “New Graded Exercise Warning on Current ME/CFS Guideline.
S2020Most Pain Treatments Damned With Faint Praise — An unusually large batch of typo corrections. (I don’t normally consider correcting typos to be worthy of logging an update, but in this case… sheesh.)
L2020Sensitization in Chronic Pain — Added minor new section, “A practical example of self-diagnosis of sensitization and its predictive power,” inspired by Akin-Akinyosoye et al.
S2020What Happened To My Barber? — Minor addition of a definition of beauty parlour syndrome.
L2020Shin Splints Treatment, The Complete Guide — New chapter, steroid injections.
S2020Shin Splints Treatment, The Complete Guide — Minor new sub-topic, foam rolling.
L2020Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — Major expansion, regenerative medicine — Added an introduction about regenerative medicine in general, a more bullish assessment of PRP, and some new basic notes about stem cell therapy.
M2020The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — New sub-topic — Added discussion of the (rather silly) idea that prolotherapy is a form of regenerative medicine.
L2020The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Major expansion — Added an introduction about regenerative medicine in general, a thorough discussion of autologous chondrocyte implantation, and some basic notes about stem cell therapy.
S2020The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — Minor edit — Modernized the homeopathic arnica section.
L2020The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — New chapter, regenerative medicine.
S2020Trigger Point Doubts — Updated audio version of the article to incorporate recent significant changes.
S2020When to Worry About Low Back Pain — Minor science update, added a citation to a cancer case study.
L2020The Complete Guide to Muscle Strains — New chapter, injury warning signs.
M2020Does Epsom Salt Work? — Medical update, magnesium deficiency — More and better information about the causes, symptoms, and treatments for magnesium deficiency.
S2020Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — Science update, ultrasound — Minor citation to Ainsworth on ultrasound for shoulder pain (negative, of course).
L2020Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — Major expansion, posture section — Upgraded from a brief dismissal of the topic to a full discussion, from 100 words to 1000.
L2020The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — New section, positional release — Adapted and expanded from an old chapter in my muscle pain book, with more detail and a neck pain example.
L2020The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — New section, positional release — Adapted and expanded from an old chapter in my muscle pain book, with more detail and a back pain example.
M2020The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — Science update, hip strengthening — Added a scrap of new data about hips tiring faster in ITBS patients, useful mostly as an example of inconclusive research — but we try to work with what we have.
S2020The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — Science update, pain-killers — Added citations to evidence that NSAIDs may actually impair healing.
M2020Vibration Therapies, from Massage Guns to Jacuzzis — New section, “Massage gun side effects: shooting yourself in the foot (or anywhere) with a massage gun.”
M2020Poisoned by Massage — Cited a new case study of massage-induced rhabdo, added a link to another good quality anecdote about exertional rabdo. Although a minor change, this is now quite a lot of “smoke” and I am starting to thinking that the rhabdo hypothesis isn’t so exotic anymore, so I also changed some language to express more serious concern about the potential seriousness of the situation.
S2020The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — More info, about types of doctors and therapists — Added some context about trigger point therapy as a “modality” to introduce the section.
S2020Shin Splints Treatment, The Complete Guide — Science update, impact — Cited Milgrom et al on seemingly high-impact exercises actually being not so high impact, and Barton et al on the value of running technique.
S2020Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — Minor upgrade, case study — Added some additional discussion of the implications of Tanya’s story.
M2020Trigger Point Doubts — Made a significant correction to my summary of Rathbone et al. I had not noticed an important distinction between intra- inter-rater reliability, which led to more errors in my reporting. The correction also made it possible to make the point of the section more clearly and cleanly.
L2020Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Chronic Pain — Added section, “CBT as ‘glorified toxic positivity’ or gaslighting.”
S2020Insomnia Until it Hurts — Added citation to Prather et al on the effect of sleep loss on vaccination.
L2020The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Upgraded — Substantial revision and modernization, with more attention given to skeptical concerns about icing.
L202013 Kinds of Bogus Citations — New section, “Malice and fraud versus incompetence and self-delusion.”
L2020Many Pages — Several hundred typos have been eliminated from about 70 PainScience.com articles in a major proofreading effort. The project has reached a milestone, and will continue but with diminishing returns.
L2020Does Craniosacral Therapy Work? — New section, “Can craniosacral therapy treat hydrocephalus?” Also a science update, citing Haller.
S2020A Deep Dive into Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness — Correction: new evidence suggests that the phenomenon of non-local muscle fatigue isn’t quite as well-established as I thought (see Behm).
M2020The False Humility of “Facilitating” Healing — Converted from blog post to permanent article, polished, and expanded a little. (And this is a pretty simple article, so it may never evolve beyond this.)
M2020Chronic Pain and Inequality — Added discussion of “social” versus “physical” distance.
M202038 Surprising Causes of Pain — Added a section about smoking, expanded the discussion of poor health, and added an interesting blurb about the pre-pandemic meaning of “social distancing.”
L2020The PainScience.com origin story — Substantial revision.
S2020Vulnerability to Chronic Pain — Editorial polishing.
S2020Smoking and Chronic Pain — Science update. Added a good fresh citation to Smuck et al about the link between smoking and pain.
S2020The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Science update — Added a citation to Smuck et al.
L2020The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — New section, the impact of smoking.
S2020Does Massage Increase Circulation? — Proofreading.
L2020Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — Major upgrade, steroid injections — Much more thorough exploration of the plausibility and evidence for exploiting the “WOO” that is probably created by steroid injections.
L2020Sports Injury Prevention Tips — New section: “Heed the signs! Painful ‘niggles’ are a loud-and-clear sign of an increased risk of injury.”
S2020Anxiety & Chronic Pain — A thorough proofreading.
S2020Chronic Pain as a Conditioned Behaviour — Proofreading.
S2020Vulnerability to Chronic Pain — Science updated. Added a good example from Rechardt et al.
S2020Voltaren Gel: Does It Work? — Edited for readability. Added some images.
M2020Reviews of Pain Professions — Thorough proofreading. If anyone finds any typos after this, I will be surprised. Grateful! But surprised.
S2020Chronic Pain and Inequality — Editing.
M2020When to Worry About Neck Pain … and when not to! — New section, “Is right or left neck pain significant?”
L2020Voltaren Gel: Does It Work? — Widespread minor improvements, collectively substantial. Most notably added information on mechanism of action, some more safety information, more about brands and availability.
S2020The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Science update, introduction to exercise therapy — Added more about the rationale for exercise therapy, citing Fu.
L2020How to Treat Sciatic Nerve Pain — Added more detail about pain-killers, and more and better information about the role of herniation (with upgraded citations).
L2020Tennis Elbow Guide — General editing, and a new section, “Some important general treatment principles to bear in mind.”
M2020The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Science update, medications — Cited Ashbrook 2020 on the value of naproxen. Added some additional detail about how/why to experiment with different pain-killers.
L20206 Main Causes of Morning Back Pain — New section, “Poor quality sleep and insomnia are probably major causes of morning back pain.” Also made some minor improvements to the introduction and article summary.
S2020Insomnia Until it Hurts — Added citations to Gerhart 2017 on causality, and Rohleder 2012 on the relationship between inflammation and sleep.
M2020Use the Force! The myth of healing energy in massage and bodywork — Added a section about the popularity and mainstream traction of vitalism, based on a particularly fluffy New York Times article about it.
S2020💩 Massage Therapists Say — Added one particularly juicy item (search for the New York Times quote).
L2020Reviews of Pain Professions — Added osteopathy. (Several sections were added all at once in early August when I rebooted this article. This is the first “post-reboot” addition.) Also added a reference about physiotherapy.
S2020Does Massage Therapy Work? — Added information, types of massage therapy — Compared and contrasted the practice of massage in other “manual therapy” professions like chiropractic, osteopathy, and physiotherapy.
S2020The Chiropractic Controversies — Added a little information about osteopathy and its similarities to chiropractic to the introduction.
M2020The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Science update, — No obvious changes, but I carefully reviewed and upgraded and fine-tuned some of the referencing in this section. I also added a bit about the history of prejudice against whiplash patients.
L2020Does Massage Increase Circulation? — Added new section about cerebrospinal fluid circulation and craniosacral therapy, and another one about hemodynamics and the variables that affect pushing blood through capillary beds.
M2020Does Craniosacral Therapy Work? — Added a brief but important point of logic, about CST being a “solution in search of a problem.”
M2020Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — Science update, calf tightness — Substantially improved referencing, with some small but genuinely useful and interesting implications. Best kind of science update!
S2020Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — Science update, nature of the beast — Minor but interesting extra detail about exactly how common plantar fasciitis is (spoiler alert: very common). Upgraded referencing on the topic of plantar fascia thickness.
L2020Quite a Stretch — Major update — Extensive revisions and reorganization, with too many changes to itemize. The stretching for pain and flexibility sections were both substantially revised and expanded. The athletic stretching sections — the original core of the article — were fine-tuned, and unified with the particularly important idea that stretching is not a “pillar of fitness.”
L2020Reviews of Pain Professions — Completely rebooted, truly “like new.”
M2020The Dubious Science of Kinesiology Tape — Added short new section about some silly research: “Bemused scientific post script: does the colour of the tape matter?” Spoiler: no.
L2020Vibration Therapies, from Massage Guns to Jacuzzis — �Massage guns” were strangely missing from this article, as well as any discussion of their efficacy, so I corrected that. I also substantially revised everything to make this a more general article about the theme of vibration in both medicine and quackery.
M2020Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — Upgrade — Added quite a bit of additional detail.
L2020Chronic Pain and Inequality — Added a substantial section about the “myth of feminine fragility.”
S2020The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) — Science updated: cited Fuller et al about the relationship of pain to FMS scoring. Updated the conclusion to be more clearly negative, in tune with the steadily emerging evidence that FMS cannot predict injury risk.
M2020Electromagnetic Sensitivity Absurdity — Several minor improvements. Some detail was moved to foonotes. Added more information about the role of psychology in EMS.
S2020Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — Minor addition, introduction — Expanded on the summary of symptoms just a little, emphasizing the quality and potential severity of the pain.
M2020Anxiety & Chronic Pain — Minor new section: “Get a pet, probably a dog — they are people too, and those relationships are never toxic.”
M2020Shin Splints Treatment, The Complete Guide — Major improvements, structuralism summary — Substantial editing and elaboration. The chapter is now bigger and better.
M2020Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — Science update — Discussed some interesting new data on the clinical relevance of plantar fasciitis thickness. Do thicker soles mean you’re in worse trouble? Probably not.
M2020The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Addition — Added osteochondritis dissecans to the list of other diagnoses to consider.
L2020The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — New chapter, coat hanger pain.
L2020The Complete Guide to Muscle Strains — Major upgrade — Added a bunch of new information about conventional risk factors.
M2020The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — New content — Added coat-hangar pain from orthostatic hypotension to the collection of more exotic types of cervicogenic headache.
M2020Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — Upgraded, diagnosis intro — Added more information based on a very helpful video that shows “fake” shoulder ROM achieved entirely with good shoulder girdle motion, while the shoulder joint proper remains completely stuck.
L2020Heat for Pain and Rehab — New section: “Even more localized heating + the relevance of climate and context.”
M2020The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — New section, back beliefs.
L2020The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — New chapter, slue-footed posture.
S2020The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — Science update, trigger point therapy — Cited a nail-in-coffin 2020 study of dry needling for neck pain.
S2020The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — Science update, phyical stresses — Added more detail and citations about headaches caused by physical irritation around the head, including (sigh) personal protective equipment like face masks.
S2020Vitamin D for Pain — Added a statement about vitamin D and COVID-19.
L2020Guide to Repetitive Strain Injuries — Extensive editing and modernization. Many minor improvements adding up to a large overall improvement.
S2020The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — 2020-07-09 — Added a doctor’s anecdote about treating many troublesome back mice over the years, both his own and his patients.
S2020The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Minor addition, load management — Added sex to the list of activities that can involve potentially harmful knee stresses, depending on the position and, er, endurance.
L2020Poisoned by Massage — New section and sub-topic, “PMSM: What about people who feel lousy after a gentle massage treatment?” Polished and updated the article summary. Added a short section about the evidence and the plausibility of the rhabdomyolysis hypothesis.
M2020Many Pages — Another round of page speed work: now getting absolutely top marks in various speed testing tools for most pages. Images and YouTube now load “lazily” so readers don’t have to download every picture on every page they visit — just the ones they scroll down to. (Related: YouTube videos have been stopped from using trackers. I’m also getting ready to finally ditch Google Analytics for the same reason.) The scripting that powers popups was simplified down to almost nothing. Some huuuuge lists of updates have been moved to archives for that purpose rather than bloating the pages they’re on. Fixed a bug that was preventing a couple groups of pages from being served by CloudFlare.
M2020The Complete Guide to Muscle Strains — Improvements — Science updates, updated side effect information, and just generally more detail.
S2020Vulnerability to Chronic Pain — Added and discussed one of the only examples of evidence that can, at least in principle, show a causal link between poor health and chronic pain.
L2020Chronic Pain as a Conditioned Behaviour — Added evidence that chronic pain can be a conditioned behaviour, plus some reading recommendations.
M2020Shin Splints Treatment, The Complete Guide — Science update, pronation chapter — Added some more recent citations, some more detail, and a photo.
S2020The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Minor update, quality control chapter — Added some thoughts on the theme of “What could possibly go wrong?” — inspired by a particularly bizarre example that is both disturbing and yet entirely too typical of the industry.
M2020Shin Splints Treatment, The Complete Guide — Upgraded, strength training chapter — Added more detail, especially about trigger points and minor muscle injury, with a couple new citations.
M2020The Role of “Spasm” in Frozen Shoulder — Just a little light editing.
S2020Vulnerability to Chronic Pain — Added a discussion of the evidence, such as it is. Also, extensive editing and polish.
L2020Anxiety & Chronic Pain — Extensive revisions to the self-help suggestions. This was long overdue. This article is quite old, and had some rambly weird stuff from my hippy youth, now purged. I added a couple of ideas, polished several others, organized them, and created an introduction with some broader points and a summary of all the options.
M2020The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Science update, dry needling chapter — A small science update, but a significant one: the best quality study with negative results available to date.
M2020The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Science update — Updated the discussion of inflammation with important perspective about more subtle types of inflammation in overuse injuries.
L2020The Complete Guide to Muscle Strains — Major revision, spasm section — Information about spasms and cramps is now more detailed and nuanced. Some significant modernization was needed.
L2020The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — Major science update — Updated the discussion of inflammation with an important new subsection, “The other side of the story: don’t count inflammation out quite yet,” based mainly on the fascinating research of Dakin (among others).
S2020A Deep Dive into Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness — Added an unimportant but really interesting citation about non-local muscle fatigue.
S2020Cramps, Spasms, Tremors & Twitches — Added an unimportant but really interesting citation about non-local muscle fatigue.
M2020Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — Editing and more content — Added subsection about passive ROM testing, and did some miscellaneous polishing.
M2020The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Improved — A thorough editing and cleanup, with some information added, most notably the most positive science on the topic.
M2020The Role of “Spasm” in Frozen Shoulder — Added an article summary.
L2020Does Massage Increase Circulation? — Added new section about deep vein thrombosis.
M2020Does Massage Therapy Work? — Upgraded, psychological effects of massage — Significantly expanded on the discussion of how massage might have profound psychological significance to people.
L2020Why Do Muscles Feel Stiff and Tight? — Comprehensive editing with many improvements and clarifications.
M2020Reassurance for Massage Therapists — Added article summary.
L2020Anxiety & Chronic Pain — New section, “Be cautious with marijuana: it can cause anxiety when you use it and when you stop using it.”
L2020The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — New chapter, case study.
S2020The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — Correction and editing, pacing chapter — I removed a digression because it was based on an error about the relationship between stride rate and running speed. And I did some general editing while I was here.
M2020Reassurance for Massage Therapists — Added the point that good healthcare is a process not a product/service, and that this represents a significant opportunity for massage therapists (but massage is also a great product/service).
M2020Pseudo-Quackery in Physical Therapy — Added a new short section, “Process versus product.”
M2020Shin Splints Treatment, The Complete Guide — Upgraded, hall of treatment shame — More and better information, and also probably mostly complete now. There might be some other ridiculous treatments for shin splints, but probably none that are popular enough to bother writing a paragraph about.
M2020The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — New content, orthotics chapter — A minor but nice addition of information (and a story) about heels and heel lifts.
S2020The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Minor update, rest introduction — Added a couple small but good clarifications, and an amusing bit of perspective, in my never-ending quest to effectively explain the importance of rest.
M2020The Complete Guide to Muscle Strains — Upgrade, diagnosis — Clarification what different combinations of strength and pain might mean.
S2020Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — Added info, orthotics chapter — Added basic information and a brief cautionary tale about metatarsal pads.
S2020The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Science update, — A nail-in-coffin study of needling for neck pain has been published. I may never have to update this chapter ever again. (Ha, fat chance!)
L2020The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Added case study — An interesting and credible case study about a clear case of spinal degeneration with counter-intuitive consequences.
M2020The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — New content, other causes of cervicogenic headache — Added a substantial new sub-section, “Trigger points, schmigger points: the many other kinds of muscle injury and dysfunction.”
S2020Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — Science update — Cited a more recent review and added a little bit of extra analysis.
L2020The Complete Guide to Muscle Strains — Upgraded — Major improvements and clarifications, inspired by some good scholarly debate about the classification of muscle injuries. A formal classification of some muscle injuries as “functional” is an interesting and useful way to introduce the subtopic of trigger points, and to put it in the context of a book about structural muscle injury.
M2020The Complete Guide to Muscle Strains — Science update, definition of strain — Added a good new citation about the definition/classification of strain, clarified the unclear nature of “strain,” and introduced the idea of other kinds of muscle injury.
M2020Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — Expanded, diagnosing sensitization — Added a bunch more specific information about how to recognize sensitization.
L2020Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — New chapter, sensitization — A new chapter about the role of sensitization in frozen shoulder.
M2020Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — Added detail, functional freezing chapter — Added a good story about my mother-in-law’s broken arm, which nicely illustrates a neurologically mediated ROM lockdown.
M2020Quite a Stretch — More content — Added some examples of stretching being rejected by elite athletes.
M2020Many Pages — Minor updates to several articles about how some pain killers probably impede fracture healing: see Wheatley et al.
L2020Anxiety & Chronic Pain — New section, “The special threat of health anxiety (hypochondria).”
S2020Psoas, So What? — Minor additions, mainly a startlingly extreme example of fetishization of the psoas.
S2020Vulnerability to Chronic Pain — Still more editorial polish and clarifications — nothing major, but another upgrade. I just keep revisiting the topic this week.
S2020Vulnerability to Chronic Pain — Added an article summary (which inspired a bunch of editorial improvements to the article, as it summarizing always does).
M2020Vulnerability to Chronic Pain — Another round of significant editing. I added a few clarifications, elaborations, and references.
L2020Vulnerability to Chronic Pain — Added a section, “Where’s the evidence? Does this approach work?” Plus some miscellaneous editing.
M2020Should You Get A Lube Job for Your Arthritic Knee? — Added example of fraudulent promotion of unnecessary viscosupplementation.
L2020Science versus Experience in Musculoskeletal Medicine — Expanded and polished. Added two new sections, “Science versus practice from the patient perspective,” and “Is it possible to care about both research and patients? Yes!” Added a citation about low-value medical interventions (Herrera-Perez), another about dry needling (Stieven). Added a terrific quote about eminence-based medicine from a class paper (Isaacs), and another about how to “bridge the gap between science and practice.”
M2020The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — More information, aging chapter — Discussed the prevalence of severe back pain in older patients, as a good exception-that-proves-the-rule.
M2020When to Worry About Neck Pain … and when not to! — Added information about neck pain as a symptom of COVID-19.
M2020When to Worry About Low Back Pain — Added information about back pain as a symptom of COVID-19.
M2020The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — COVID-19 update — Added information about headaches as a symptom of COVID-19.
M2020The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — COVID-19 update — Added information about headaches as a symptom of COVID-19.
M2020The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — COVID-19 update — Added information about headaches as a symptom of COVID-19.
S2020Vitamins, Minerals & Supplements for Pain & Healing — Minor science update, a couple new citations, and a new section about anti-inflammatory nutrition.
S2020The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Edited — The standard one-week-later edit, but better than usual. The purpose of the chapter wasn’t as clear as it could have been on the first try. But I think I nailed it this time — this is about why “coping” is much better than it sounds.
M2020Many Pages — I have completed a site-wide optimization of page speed — not the first time, and probably not the last. This upgrade was focused on the sheer size and complexity of my documents, which are absurdly complex for what amounts to just a lot of text. For instance, the largest article I have — Does Fascia Matter? — is an astonishing 230KB of content and markup, with more than 2000 nodes (distinct document components, e.g. paragraphs, headings, links, etc). That’s bigger than a gallery of several good quality images… in pure text! This update was all about taming some of that size and complexity, eliminating a bunch of cruft that’s accumulated over time.
L2020Sensitization in Chronic Pain — Added much more information about how to recognize/diagnose sensitization.
L2020Use the Force! The myth of healing energy in massage and bodywork — Started a collection of examples of vitalism and magical healing in pop culture. Also did a big edit and changed the title to begin making this article more of a hub for all information on PainScience.com about vitalism and other forms of energy medicine.
S2020Pseudo-Quackery in Physical Therapy — Added far infrared radiation to the list of popular pseudo-quackeries.
L2020Heat for Pain and Rehab — Added substantial section about infrared heating.
S2020Does Massage Therapy Work? — Minor addition — Added an infographic of massage benefits as a negative example of typical claims about the profession.
L2020The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — New chapter.
L2020Achilles Tendinitis Treatment Science — Important science update, largely overturning my earlier interpretation of Heinemeier et al: while healthy tendon is a very stable tissue that doesn’t get recycled, unhealthy tendon does. I had to completely rewrite that section.
L20206 Main Causes of Morning Back Pain — Comprehensive editing. Re-wrote the summary. Refined advice on treating inflammation. Explained fibromyalgia more clearly and accurately. Added more about mattresses. Improved organization, in-document navigation, and added a few sprinkles of humour.
L2020The Role of “Spasm” in Frozen Shoulder — Post-publication polishing. My first crack at this was pretty rushed and messy — apologies to early readers. It’s been cleaned up and significantly improved.
L2020“Windows of Opportunity” in Rehab — More context and detail, extensive editing, some new citations and examples — a significant overall upgrade the week after publication.
S2020Does barefoot running prevent injuries? — A couple science updates and a little editing. I haven’t dipped into this topic in quite a while!
M2020Vibration Therapies, from Massage Guns to Jacuzzis — Added a couple citations; some editing and clarifications.
L2020The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Rewrite, other theories chapter — A substantial upgzrade. This chapter had become embarrassingly basic, falling behind my personal knowledge. It now has more summaries of competing hypotheses about the nature of trigger points, one particularly important new one, and a big and entertaining list of examples of bad ones. More improvements and refinements soon, but this is a good start.
M2020How to Simplify Chronic Pain Puzzles — Added an important clarification, distinguishing between “simpler” and “fewer assumptions.”
M2020The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — More information, prognosis — Expanded the description in the spirit of helping people understand “what to expect,” what are the limits, with some new examples.
M2020Anxiety & Chronic Pain — Science update, added a paragraph about the evidence of the protective and therapeutic effects of exercise, supported by several new citations.
S2020The Complete Guide to Muscle Strains — Science update — Added a citation about the safety of BFR training (it’s not entirely safe, turns out).
L2020Does Fascia Matter? — New section, etymology of fascia — This is not an important addition to the article, but it does add a lot of colour, and was a delight to write about an extremely rare convergence of three major but extremely different interests: language, musculoskeletal medicine, and ancient Rome.
L2020Pain is Weird — New section, clinical paralysis caused by “pain science” — About whether “Pain Science” is “paralyzing” clinicians (spoiler alert: not any good ones).
M2020Alternative Medicine’s Choice — Added a section about the legal hazards of anti-quackery activism.
M2020A Deep Dive into Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness — Added more information and references about protein supplementation, especially the branched-chain amino acids.
M2020Quite a Stretch — More information — Added detail about the practical importance of flexibility. Or lack thereof. Weirdly, this update was harvested from a decade-old Facebook comment.
M2020Achilles Tendinitis Treatment Science — Added short but important section warning readers about fluoroquinolone toxicity.
M2020Chronic, Subtle, Systemic Inflammation — Upgrades, fasting — Miscellaneous minor improvements.
L2020The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — Upgraded, over-the-counter pain killers — More detail, more references, and more advice.
M2020Opioids for Chronic Aches & Pains — Miscellaneous editing and improvements. Nost notable: a new footnote about mechanism, and a new sub-section about weak versus strong opioids.
L2020The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — New chapter, medication-overuse headaches.
M2020Chronic, Subtle, Systemic Inflammation — New section — Added a new section on the alleged anti-inflammatory effects of intermittent fasting. Bottom line: plausible but far from proven, safe and cheap to experiment with.
S2020The Complete Guide to Muscle Strains — Science update — Added some information about the potential harms of platelet-rich plasma injection.
L2020Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — New chapter, opioids.
S2020Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — More content, hall of treatment shame — Added magnesium supplementation.
M2020Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — More detail, strengthening section — Added a general intro to therapeutic strength training and some commentary on intrinsic foot muscle strengthening and “corrective” exercise.
L2020Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — New chapter, prolotherapy.
M2020Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — Improvements — Added some significant improvements while reviewing a couple weeks after first publishing the chapter, most notably a good summary of recent icing controversies.
S2020Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — Updated — Added some basic information about intermittent fasting.
S2020A Rational Guide to Fibromyalgia — Clarification — Added still more emphasis to the distinction between an explanatory diagnosis and a descriptive one, including a good example of this common point of confusion.
S2020Strength Training for Pain & Injury Rehab — Added a citation about anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of resistance training.
M2020The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Addition, back mice chapter — Added a fun pet theory and personal anecdote about the clinical relevance of lipomas.
M2020The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Expanded, specific back pain chapter — Some final elaborations and editing. This topic is now more or less completely addressed, I think.
S2020Quite a Stretch — Science update — Added an important example, stretching the hamstrings for back pain, with a few relevant references.
S2020The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Polishing, hamstring stretching chapter — Miscellaneous editing and improvements.
S2020Vulnerability to Chronic Pain — Added some quotes and context from Sapolsky on the stresses of combatting loneliness, and the intractability of severe stresses.
S2020Does Cartilage Regeneration Work? — Added a footnote to clarify the source of claims about autologous chondrocyte implantation side effects.
S2020Does Platelet-Rich Plasma Injection Work? — Added references to a pair of recent meta-analyses… plus a sidebar about the problems with meta-analysis. 😜
L2020Strength Training for Pain & Injury Rehab — Another batch of miscellaneous improvements.
M2020Shin Splints Treatment, The Complete Guide — Expanded, strength training — Added sub-topic: “More ways to go wrong getting strong (especially with shin pain)”
L2020Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — New section, icing and heating.
L2020Strength Training for Pain & Injury Rehab — Lots of general editing and modernizing, plus a bunch of new stuff about the “corrective exercise trap,” and idea that was represented here before, but too haphazardly. It’s now much more focused and relevant.
M2020Shin Splints Treatment, The Complete Guide — Science update, hip strength — Expanded on the sub-topic of hip strength, based on three new studies.
S2020The Pressure Question in Massage Therapy — Added reference to a case study of severe injury from deep abdominal massage.
M2020Massage Therapy Side Effects — Added a significant case study of severe injury to the colon from strong abdominal massage, and a story of a woman who was badly injured falling off her massage table. Also edited the intro to make it clear that the severe injuries we can read about are probably outnumbered by unreported/milder ones.
S2020Psoas, So What? — Added reference to a case study of severe injury from deep abdominal massage.
S2020A Rational Guide to Fibromyalgia — Science update — Added brief discussion of (and a reference for) the prevalence of fibromyalgia before multiple sclerosis diagnosis.
M2020Does Massage Therapy Work? — Expanded — Added a case report about severe injury from abdominal injury, and pointed out the likelihood that less severe injuries are probably much more commona and rarely understood or reported.
L2020Quite a Stretch — New section, stretching for injury rehab.
S2020The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — New sub-topic, oral corticosteroids — Compared and contrasted oral and injected corticosteroids.
M2020The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — New sub-topic, oral corticosteroids — Compared and contrasted oral and injected corticosteroids; added some colour/context about anabolic steroids.
M2020The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — New sub-topic, oral corticosteroids — Compared and contrasted oral and injected corticosteroids; added some colour/context about anabolic steroids.
S2020Sensitization in Chronic Pain — Added some useful explanations and definitions of some gnarly jargon, things like “allodynia” and “temporal summation” … which sounds stranger than they are.
S2020Statistical Significance Abuse — Updated the American Statistical Association’s new position on completely avoiding the use of “statistically significant.”
M2020Does Platelet-Rich Plasma Injection Work? — Science update. Added a couple new references and did a little organizing and editing while I was at it. PRP for muscle strain is now clearly a big fat nothing burger. I suspect other indications will follow suit as the evidence quality continues to accumulate.
L2020The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — New chapter, a case study about chronic hip pain decisively resolved by unusually intense massage.
S2020The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Added sub-topic, soft knee bracing — Expanded the scope of the section to include soft bracing as well as taping and strapping.
S2020The Complete Guide to Muscle Strains — Science update — Just added a couple references.
M2020The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — New chapter, skiing considerations.
S2020The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — Added sub-topic, hard and soft knee bracing — Expanded the scope of the section to include soft and hard bracing as well as taping and strapping.
L2020The Complete Guide to Muscle Strains — New chapter, diagnostic ultrasound.
L2020The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — New chapter, about the role of alcohol — Alcohol has come up in a variety of ways. There’s a need to reconcile them.
M2020Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — New sub-topic, oral corticosteroids — Compared and contrasted oral and injected corticosteroids; added some colour/context about anabolic steroids.
S2020Ugly Bags of Mostly Water — Added a substantive footnote about the cost of the chemical ingredients of a human.
L2020Does Epsom Salt Work? — Audio version reboot — The audio version of this article has been re-recorded from scratch, including dozens of updates over the last couple years. I’ve also changed the way I produce audio versions so that I can easily updated individual chapters in the future. The audio is available on request to visually impaired readers, and as a perk for all eboxed set customers.
S2019Many Pages — One of the largest ever batches of minor corrections: dozens of typos and other little glitches scattered all over the domain. Nothing all that important on its own, of course, but it definitely makes a difference collectively. My thanks to the many readers who reported errors in 2019!
M2019A Rational Guide to Fibromyalgia — Comprehensive edit — All kinds of little corrections and improvements, collectively significant.
S2019Chronic, Subtle, Systemic Inflammation — Acknowledged controversy — Added disclaimer and acknowledgement of reader concerns about the topic of leaky gut syndrome as a cause of systemic inflammation.
S2019Use the Force! The myth of healing energy in massage and bodywork — Added a terrific quote from a former energy worker.
S2019Do You Believe in Qi? — Added a terrific quote from a former energy worker.
L2019The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — Major upgrade, Botox chapter — More detail, editorial colour, and references.
S2019You Might Just Be Weird — Added nerve root compression symptom pattern variability, which has an at least partly anatomical basis.
L2019Shin Splints Treatment, The Complete Guide — Major upgrade, strength training — Completely rewritten and greatly expanded. Previously this chapter was just a brief dismissal of the value of corrective strength training for shin splints — which wasn’t wrong in itself, but it was inadequate, and in particular it neglected the genuinely valuable role that strength training can play in rehab, even if it can’t “fix” anything.
L2019Chronic, Subtle, Systemic Inflammation — Improvements, vagus stimulation — Just more detail.
M2019The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Science update — Added several interesting details about nerve root compression symptom pattern variability, with references.
M2019The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Science update — Added several interesting details about nerve root compression symptom pattern variability, with references.
S2019Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — Minor editing — Minor editing here and there all over the book… but also organizing, planning, and paving the way for more updates. My work here is never done.
L2019The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — Major upgrade, hip and thigh pain section — Much clearer and more thorough integration of greater trochanteric pain syndrome.
L2019The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — Book launch — The headache guide has been free since I first introduced it in the early 2013. Six years and hundreds of hours of development later, it joins my inventory of full-blown books. It’s the second addition in 2019 (after frozen shoulder this summer), after years without any new ones. It is now for sale for $20 USD. All existing boxed set customers will have access automatically — someone who bought a set in 2009 is getting a new book out of that purchase a decade later.
L2019The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — New chapter, all about treating jaw issues.
S2019The Trouble with Chairs — Science update, added citation to Akins et al on the effect of mutiple days of laziness on exercise benefits (hint: it’s not good).
L2019The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — New chapter, the role of the jaw in headache.
L2019The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — New section, Muscle relaxants (Robaxin, Robaxacet, etc), psychoactives, and sedatives — Previously coverage of muscle relaxants was limited to a small section of the medications chapter. This new chapter provides about 10x more information.
L2019The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — New section, Muscle relaxants (Robaxin, Robaxacet, etc), psychoactives, and sedatives — Previously coverage of muscle relaxants was limited to a small section of another chapter. This new chapter provides about 10x more information and is a complete reboot of the topic in this book.
L2019The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — New section, cannabinoids (finally)
L2019The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — New chapter, Muscle relaxants (Robaxin, Robaxacet, etc), psychoactives, and sedatives.
L2019The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — New section, cannabinoids (finally)
L2019The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — New chapter, cannabinoids (finally)
L2019Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — New section, cannabinoids (finally)
S2019Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — Minor improvement, functional freezing chapter — Minor but interesting: a couple new paragraphs about joint stiffness as a non-specific protective mechanism that may be analogous to functional freezing of the shoulder.
L2019Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — Major update, muscle relaxants — Added a lot more detail, especially about psychoactive “muscle relaxants,” and many new references.
M2019Healer Syndrome — Added a substantial discussion of the silly idea that a healer isn’t actually doing the heavy lifting, but is merely facilitating self-healing.
S2019The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — Added colour — Added a minor but very amusing anecdote about a bizarre cause of headaches.
L2019Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — New chapter, Muscle relaxants (Robaxin, Robaxacet, etc), psychoactives, and sedatives.
L2019The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — New chapter, a case study that blurs the line between tension headache and migraine.
M2019Organ Health Does Not Depend on Spinal Nerves! — Science update — Discussed acute effects of SMT on the parasympathetic nervous system, and cited Picchiottino et al on the lack of clinically significant effects.
M2019The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Expanded, other causes of chronic widespread pain — Added two more sub-topics: psychological amplification and true psychosomatic pain.
M2019The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Expanded, other causes of regional pain — Added three sub-topics: specific pain system dysfunction, spatial summation, and claudication.
M2019The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — Science update, subluxation chapter — Added references to support “arthritis isn’t wear-and-tear.” Substantial additional editing and clarifications throughout the chapter.
L2019The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Expansion — Previously this chapter was just about massage in general and foam rolling in particular. I’ve widened the scope to address the underlying assumption that there’s a need to “loosen” the quads, and now cover both stretch and massage.
L2019Get in the Pool for Pain — New section, “Deeper mysteries,” about hard-to-explain effects of immersion on severe chronic pain and fatigue.
L2019Does Fascia Matter? — New section, a case study of Frank the “adhesion machine”
L2019The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — Major upgrade — Much more detailed discussion of spinal manipulative therapy.
S2019Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — Science update — Upgraded the rationale and referencing for icing in the absence of acute inflammation.
L2019Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — Major science update — Updated the discussion of inflammation with an important new subsection, “The other side of the story: don’t count inflammation out quite yet,” based mainly on the fascinating research of Dakin (among others).
M2019The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Significant revision — To be candid, my comparisons of neck and back pain seemed a little boring and not all that helpful when I reviewed them recently, so I put in some work to make the chapter more useful and interesting.
S2019The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — Minor maintenance — Updated about a dozen broken links.
L2019Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — New chapter, about coarse tissue vibration.
L2019The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — New section, more exotic cervicogenic headaches.
S2019Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — Science update, nature of the beast — Added an interesting reference about a link between carpal tunnel syndrome and heart diease, for context and comparison.
S2019The Tyranny of Yoga and Meditation — The first update to this article in more than three years is minor but hilarious: snarking about the corporate yoga prescription thing.
L2019Anxiety & Chronic Pain — New section, “Maximize outlets for frustration.”
M2019The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Science update — This is probably the final update about antibiotics for back pain. It’s looking pretty closed. Famous last words? We’ll see.
S2019Strength Training for Pain & Injury Rehab — Minor but nice addition of a “good news” reference about the permanence of a key exercise benefit.
S2019Strength Training Frequency — Minor but nice addition of a good-news reference about the permanence of a key change in trained muscle.
S2019Organ Health Does Not Depend on Spinal Nerves! — Added a small section responding to the criticism that this article is attacking a straw man, a belief that modern chiropractors don’t really have. (They really do, actually. In substantial numbers.)
S2019The Chiropractic Controversies — Added a couple sources regarding the prevalence and persistence of subluxation-based chiropractic, most notably Mirtz et al.
M2019The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — Expanded — Added digital motion X-ray, homeopathy, supplements, electroacupuncture, and Epsom salts baths to the hall of treatment shame, making it more or less complete for now.
S2019The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Minor addition — Adding a little information about inversion tables for neck traction.
L2019The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — New section, hall of treatment shame.
L2019The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — New chapter, aquatic therapy.
M2019The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — Science update — Added a really huge footnote providing patient and physician guidance on the topic of diagnostic nerve blocks, with several references.
M2019The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — New intro, etiology — Added a substantive intro the nature-of-the-beast chapters of the tutorial.
M2019Are Orthotics Worth It? — Added good quality reference, Munteanu et al, a very negative trial of custom orthoses for Achilles tendinitis.
L2019Achilles Tendinitis Treatment Science — New section, “Orthotics for Achilles tendinitis,” based mainly only Munteanu et al.
L2019The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — New chapter, red wine and other triggers (not just for migraines)
L2019The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Major revision, hamstring stretching chapter — Although the bottom line remains essentially the same, this chapter is now much higher quality in every way. More information, clearer, and fully up-to-date scientifically.
M2019Use the Force! The myth of healing energy in massage and bodywork — Added a sidebar about all the other major vitalistic therapies. Although primarily about “therapeutic touch,” I am gradually turning this article into a more general one about energy medicine.
L2019The Complete Guide to Muscle Strains — New section, about pathological vulnerability to strains.
S2019Don’t Worry About Lifting Technique — Science update: cited and discussed Steffens et al on back pain risk factors related to lifting.
M2019The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — Added more, secondary headaches chapter — Covered CSF leaks, or “upright headache.”
L2019The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Rewritten, “meltdown” cases — Completely rewritten to reflect the many things I have learned about severe chornic widespread pain over the last several years. Exploring the concept of chronic-acute pain is probably the most meaningful addition.
M2019The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — Added more, secondary headaches chapter — Covered aneurysms that masquerade as tension headaches, and important safety-first update.
S2019Does Epsom Salt Work? — Science update, magnesium as a pain killer — Cited a more recent review of the science on this topic, Peng. Still negative. Did some related editing.
L2019The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — New chapter, “Headache, neck pain, and ‘cricks’”
L2019The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — More information, headache triggers — Added more detail, with an actual citation about ponytail headaches (and the implications), and much more thorough coverage of computer display position.
M2019Does Posture Matter? — Science update, risks of poor posture — Added some badly needed substantiation of my story that awkward postures can sometimes directly trigger episodes of body pain.
L2019Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — Expanded, bogus treatments list — Added Reiki and magnet therapy, plus a bunch of other minor improvements.
M2019Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — Expanded, massage therapy chapter — Added discussion of general health benefits of massage therapy.
L2019Quite a Stretch — New section, stretching dosage — Some new content, and some old content transplanted from other sections. There’s certainly more to do on dosage, but I think it’s a solid summary so far.
L2019The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Rewritten again, sleep posture etc — This chapter was rewritten along with the chapter on causes of morning back pain, and is about double its previous size.
L2019The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Rewritten again, morning back pain chapter — This chapter is vastly expanded. In fact, it is now one of the largest chapters in any of my books.
L201938 Surprising Causes of Pain — Added new section: “All in your head: pure psychosomatic pain.”
S2019Cramps, Spasms, Tremors & Twitches — Added the interesting example of vaginismus and pelvic floor spasm to the list of spasm types.
S2019Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — Addition, differential diagnosis — Added facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy, a particularly good example of a condition that causes diagnostic confusion in the shoulder.
S2019Does Posture Matter? — Editing — Many minor improvements throughout the article.
L2019The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — New section, post-surgical lateral knee pain.
M2019Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — Upgrade, strengthening section — In response to a reader inquiry, I discussed eccentric training, the Alfredson protocol, and the difference between heel drops and heel raises.
M2019Anxiety & Chronic Pain — Added quite a bit of recommended reading.
S2019The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — Science update, headache and trigger points (muscle knots) — Added a citation to build the case that headaches are linked to muscle soreness.
S2019The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — Clarifications, intro the nature of tension headaches — Revised for clarity, added a reference.
M2019Does Epsom Salt Work? — Upgraded, the logical limits of any one pain treatment — Just more and clearer information.
L2019Achilles Tendinitis Treatment Science — Much more detailed information, and more science, about heel drops and the Alfredson protocol.
L2019Use the Force! The myth of healing energy in massage and bodywork — New section, “Matter/energy equivalence and quantum rationalizations.”
M201938 Surprising Causes of Pain — Added minor-but-nice perspective about the “official” major categories of causes of pain. Pie chart included.
L2019Progressive Training — New section (first update here in ages): “You can recover from practically anything with baby steps… but not everything.”
L2019The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — New section, sacroiliac joint dysfunction.
S2019Popular but Weird & Dangerous Cures — Added drinking bleach, inspired by the FDA’s bizarre warning about it.
S2019The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Science update — Added minor but very interesting new citation about the cause of chronic Lyme disease (see Jutras)
L2019The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Major revisions underway — This medical factors part of the book is being revised. It was originally written by a physician collaborator, and I am now taking over, modernizing it until I’m happy to put my own name to it.
S2019The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — Minor improvement — Added more detailed explanation of testing popliteal tendon.
M2019Voltaren Gel: Does It Work? — Added small new section: “Remember, exercise is also an anti-inflammatory medication.”
L2019Guide to Repetitive Strain Injuries — Added new section: “Exercise is also an anti-inflammatory medication.”
L2019Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — Book launch — The frozen shoulder guide has been free since I first introduced it in the summer of 2016. Two years and hundreds of hours of development later, I am putting it behind the paywall, the first addition to my inventory of ebooks in many years. It is for sale for $20 USD. All existing boxed set customers will get access automatically — someone who bought a set in 2009 is getting a new book out of that purchase a decade later.
L201913 Kinds of Bogus Citations — New section, “Who cites so badly? Dramatis personae.” The bullshitter, the lightweight, and the bad scientist.
L2019The Art of Rest — Added new section, “Is there any science about how well resting works, or the best way to do it?”
S2019Get in the Pool for Pain — Some editing and minor corrections.
L2019Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — Expanded — Added a fascinating cautionary tale of surgery gone wrong.
L2019Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — New section, testing for functional limitations.
M2019Many Pages — Added distinctive styling of on-page links: they are now a nice sage green, like this (links to the top of the page). PainScience.com has a lot of huge articles with dozens or even hundreds of links to sections/chapters. Those links have always looked identical to links to other websites, but they are quite different, they should look different, and now they do!
L2019Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — Expanded, surgery chapter — Added much more information about general issues with orthopedic surgeries. Reviewed a popular but terrible surgery — blocking ankle pronation with a screw in the joint! Yikes.
S2019Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — Minor addition — Added a sub-section about tarsal tunnel syndrome.
M2019The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Minor addition, resting pitfalls — Added a brief discussion of an important principle: exercise is a pain-killer! Sometimes.
L2019The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — New section, evidence for resting
S2019The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Science update, yoga — A minor science update, long overdue. No change to the bottom line, just more evidence that yoga isn’t exactly curing most people’s back pain.
L2019Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — New section, aquatic therapy, flotation, Epsom salts.
L2019Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — New section, about windows of opportunity.
S2019Chronic, Subtle, Systemic Inflammation — Added detail, inflammation and stress — Added a couple of particularly interesting (but minor) points about the effect of stress on immunity.
M2019The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Edited, the unpredictability of TrP symptoms — Thoroughly edited, and added a disclaimer about “special pleading.”
M2019Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — Expansion — Added a detailed overview of all the treatment options reviewed in this tutorial.
L2019Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — New section, Tiger Balm, A535, and friends.
L201938 Surprising Causes of Pain — Added new section about chronic immune activation after infection.
L2019Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — New section, reviewing all the most bogus treatments for frozen shoulder.
M2019The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — Added more, secondary headaches chapter — Added jaw pain and eye strain, and also (more significantly) recruited both topics into later chapters in service of other points.
L2019Achilles Tendinitis Treatment Science — Added section, “Surgical repair of tendon rupture,” and some more specific information about early mobilizations.
M2019The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Optimized — A rewrite inspired by recent work on a dedicated article about vulnerability to chronic pain. This chapter is now both shorter and yet actually broader in scope.
S2019The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Science update — Added a citation to Mäntyselkä about the relationship between neck pain and being out of shape.
S2019Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — Clarification — Made it clear that frozen shoulder is a particularly strong example of an important phenomenon, the importance of non-specific risk factors in chronic pain.
L2019The Role of Eccentric Contractions in Rehab — New section, a brief summary of “Eccentric contractions as a treatment for muscle strain.”
S2019The Complete Guide to Muscle Strains — Editing, muscle flossing chapter — Polish, some more details, and better integration into the book.
S2019The Complete Guide to Muscle Strains — Editing, strength chapter — Polish, some more details, and better integration into the book.
M2019Why So “Negative”? — Added four more tips for diplomatic critical analysis.
L201938 Surprising Causes of Pain — Two new sections about mitochondrial disease and neuroinflammation, plus a bunch of editing to integrate those topics with some of the others. Also changed the introduction to emphasize that chronic pain is seriously multifactorial, some critical context previously neglected.
L2019Pain & Injury Survival Tips — New section, vulnerability.
S2019Does Fascia Matter? — General edit — Corrected a large batch typos and other minor errors generously compiled by reader M.M.
L2019The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Major revision, prolotherapy — Thorough science update and much more detail. Prolotherapy has gotten a bit of a revival in the last few years, and it’s persistence in the marketplace justifies more detailed coverage of the topic. Unfortunately, the bottom line hasn’t budged: still not recommended for back pain.
S2019Does Platelet-Rich Plasma Injection Work? — General editing and minor updates. Spelled out the relationship to other cell and stem cell therapies much more clearly than before.
L2019Does Cartilage Regeneration Work? — New section, “Relationship to other cell and stem cell therapies.”
L2019Salamander and Regeneration Science — New section, “Cells as medicine: the use of regenerative medicine for injuries and chronic pain.”
M2019Does Craniosacral Therapy Work? — General editing from top to bottom.
S2019Anxiety & Chronic Pain — Added another pathological cause of anxiety: high somatic awareness caused by hyposerotonemia (see Khoury et al).
L2019The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Improved, introduction to basic trigger point therapy — Extensive editing and improvements throughout all the basic treatment sections. I added many key points and tips while staying within the scope of “basic” (a tricky balance), mining years of writing on this topic for a wide variety of refinements and carefully boiling them down to their essentials. Several ideas I consider obsolete were also removed. The Quick Reference Guide was also updated to match.
L2019A Rational Guide to Fibromyalgia — New section.
M2019A Rational Guide to Fibromyalgia — Re-written — Although I have always liked describing fibromyalgia as a “medical UFO,” I was never really happy with my explanation of that analogy. Today I re-wrote it, clearer and briefer, and I think I finally got it right.
L201938 Surprising Causes of Pain — Added a section about a newly identified common genetic defect linked to exaggerated awareness all kinds of sensation. Really fascinating.
L2019The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — Huge expansion, trigger point therapy — Before the update: just a few paragraphs about massage for headache. After: a 2000-word whirlwind tour of the world of trigger point therapy, spelling out the relevance to headache in detail and plenty of specific advice.
L2019Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — New chapter, trigger point therapy — Before the update: just a couple of paragraphs about self-massage of trigger points. After: now there’s a concise but complete 2000-word whirlwind tour of the world of trigger point therapy, spelling out the relevance to frozen shoulder and plenty of specific advice for frozen shoulder patients.
M2019Many Pages — Hundreds of old URLs for bibliographic references have now been updated.
L2019Quite a Stretch — New section, on stretching, inflammation, and aging.
M2019How to Treat Sciatic Nerve Pain — Added discussion of cluneal nerve entrapment and trochanter pain syndrome to the diagnosis section.
L2019A Rational Guide to Fibromyalgia — New section.
M2019The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Upgraded — Added more detail about greater trochanteric pain syndrome, making the section a little more useful to many readers.
S2019The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — Science update, spinal manipulation chapter — An “update” with an old citation, but a good one.
M2019The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — Expanded — A deeper exploration of cervicogenic headache has begun, based mainly on Bogduk. I added a nice case study, more detail to both the arguments for and against, and a nomenclature note.
M201938 Surprising Causes of Pain — Added section about benzodiazepene (tranquilizer) withdrawal.
M2019Chronic, Subtle, Systemic Inflammation — New section.
M2019Cramps, Spasms, Tremors & Twitches — Added a little more detail about cramps.
M201938 Surprising Causes of Pain — Added section about social isolation and loneliness, the first of a series that I will be adding about non-specific vulnerabilities to illness and chronic pain.
L2019The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — Rewritten, definition of tension headache — Completely revised the introduction to the definition of a tension headache. I now discuss the two main interpretations of this very vague term. Another major goal was to change the scope of the article, so that it will include cervicogenic headache in the future. While it will never be a guide to all kinds of headache, it’s clear that “tension headache” alone was too limiting. What I’m really interested in is helping readers troubleshoot any non-migraine, non-ominous headache… which covers a lot more ground than just “tension” headaches.
L2019Muscle Pain as an Injury Complication — Thoroughly edited and modernized.
M2019Sensitization in Chronic Pain — Added brief but important coverage of stress-induced visceral sensitization.
L2019Tennis Elbow Guide — New section: “Medications for tennis elbow.”
M2019The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Revised, chapter about TrPs as a complication of injury — Significantly expanded and modernized (for the first time since it was originally written, I think).
L2019Your Back Is Not Out of Alignment — Audio version reboot — I just re-did the audio version of this article, including dozens of updates in recent years. I’ve also changed the way I produce audio versions so that I can easily updated individual chapters in the future. The audio is available on request to visually impaired readers, and as a perk for all eboxed set customers.
M2019Does Epsom Salt Work? — More detail — Added more information about magnesium supplementation as it relates to muscle cramping.
M2019Anxiety & Chronic Pain — Added information and citations about anxiety as a risk factor for injury. Finally cleaned up and modernized my muddled thoughts on the hiding of anxiety and its physical and biological signs.
M2019The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Rewritten, morning symptoms chapter — Heavily revised to basically be an abdridged version of the article 6 Main Causes of Morning Back Pain, focusing on trigger points. This section had been aging poorly, full of unsubstantiated speculation and dubious premises. It’s on firmer footing now.
S2019The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Science update, muscle pain chapter — Updated references related to the relationship between trigger points and headache.
M2019Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — New sub-topic — Fascinating addition to the tutorial: “Shoulder injury related to vaccine administration.”
S2019Achilles Tendinitis Treatment Science — Science update: added some fresh evidence about the efficacy of standard rehab methods (not bad, not great either).
L2019The Complete Guide to Muscle Strains — Major enhancement, strength training section — Added an extremely useful evidence-based strength training recommendation. This is as good as any update gets!
M2019Shin Splints Treatment, The Complete Guide — Expanded, differential diagnosis section — Added radiculopathy, tendinopathy, and more detail about specific peripheral neuropathies.
L2019The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — New section, all about joint noise.
L2019The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — New section, all about joint noise.
S2019Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — Upgrade, strengthening section — A small but good thing: embedded a high quality demo video for the specialized heel raise I recommend.
M2019The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Updated — Added some good expert quotes and optimistic perspective on pain education from Moseley.
L2019Achilles Tendinitis Treatment Science — Added section about regenerative medicine.
L2019Achilles Tendinitis Treatment Science — Added section about eccentric exercise. Improved layout of embedded video of heel raises. Lots of editing. Added caveats about pain-killers.
M2019Does Massage Increase Circulation? — Added a new citation (Munk) that reduces my confidence in the available scientific evidence on this topic: it may be closer to “inadequate” than “negative.” My conclusions have been softened accordingly.
L2019Does Massage Increase Circulation? — Added a section about ischemic pressure: highly localized “flushing” of tissues. Elaborated on the plausibility of scalene hypertrophy. Added an aside about levels of confidence in myth-busting.
S2019The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Editing — Some clarifications about the mechanism of “flushing” and whether uncomfortable massage intensity can be justified for that reason.
M2019The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Edited, ischemic pressure technique — Clarified, modernized, and expanded a little bit, especially integrating new information about the effect of massage of tissue fluids and circulation.
L2019Does Massage Increase Circulation? — Added a section thoroughly reporting on Franklin et al, which challenges my skeptical bias. Also added a fun quote.
L2019Does Massage Increase Circulation? — Added citation about the effect of relaxation on circulation. Made it clearer that this is not an anti-massage article. Added tourniquet example to help explain circulation “increase.” Added a new section, “The CPR thought experiment.” Fixed several typos.
M2019Does Craniosacral Therapy Work? — Short new section comparing and contrasting beliefs about increase circulation of cerebrospinal fluid versus blood.
M2019The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Science update — A particularly disappointing, predictable update on 2010’s overhyped news about methylene blue.
M2019The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Science update — A particularly disappointing, predictable update on 2010’s overhyped news about methylene blue.
M2019Massage Therapy for Tennis Elbow and Wrist Pain — Editing and modernization with miscellaneous science updates (e.g. regarding inflammation and tendinitis), and taming the claims about trigger points (excessive enthusiasm dating back to the 2000s still being dialed back).
L2019Chronic, Subtle, Systemic Inflammation — New section, leaky gut syndrome.
L2019The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Rewritten — Totally revised and tripled in length, this chapter is “like new.” I also moved it to the diagnosis section of the book to give it greater importance.
M2019Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — More detail, strengthening chapter — Added discussion of one vs two-footed raises and a more detailed progression example.
M2019Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — More information, cast boot chapter — Added discussion of actual plaster casts, comparing and contrasting with cast boots.
M2019The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Expanded — Miscellaneous improvements, and I added discussion of the “space making” surgeries (e.g. posterior cervical laminoforaminotomy).
M2019The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Upgrade, on the erratic quality of chronic low back pain — Modernized the trigger point content and added several paragraphs about sensitization as well.
L2019A Deep Dive into Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness — New section about vibration.
M2019Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — Expanded — Imaging is now discussed in its own small section, and I beefed it up with information about the role of diagnostic ultrasound.
M2019Sensitization in Chronic Pain — Added the term “amplified pain,” discussed and briefly reviewed the notorious Invisibilia episode about it, and added an explanation that exposure therapy can be conservative or aggressive.
M2019The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Edited, differential diagnosis — A thorough editing, especially to the information about frozen shoulder, part of an ongoing effort to upgrade differential diagnosis information in the book.
M2019Strength Training Frequency — Added article abstract. And I also actually removed some content from the article: legacy stuff I simply felt was no longer necessary to make the point effectively. So it’s a bit shorter and sweeter now.
S2019Guide to Repetitive Strain Injuries — Added fascinating reference about the lack of turnover in tendon tissue (Heinemeier).
L2019Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — New chapter, Women and plantar fasciitis: the possible role of estrogen.
M2019The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Minor upgrade — Added some information about the craving for stretch, its implications, and the problem with trying to stretch the suboccipitals.
S2019The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Science update — Pure reinforcement: cited Artus 2010 and Artus 2014, backing up Machado.
S201938 Surprising Causes of Pain — Added a listed other possibilities that I’m considering for future updates. I think the list itself has value, even without elaboration.
L2019Knee Replacement Surgery Doubts — New section: “Is pain after surgery a complication or a normal side effect?”
M2019The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Edited, trigger point palpation — Thoroughly edited for clarity. Stronger focus on the many ways palpation can go wrong.
L2019The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — Edited and expanded, resting chapter — Added a new basic concept to the introduction, added discussion and recommendations about total rest, and clarified several other points.
M2019The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — Addition — Added discussion of MSG.
M2019Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — Science update — Added information and citations on the condition of the joint in severe cases, and the link to Dupuytren’s contracture.
M2019Quite a Stretch — Science update — Added five citations showing that stretching can increase flexibility.
M2019The 3 Basic Types of Pain — Added clearer acknowledgement of the odious term “functional pain,” and adopted a new preferred term for that tricky “other” category of pain: primary pain, as proposed by Schechter. Hat tip to Rachel Z. for inspiring this line of thinking.
L2019The Unstretchables — Two new sections: “Citation needed?” and “Some other examples of unstretchables, or only partially stretchables.” Also implemented a huge improvement to readability on small screens. Feel more welcome, smartphone readers!
L2019Shin Splints Treatment, The Complete Guide — Big new chapter, about the role of fascia in compartment syndrome.
S2019The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — New section, minor new sub-topic: Is it possible to exercise to recovery while still in some pain?
M2019The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Edited, worst-case scenarios with pushing through the pain — Just cleaned it up, clarified, made it less about runners exclusively.
S2019Stuck in My Throat — Clarified gargling self-treatment tip and added another: gentle strength training for the neck/throat.
M2019Massage Does Not Reduce Inflammation — Described another methodological concern, and cited some newer exercise soreness science that casts even more doubt on the idea that massage reduces inflammation.
S2019Insomnia Until it Hurts — Added citation to Krause, a brain study of sleep deprivation and pain, adding to the mountain of evidence that losing sleep is directly painful.
M2019Your Back Is Not Out of Alignment — Update/correction — Meniscal fraying is no longer a good example of a clearly structural problem with a clear structural solution, not that we know that so much mensical repair surgery is ineffective. Corrected and clarified.
M2019The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Revision, adhesions — A substantial editing of this topic for the first time in years, eliminating a fair bit of quaint naivete and credulity from the good ol’ days when I still didn’t know just how deep these waters run.
S2019Trigger Points on Trial — Added citation to another rebuttal to Quintner et al: see Critique of Quintner et al. 2015.
L2019The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — New section, about reassuring explanations for why neck pain is so common.
L2019The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — New section, about the pros and cons of getting an MRI.
M2019The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — Elaborated — Added much more information about stress reduction and breathing exercises.
L2019The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — Major improvements — Re-organized and chapterized treatment recommendations and reviews, added more of an introduction. Many small additions.
S2019Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — Addition, differential diagnosis section — Added Baxter’s neuritis, the carpal tunnel syndrome of the foot.
L2019Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — New section, about Baxter’s neuritis.
L2019Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — New section, about cases caused by infection after surgery.
M2019The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Science update, risk of hurting nerve — Extended the discussion of vulnerability to include “sensitization.”
M2019The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Editing, overdiagnosis of nerve pain — This chapter now plays nicer with related sub-topics, and I’ve emphasized the differential diagnosis context a little more.
L201938 Surprising Causes of Pain — New section: “Spatial summation and why some body areas suffer more, like the neck and back.”
M2019Shin Splints Treatment, The Complete Guide — Science update — Quirky sidebar about the relationship between running softly and quietly.
L2019The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — New section, review of a popular video about “patellar release”
L2019Quite a Stretch — Reorganized — I’ve shuffled and renamed many sections, plus a bunch of editing, to reflect new priorities for the article going forward: a more comprehensive review of all stretching sub-topics, but especially stretching as a component of injury rehab and treatment for chronic pain. Several significant changes are planned for 2019.
L2019The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — New section, “The usual suspects: tackling the things that make all kinds of pain worse”
M2019Your Back Is Not Out of Alignment — New sub-topic — Added some thoughts and a new citation about muscle “imbalances” (over and under-developed muscles on one side or the other).
M2019The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Expansion, discussion of specific back pain — Today I added a little depth on a couple key points, and commentary on a really interesting example of specific spinal pain from Dr. Stu “There’s No Such Thing As Non-Specific Back Pain” McGill.
M2019The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — Upgraded — Substantial upgrade to review of evidence for over-the-counter medications.
S2019Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — Minor science update — Added support from another researcher (Bunker) for abolishing the term “adhesive capsulitis.”
M2019Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — Science update — Added information about the prevalence of frozen shoulder in the general population and in diabetics.
S2019The Dubious Science of Kinesiology Tape — Added three citations showing a lack of effect of taping on pain.
M2019Stuck in My Throat — Added story and information about tonsil stones showing up on CT scans.
S2019Guide to Repetitive Strain Injuries — Just one citation added, but a neat one: Marsolais et al found that anti-inflammatory meds suppressed some gross signs of inflammation in tendinopathy, but had no other benefit. Good to know.
L2019The Complete Guide to Muscle Strains — Like new, blood flow restriction training — Substantial expansion of my coverage of this topic.
M2019Anxiety & Chronic Pain — New section, “Why is exercising helpful for stress? It simulates what stress is trying to prepare us for.”
S2019Diagnosing Runner’s Knee — Added a footnote listing several other conditions that can mimic ITBS and/or PFPS.
M2019The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Science update, medications — Finally added hard evidence of the obvious — over-the-counter pain meds don’t really work — and got into some nuances.
S2019Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — Clarification, diagnosis section — Made it clear that frozen shoulder is a diagnosis of exclusion.
M2019Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — Addition, nature of the beast — Defined the condition more precisely and thoroughly. Added a substantive footnote about the exact anatomy affected.
M2019The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Addition, hypermobility section — Added excerpt from a comedic and interesting article about a patient with Ehlers–Danlos syndrome who’s shoulder was dislocated by a massage.
M2019Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — Science update, regenerative medicine section — Added brief discussion of the poor state of evidence for stem cell therapy, citing Pas et al.
M2019The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Science update, regenerative medicine section — Added brief discussion of the poor state of evidence for stem cell therapy, citing Pas et al.
S2019The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Minor addition, resting strategy — Added sidebar about crutches and canes.
M2019The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Additions, differential diagnosis — After long neglect, I finally added some new points to this section, regarding tendinitis and infrapatellar fat pad impingement fat pad syndrome.
M2019The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — Science update, regenerative medicine section — Added brief discussion of the poor state of evidence for stem cell therapy, citing Pas et al.
L2019The Role of Eccentric Contractions in Rehab — New section, a brief summary of “Eccentric contractions as a treatment for tendinopathy.”
M2018The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Upgraded — There’s a new sub-section about the role of stress in any kind of chronic pain, and bunch of revision so that the section is more focused on the concept of vulnerability. This is a setup for more practical advice, still to come, about how to attempt to be less vulnerable.
M2018The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Expansion — Continued the process of making this section into a more substantive exploration of the idea of specific back pain, and added a new example, a case study of back pain caused by a tumour on a nerve root.
L201838 Surprising Causes of Pain — New section: “Non-obvious nerve entrapment.”
L2018Contrast Hydrotherapy — New section, based on Higgins et al: “Keep it shallow (because contrasting is unlikely to have much effect on deeper tissues).”
S2018Does Platelet-Rich Plasma Injection Work? — Cited Mascarenhas et al on PRP for osteoarthritis (and it’s the usual story: garbage in, garbage out, no conclusion, no compelling evidence).
L2018A Rational Guide to Fibromyalgia — New section.
M2018A Rational Guide to Fibromyalgia — New sub-topic — Added leaky gut syndrome.
L2018Anxiety & Chronic Pain — Completely renovated the discussion of the effect of posture on mood and anxiety, especially upgrading the references substantially, after reading Gronau et al. My previous writing on this topic was dreadful, amateurish stuff leftover from the earliest days of this website — good riddance.
M2018The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Additions — Added an informative and entertaining example.
M2018Does Posture Matter? — Science update — Updated referencing and footnotes about “power posing.”
M2018Shin Splints Treatment, The Complete Guide — Modernization, trigger point section — Added clearer and more detailed acknowledgement of the controversies and scientific uncertainties about trigger points.
L2018Does Fascia Matter? — New section, nerve entrapment.
L2018The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Expanded, peripheral neuropathy hypothesis — Added substantially to the section with exploration of two examples of peripheral neuropathy that may be mistaken for trigger points (but only if you’re not very good at this stuff).
M2018Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — Improvements, icing section — Edit for clarity and keeping up with the times, especially acknowledging changes in the science of inflammation of repetitive strain injuries. Also added a new sub-section on “the frozen water bottle trick.”
L2018The Complete Guide to Muscle Strains — New section, Electric exercise: electrical muscle stimulation (EMS)
M2018The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — Science update, resting and load management — Explored evidence-base and scientific plausibility of resting recommendations.
M2018Many Pages — I revised the PainScience.com menu. It is now (finally) based on topics, which I hope readers will find more useful than the rather meaningless categories that were there for years (“articles” doesn’t really tell you what you are going to find — might as well have had a link to “stuff”). The new topic items will take readers to curated indexes of content organized into subcategories. Also new: a sitemap (of sorts), and the help page and store are now main menu items as well.
S2018The Trouble with Chairs — Science updated, added citation to Vallance et al on the risks of sitting versus smoking.
L2018The 3 Basic Types of Pain — New section: “Fast and slow pain: yet another way to categorize.”
M2018Pain & Injury Survival Tips — New section.
M2018Your Back Is Not Out of Alignment — Example added — New sub-section, “A perfect example of a structural problem,” based on a fascinating case study reported by Aota.
L2018Does Epsom Salt Work? — Major expansion — Added substantial coverage of the basics of magnesium and sulfate deficiency and supplementation. Speaking of deficiency, the absence of this information was a major oversight for many years. Despite it’s great size and thoroughness, this sub-topic was strangely missing, but that deficiency has now been largely addressed.
L201813 Kinds of Bogus Citations — New section on cherry-picking and confirmation bias in evaluating studies. This article is now quite a comprehensive review of how citing can go wrong.
L2018Massage Therapy for Low Back Pain (So Low That It’s Not In the Back) — New section: “Confusion with cluneal nerve impingement.”
M2018Modality Empires — New section: “‘Success rates’ are meaningless.”
S2018The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Editing, strength section — Just making the same points a bit more clearly.
L2018Poisoned by Massage — New section and sub-topic, “A reader’s rhabdo story (and the chilling possibility that some people are much more vulnerable than others).”
M2018Does Fascia Matter? — New sub-topic — Discussed the relevance of real pathology of connective tissue.
S2018The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Editing, hypermobility section — Some minor clarifications and additions.
M20186 Main Causes of Morning Back Pain — Significant science update: cited Steffens on back pain risk factors, a fascinating study that adds some important data to this article.
M2018The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Example added — New sub-section, “A perfect example of a structural problem: cluneal nerve entrapment,” based on a fascinating case study reported by Aota.
M2018The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — New info — Expanded the “Worst case scenario” discussion with an anecdote about the impact of chronicity: even mild pain is draining when it just won’t quit.
M2018Does Ultrasound Therapy Work? — Some science updates for shockwave therapy.
M2018Chronic, Subtle, Systemic Inflammation — Updated, inflammation and stress — Summary of Sapolsky’s explanation for why chronic stress is inflammatory, plus a nice new chart. Good stuff! Answers to questions I have had myself for a looong time.
S2018The Not-So-Humble Healer — Added an example of misguided “singular” explanations for chronic pain.
M2018Does Epsom Salt Work? — New section — This new section starts the process of re-focussing the article on Epsom salts bathing as a form of magnesium supplementation.
M2018The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Expanded, dry needling chapter — Added quite a lot of information, especially about risks and harms and how needling supposedly works. This is now a fully-fledged topic summary.
S2018Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — Minor science update, steroid injections — Replaced a citation to an old, withdrawn review with a much more recent review (which reached the same conclusions).
M2018Shin Splints Treatment, The Complete Guide — Science update, intro to risk factors — Important and interesting expansion of the section inspired by odd science news about the role of perfectionism.
L20186 Main Causes of Morning Back Pain — New section: “Morning baths are almost miraculous for some kinds of morning back pain.”
M2018The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Editing, crepitus (noise) section — A light re-write, de-emphasizing the dubious link to trigger points.
L2018The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Major addition, ‘core’ strength section — Added a substantial new sub-topic: “What if it’s about the coordination, not strength/endurance?” And a minor but fun addition about the DCFs being the “psoas of the neck.” Added anatomy diagram.
L2018Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — New section, Desensitization and disinhibition.
L2018Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — New section, shockwave ultrasound — Predictably gloomy conclusions! But it’s now here for thoroughness.
M2018Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — Science update — Cited and analyzed Jewell et al with regards to the poor results from physical therapy overall, and massage specifically.
M2018Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — Improved — Significantly improved the answer to the question “How would functional freezing work?” by including sensitization.
M2018Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — Science update — A small but important update: cited Hollmann et al, who demonstrated in a small study that at least some people with frozen shoulder aren’t frozen when anaesthetized, strongly suggesting that at least some cases are not caused by capsular contracture. Cool and promising.
S2018The Insomnia Guide for Chronic Pain Patients — Added a footnote about the surprising prevalence and relevance of narcolepsy.
M2018Does Epsom Salt Work? — New sub-topic — Answered reader question about treating bloating, and added some information about the laughably low credibility of claims published by the Epsom Salt Council.
M201813 Kinds of Bogus Citations — Tiny new section about non-obviously bogus citations: “What if a citation avoids all of these pitfall? It can still be bogus!”
L2018The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Rewritten — I started over from scratch on the topic of “spasm.” What I’d written previously was much too simplistic. This chapter is now bigger and more interesting.
S2018Electromagnetic Sensitivity Absurdity — Added brief note about EMS-inspired lawsuits.
S2018Cold Laser Therapy Reviewed — Added footnote about new Nobel prizes for laser technology, and how it has already been exploited to sell cold laser therapy.
S2018Does Fascia Matter? — Minor clarification — Added some information about adhesions.
L2018Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — New section, More invasive shockwaves! Tenex and percutaneous ultrasonic fasciotomy (plus Topaz)
M2018The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Expanded, diagnosis section — Added discussion of plica syndrome.
S2018Voltaren Gel: Does It Work? — Added a brief anecdote about a personal success.
M2018Pain Relief from Personal Growth — New (short) section, “Pain management versus coping.”
S2018(Almost) Never Use Ice on Low Back Pain! — Added article summary.
S2018Quite a Stretch — Minor addition, flexibility section — Added an anecdote from the world of elite distance running, about Eliud Kipchoge’s inability to touch his toes.
M2018Strength Training Frequency — New canonical citation for the thesis of the article, the best evidence to date that “less is not less”: Schoenfeld et al.
S2018Science versus Experience in Musculoskeletal Medicine — Added minor point about how new positive evidence affects a record of negative evidence.
L2018Anxiety & Chronic Pain — New section, “If anxiety causes pain, does that mean the pain is ‘all in your head’”? (Of course not.)
M2018The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Substantial editing, neuropathy sections — Merged content from the back and neck pain tutorials, resulting in major upgrades to two important sections in both books.
M2018The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Substantial editing, neuropathy sections — Merged content from the back and neck pain tutorials, resulting in major upgrades to two important sections in both books.
M2018The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Substantial editing, neuropathy sections — Merged content from the back and neck pain tutorials, resulting in major upgrades to two important sections in both books.
M2018The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Substantial editing, neuropathy sections — Merged content from the back and neck pain tutorials, resulting in major upgrades to two important sections in both books.
L2018Toxins, Schmoxins! — Added much more information about real poisons and toxins, plus more specific debunking of some popular detox concepts (sweating it out, ionic foot baths, and Epsom salts).
L2018Cramps, Spasms, Tremors & Twitches — Major revisions and more to do on the topic of “spasm,” protective spasm, and pain-spasm-pain vicious cycling. Also, new sections about muscle relaxants and sedatives.
S2018Are Orthotics Worth It? — Added citation to meta-analysis of custom foot orthoses for the treatment of foot pain.
L2018The Complete Guide to Muscle Strains — New section, laser therapy.
M2018The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — New section — Not an important new section, just some interesting extra colour.
M2018A Rational Guide to Fibromyalgia — Expanded — Added an exercise strategy tip based on some expert opinion (Lagerman, Booth).
S2018The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Science update — Added a citation, a negative review.
M2018The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Science update — More thorough citing on the topic of dry needling efficacy … and that is probably the last in a year-long series of updates to this section over 2018. This chapter has been well and truly rebooted.
L2018The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Science update, massage for back pain — Not just any science update, but a particularly important and intriguing flip-flop from the most important source in the field.
S2018Does Cartilage Regeneration Work? — Updated references to CARTICEL and Genyzme to MACI and Vericel, and a bunch of other miscellaneous minor improvements.
M2018Does Epsom Salt Work? — Major edit — Substantial, diverse editing of all sections about absorption.
L201838 Surprising Causes of Pain — New section: “Claudication: the pain of impaired blood flow.”
S2018The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Additions — More detailed summary of the troubles with meniscectomy.
L2018Sensitization in Chronic Pain — Started a transition to a stronger focus on treatment advice. Until now, the article has mainly been about raising awareness, without much tangible treatment advice (which is difficult). But I have begun the process of explaining the treatment options in several new sections.
L2018Does Epsom Salt Work? — New section — Comparing poisons and toxins and providing examples of pollutants and metabolic “wastes.” Important context!
L2018Does Epsom Salt Work? — New section.
M2018Why Drink Water After Massage? — Added an explanation of toxins versus poisons, better examples of toxins, clarifications about the various fates of metabolic products, and more detail about why sweating isn’t excretory/detoxifying.
M2018Strength Training for Pain & Injury Rehab — Added an important point about efficacy vs. effectiveness (see Beedie et al and several more examples of adverse effects of strength training.
S2018Therapy Babble — Added an xkcd comic, plus some other minor improvements.
L2018Strength Training for Pain & Injury Rehab — New section: “You can’t go wrong getting strong” … or can you? Some hazards of strength training.
S2018Extraordinary Health Claims — Article now leads with an anecdote. Some other miscellaneous minor cleanup, especially improved links to other resources.
S201813 Kinds of Bogus Citations — Added two xkcd comics: “Dubious Study” and “New Study.” This article is now chock-a-block with comics! Probably more comics per square inch than any other page on PainScience.com.
M2018You Might Just Be Weird — Added os trignum syndrome; added syndactyly; plus some editing and reorganizing. This article is gradually evolving into something more than just a fun a cabinet of curiosities, as I continue to add clinically significant examples of anatomical variation.
L2018Pain & Injury Survival Tips — New section, “Be aware of sneaky causes of pain.”
L201838 Surprising Causes of Pain — New section: “Syphilis.”
M2018Pain is Weird — Science update — Cited Stanton, an experiment demonstrating that VR-generated illusions can kill pain effectively, adding to the list of interesting but impractical examples of modifying pain with brain “hacks.”
M2018Mind Over Pain — Science update — Cited Stanton, an experiment demonstrating that VR-generated illusions can kill pain effectively, adding to the list of interesting but impractical examples of modifying pain with brain “hacks.”
L2018Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — New section, Stretching for frozen shoulder.
L2018Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — New section, Strengthening for frozen shoulder.
L2018Therapy Babble — Added a small new section about “science crankery.”
M2018Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — More detail, relative rest section — Explained in detail how to choose foot-friendly exercises.
S2018Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — Addition, differential diagnosis section — Added Os trigonum syndrome, AKA “the nutcracker-phenomenon.”
S2018The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Minor improvements — Discussed potential harms of strength training in a little more detail.
L201838 Surprising Causes of Pain — New section: “Pain with literally no specific cause.”
L2018A Rational Guide to Fibromyalgia — New section.
M2018Alternative Medicine’s Choice — Cited and commented on The Lancet’s excellent editorial calling for “a radical shift of life sciences funding priorities, away from the biomedical bubble.”
L201838 Surprising Causes of Pain — Major reboot and expansion. This is now a much more comprehensive review of possible causes of pain. There’s more to do and suggestions and requests for additions are very welcome. I hope this will become one of the most useful articles on PainScience.com.
M2018The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Science update — Analysis of more putative “mechanisms of inaction” as presented in three more papers, one ancient, two new (Melzack, Chou, Cagnie).
L2018Sports Injury Prevention Tips — Substantive science update, added a bunch about load management based on Soligard. Also merged another article about injury prevention into this one: “Collateral and Re-Injury Prevention” is now a major second part of this article.
M2018A Historical Perspective On Aches ‘n’ Pains — Revised to properly answer a reader question: “Why is there such ignorance in musculoskeletal medicine?” It was good cynical fun trying to explain.
M2018Stuck in My Throat — Probably the final status updates to the article. I’ve received several inquiries lately from people wanting to know how am doing with the globus these days. That question is now answered in the final section.
L2018The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Complete book edit — Top-to-bottom edit of the book, the first ever. Described in more detail in a blog post.
L2018Does Posture Matter? — Revision — Widespread editing related to the distinction between poor postural and postural challenge or stress. The section dedicated to that difference was completely re-written, but many other changes were made, mostly to the first few sections where I define my terms. I’ve also corrected the systematic misuse of the term “strain” when I meant “stress” (a technical but important distinction).
M2018Your Back Is Not Out of Alignment — Science update — Added a key citation Lewis et al and elaborated a little on my recommendations.
M2018Your Back Is Not Out of Alignment — Science update — Beefed up the description of the alternative to structuralism, and added a new citation and a few old ones.
S2018The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Minor update — Added the revelation that literally all of the very weak studies supporting DCF training are probably fraudulent.
M2018Voltaren Gel: Does It Work? — Added a small section about the safety of long-term regular use.
M2018The Not-So-Humble Healer — Added new appendix: “Exhibit B: ‘I’M PURE SCIENCE’”
M2018The Unstretchables — Significant revision of the introduction: the article now gets to the main point way faster, and a bunch of peripheral controversies about stretching are now left out, so they don’t freak readers out so much that they stop reading before getting to the main point. I have other articles for that.
L2018The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — New section — A new standard chapter for most PainScience.com tutorials summarizing several key concepts about placebo.
L2018Shin Splints Treatment, The Complete Guide — New section — A new standard chapter for most PainScience.com tutorials summarizing several key concepts about placebo.
L2018Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — New section — A new standard chapter for most PainScience.com tutorials summarizing several key concepts about placebo.
L2018The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — New section — A new standard chapter for most PainScience.com tutorials summarizing several key concepts about placebo.
L2018The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — New section — A new standard chapter for most PainScience.com tutorials summarizing several key concepts about placebo.
L2018The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — New section — A new standard chapter for most PainScience.com tutorials summarizing several key concepts about placebo.
L2018The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — New section — A new standard chapter for most PainScience.com tutorials summarizing several key concepts about placebo.
L2018The 3 Basic Types of Pain — New section: “Another way of categorizing pain: visceral and somatic.”
M2018The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Science update, dry needling section — Added analysis of Couto, one of the more credible positive trials of dry needling available.
L2018Massage Therapy Side Effects — New section: “Impaired performance: the minor but educational example of pre-event sports massage.” Added and discussed “distraction from more appropriate care” to the introductory section. Updated the conclusion so it’s in sync with changes made in the last couple years.
L2018Guide to Repetitive Strain Injuries — Major revision to the inflammation discussion, based on new evidence that RSIs may be inflamed after all — just not a classic, acute immune response. This isn’t really a shock, but it sure is interesting, and many changes had to be made to accommodate just a single key new citation (Dakin). This is why my work will never be done!
L2018The 3 Basic Types of Pain — New section: “A key deep thought: nociception isn’t pain, and there are no ‘pain nerves,’ but muscles can still be sore.”
L2018The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Important update — Added an important new sub-section about anticonvulsants.
S2018Studying the Pain Studies — Added tip about asking scientific paper authors for free full-text.
S2018Insomnia Until it Hurts — Added citation to Stubbs, a huge new study of poorer populations showing a strong link to between insomnia and pain.
L2018The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — New section, “Training the deep cervical flexors”
M2018Massage Therapy Side Effects — Added article summary, and made numerous other miscellaneous improvements.
M2018Opioids for Chronic Aches & Pains — New section inspired by Comerci et al: “It’s getting harder to find doctors that will help with getting off opioids.”
M2018Anxiety & Chronic Pain — Revised and clarified medical causes of anxiety, plus several other minor edits.
S2018Shin Splints Treatment, The Complete Guide — Science update — A small but good update giving some good scientific support to the rationale for reducing tibialis anterior loading. That was already recommended, but it’s on firmer foundations now.
M2018Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — New sub-topic, strengthening section — Answered a frequently asked question much more thoroughly: Does using arch support make your arches weaker?
S2018Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — Addition, differential diagnosis section — Added L5/S1 radiculopathy.
M2018Studying the Pain Studies — Started a new section: “It’s a trap! Things to watch out for.” Just a couple items to start.
L2018The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Major science update, obesity section — New key new citations and thorough analysis.
L201813 Kinds of Bogus Citations — Big update today: added thorough discussion of the problem of predatory journals. Added three new bogus citation types: the non-cite, the junk cite, and the dump cite. Added a short section about citations to NASA studies.
M2018The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — Science update — Added some minor but interesting new points and citations about IT band anatomy.
S2018Should You Get A Lube Job for Your Arthritic Knee? — Added citation to the most recent review available, Jevsevar 2015.
L2018The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Revised, ergonomics section — Substantial miscellaneous modernization. In particular, much more useful information on the critical distinction between “poor posture” and “postural stress.”
M2018Massage Therapy for Neck Pain, Chest Pain, Arm Pain, and Upper Back Pain — New small section, “The cult of scalenes.” Is the clinical importance of scalenes exaggerated?
M2018Does Acupuncture Work for Pain? — New section, “A fine example of acupuncture research that seems well-designed and positive … but is still bizarrely flawed.”
L2018The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Upgraded — Added much more detail about the basics of neuropathy and revised everything else quite thoroughly. Expanded the discussion of implications of Jayson as promised last month.
M2018The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Revised — The Quick Reference Guide hadn’t been updated for a loooong time, and I finally got to it. It could still use more modernization and careful synchronization with book content, but it is greatly improved. (Fun fact: this update also eliminated some of the final traces of branding for the old SaveYourself.ca domain name, three-and-a-half years after it was retired.)
L2018The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — New section, symptoms — Although this book goes into great detail about diagnosis, strangely it was missing a simple thorough list of symptoms. A reader brought this to my attention, and I’ve corrected it. It’s a strange loose end to be tying up more than a decade into the project, but there you have it.
L2018Opioids for Chronic Aches & Pains — Important new section: “Addiction versus dependence.”
M2018The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Science update — Added several references about the long term risks of joint popping, a paragraph about the short-term risks, and a citation about what causes joint popping.
M2018The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Revision, spinal manipulation section — Clarified the important distinction between hazard and risk.
L2018A Deep Dive into Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness — New section about “That troublesome 2018 study that declared victory for massage therapy” (Dupuy et al).
L2018Strength Training for Pain & Injury Rehab — New section, “Can strength training prevent overuse injuries?”
S2018Does Acupuncture Work for Pain? — Covered the fresh PLoS ONE scandal over “one of the worst acupuncture studies I have ever seen.”
M2018Massage Therapy Side Effects — Added discussion of dizziness, vertigo, and Meniere’s disease.
S2018Microbreaking — Added a microbreaking reminder method.
L2018The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — New section — More information about dry needling in its own chapter now, a neglected sub-topic; it has always been covered in the companion book about trigger points, but a good summary here in the neck pain book is long overdue.
M2018The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Science update, dry needling section — A new sub-section about Llamas-Ramos et al, a study by dry needling proponents with surprisingly negative results (even if they didn’t see it that way). Plus a bunch of miscellaneous minor improvements.
M2018The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — Elaboration — Added more detailed and evidence-based exercise recommendations.
S2018The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Science update, radiculopathy section — A science update … with quarter century old science about blood supply and radiculopathy (see Jayson). This is just a quick drop-in for now, but it’s fascinating, so I’ll be elaborating more in another update.
L2018The Role of Eccentric Contractions in Rehab — Two new sections, about titin and isometric contractions, and numerous other minor improvements.
M2018The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Revision, microbreaking section — Substantial improvements, harmonizing with the ergonomics revision. Much stronger focus on the scientific case for microbreaking despite the lack of evidence that stagnacy is a problem in the first place. Added a practical tip, and a comic.
S2018Does Platelet-Rich Plasma Injection Work? — Science update, added new meta-analysis of PRP for muscle strain, Grassi et al.
S2018The Complete Guide to Muscle Strains — Science update, platelet-rich plasma section — Added a highly relevant citation to Grassi et al.
S2018Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — Added new stretch, arch stretchg section — A reader suggested yoga’s ‘broken toe pose.’
L2018Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — New section, about Oolo-Austin Trigenics® Procedure (OAT)
M2018Does Hip Strengthening Work for IT Band Syndrome? — Additional improvements following the February reboot of this excerpt, tying up some loose ends, adding some colour and detail.
L2018The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — New section, about back mice (lipomas)
M2018The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — Improvements, hip strengthening section — Basically a continuation of the February reboot of this chapter, tying up some loose ends, adding some colour and detail.
S2018Diagnosing Runner’s Knee — Added a short section about causes, continuing to work on making the page more of a useful on-stop resource.
S2018Does Acupuncture Work for Pain? — Added two citations to the introduction to keep things fresh, and a good quote to the conclusion.
M2018The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Improvements, dry needling section — Significantly expanded discussion of the rationale for needling with an interesting example and a helpful image.
L2018Why Do Muscles Feel Stiff and Tight? — Added results of a poll on how stiff people with hypermobility syndromes feel. Noted an exception to the rule that stiffness is uncomfortable. Added a brief, broad explanation of why stiffness correlates so poorly with ROM. Elaborated on examples of pathological causes of dystonia and put them in lists. Added a new example, facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy. Many other minor additions and edits for clarity.
M2018The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Upgrade — Added much more detail about the crisis in orthopedic surgeries — very important context — and more detail to the descriptions of surgical options.
S2018When to Worry About Low Back Pain — Cited Premkumar et al on red flag reliability (which ain’t great).
M2018Voltaren Gel: Does It Work? — Science update. Added several citations substantiating what was previously presented only as a rational opinion: topical NSAIDs are a lot safer than oral NSAIDs.
M2018Opioids for Chronic Aches & Pains — Science update: updated rebooted referencing of studies comparing opioids to over-the-counter pain killers, most notably with Krebs et al.
M2018Why Do Muscles Feel Stiff and Tight? — Miscellaneous additions and improvements about inflammatory diseases, myotonia, dystonia induced by tranquilizer withdrawal, contracture, and frozen shoulder.
S2018Anxiety & Chronic Pain — Added sidebar debunking the over-hyped idea that “stress is your friend,” which came from a wildly popular TED talk.
M2018Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — Clarification — Added more thorough explanation of guidelines for “total” and “profound” rest.
L2018Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — New section, the role of weight — Long overdue discussion of a minor sub-topic!
L2018The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Major revision, introduction to care options — Phase 1 of a reboot of this part of the book. Today I’ve added much more detail to the intro, emphasizing good and bad reasons for seeking help.
S2018Does Ultrasound Therapy Work? — A couple minor science updates on shockwave therapy (one good news, one bad).
L2018Deep Friction Massage Therapy for Tendinitis — Two new sections exploring theoretical arguments against frictions.
M2018The Complete Guide to Muscle Strains — Cleanup, preventing re-injury — No new science, but a bunch of clarifications and editorial improvements. It’s a clearer and more useful section.
M2018The Complete Guide to Muscle Strains — New tips, healing time section — Added two evidence-based tips to help estimate how long a strain takes to heal.
L2018Does Hip Strengthening Work for IT Band Syndrome? — Completely rebooted. This article is now a near-verbatim excerpt from the IT band syndrome book.
L2018The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — Major science update, hip strengthening chapter — After a long delay, I finally came back to the topic of hip weakness and just started over, reviewing the evidence from scratch. No change to the bottom line, but now more persuasive, thorough, and fully up-to-date.
L2018Why Do Muscles Feel Stiff and Tight? — New section about dystonia-powered stiffness, plus numerous other clarifications and improvements.
L2018The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Major improvements — Extensive new material about the relationship between neuropathy and neck pain, focused on clues that neuropathy is a factor in a case of chronic neck pain.
S2018Anxiety & Chronic Pain — Science update, based on Carpenter et al on the efficacy of cognitive behavioural therapy: “more effective treatments needed.”
M2018The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Improvements, dry needling section — Miscellaneous clarifications and elaborations, especially about schools of thought and mechanisms of effect. How does dry needling supposedly work? It’s hard for proponents to answer that question directly.
M2018Chronic, Subtle, Systemic Inflammation — Expanded, anti-inflammatory nutrition — Added more detail on anti-inflammatory foods and dieting.
L2018Pain Relief from Personal Growth — New section: “Practical example #2: ditching toxic relationships.” Inspired by Wilson et al (spousal empathy, sympathy have an impact on chronic pain).
M2018Many Pages — I just turned on an interesting speed boost tech for PainScience.com: CloudFlare’s “Argo Smart Routing,” which is kind of like Waze for internet traffic: it finds the quickest route for the data delivery. This may actually make a significant difference for many of my international visitors.
S2018The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Minor improvement — Added a footnote about the long-term risks of poor neck posture and text neck.
S2018Zapped! Does TENS work for pain? — Science update, cited Luedtke et al on transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS).
L2018The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — New section, on leg length differences.
M201838 Surprising Causes of Pain — More information about other drugs with painful side effects.
S2018Quite a Stretch — Minor addition — “Endorphins” now have a sidebar.
M2018Quite a Stretch — Expanded — Added more the nature of soreness and stiffness, and the relevance of stretching (or lack thereof).
M2018Diagnosing Runner’s Knee — Added more basic information about ITBS and PFPS to the introduction, hopefully boosting the usefulness of the page.
L2018Why Do Muscles Feel Stiff and Tight? — Still more revision and re-organizing, with a number of helpful elaborations.
L2018The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Re-write — I threw 90% of this section away and started over with a much stronger focus on the interesting question of whether or not “cervicogenic headache” is even a thing. It’s a like-new section, now with much more useful diagnostic clues.
L2018Sports Injury Prevention Tips — New tip, “Train in the Goldilocks Zone,” based on Drew. Several other improvements.
M2018The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Miscellaneous improvements, nerve vulnerability section — Added much more information about endangerment sites, discussion of the potential relevance of neuritis, extensive clarifications and editing, and some footnotes.
S2018The Insomnia Guide for Chronic Pain Patients — Added point and citations about the effect of sleep deprivation on athletic performance and injury rates.
S2018Insomnia Until it Hurts — Added point and citations about the effect of sleep deprivation on athletic performance and injury rates.
L2018You’re Really Tight — Substantial revision. This article hadn’t been touched in a long time and it struck me as too simplistic and glib. It needs more work, but it’s a lot better today than it was yesterday.
L2018Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — New section, ultrasound — Very “negative”: there’s almost no hope that it works.
S2018Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — Science update — A couple new citations and details about steroid injections.
S2018Tennis Elbow Guide — Update on isometric contraction for pain control, citing Coombes et al.
M2018Is Running on Pavement Risky? — Added a substantive point to the arguments against running on hard surfaces, about the effect of surface springiness. Also, a nice citation about low rates of arthritis in marathoners (see Ponzio 2018.
L2018The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Major new section — Well, new to the book anyway. It has been available as a free article for quite a while, and it will remain so indefinitely. Although this content is not exclusive to the book, it definitely does belong here.
L2018How to Treat Sciatic Nerve Pain — Rewrote the introduction to fine tune the definition of sciatica, and the diagnosis section based on a fascinating study, Konstantinou et al. Although there’s no major changes of position in this update, it is quite substantive: the article is definitely better for it.
S2018Does Acupuncture Work for Pain? — Added citation to Stenger et al on pneumothorax risk.
M2018Why Do Muscles Feel Stiff and Tight? — Thorough editing, numerous clarifications, some pruning and re-organizing. The article now focusses much more strongly on causes of the symptom of stiffness.
S2018Don’t Worry About Lifting Technique — Science update: cited Nolan et al on beliefs of physical therapists about lifting technique.
M2018The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Science update — Added a few new citations about the efficacy of needling. Made some improvements to the information on risks added last month.
M2018Mind Over Pain — Science update — Cited Ruiz-Aranda, an experiment that showed that emotional coping skills improve pain tolerance.
S2018Water Fever and the Fear of Chronic Dehydration — Cited Vreeman on possible origins of the 8×8 rule.
S2018Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — Science update — Added sidebar, “What’s normal heel raise endurance?” based on Lunsford et al.
S2018Mobilize! — Science update, cited Kim on the effect of early mobilization on recovery from surgical repair of shoulder trauma.
M2018Does Fascia Matter? — New sub-topic — Added information about gentle and subtle forms of fascial therapy.
M2018Many Pages — Several significant improvements to bookmarking (for customers only). Dozens of hours of programming over many weeks to make it all happen … 30 seconds to announce it!
S2018The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Minor science update — Added some references about the reliability of subluxation diagnosis.
S2018A Deep Dive into Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness — Very short new section about the modest potential of fish oil to help with DOMS.
M2018Zapped! Does TENS work for pain? — Minor new section: “TENS compared to nerve conduction testing.” Also added a citation to Vance.
L2017A Rational Guide to Fibromyalgia — New section.
S2017Pseudo-Quackery in Physical Therapy — Cited Grant et al on the gradual improvements in the evidence-based for sports medicine.
S2017A Historical Perspective On Aches ‘n’ Pains — Cited Grant et al and Ramos et al on the state of evidence-based sports medicine.
M2017Placebo Power Hype — Science update: cited Locher et al, a major blow to claims that open-label (non-deceptive) placebos work.
M2017The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Science update — Added more and better information about risks of dry needling.
S2017The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Science update — Cited Chumbley et al on traction for neck pain in … fighter jet pilots!
L2017Anxiety & Chronic Pain — New section: “Does stress wreck us?”
S2017Pain is Weird — Science update — Cited Höfle et al on the effect of context on how much needles hurt, and Nilakantan et al on romantic analgesia.
S2017Pain is Weird — Science update — Cited Parr et al on the effect of the fear of pain on post-exercise muscle soreness.
S2017Mind Over Pain — Science update — Cited Höfle et al on the effect of context on how much needles hurt, and Nilakantan et al on romantic analgesia.
S2017Mind Over Pain — Science update — Cited Parr et al on the effect of the fear of pain on post-exercise muscle soreness.
S2017Quite a Stretch — Science update — Cited Blazevich et al on tolerance of calf stretching.
L2017The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — New section.
L2017The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — New section.
M2017(Almost) Never Use Ice on Low Back Pain! — Edited. Just boring maintenance, but quite thorough, and necessary after the rewrite a few weeks ago.
S2017The Trouble with Chairs — Science update, cited Stamatakis et al, showing no clear link between sitting and diabetes.
M2017Does Epsom Salt Work? — New section — A short new section summing up the absorption topic, citing Gröber et al.
L2017Shin Splints Treatment, The Complete Guide — New section, biomechanical overload syndrome.
L2017The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Change of position, on diagnostic nerve blocks — After reviewing the same scientific papers previously cited more carefully, I decided that they were much less promising than I originally thought. The section has flip-flopped from optimism to pessimism about nerve blocks without a single change in what’s actually cited, just a change in the level of diligence in interpreting the science. I’ve also added more detail and references.
L2017The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — New section, needles for back pain.
L2017The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Major upgrade, diagnostic nerve blocks — The section has been re-written and expanded significantly, with a key change in position. After reviewing the same scientific papers previously cited more carefully, I decided that they were much less promising than I originally thought. The section has flip-flopped from optimism to pessimism about nerve blocks without a single change in what’s actually cited, just a change in the level of diligence in interpreting the science.
S2017The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) — Science update: cited Hickey et al, a paper about shoulder dyskinesia with a unusually misleading title.
S2017Does Ultrasound Therapy Work? — Science update, cited Schandelmaier et al, an excellent (and completely negative) British Journal of Medicine review of LIPUS for acute fracture/osteotomy healing.
S2017Healing Time — Science update, cited Schandelmaier et al, an excellent (and completely negative) British Journal of Medicine review of LIPUS for acute fracture/osteotomy healing.
S2017The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Science update — Cited and discussed Schandelmaier et al on low intensity pulse ultrasound for fracture/osteotomy healing.
M2017Does Fascia Matter? — Upgraded — Added information on the nature of and main claims made by several branded methods of fascial release.
M2017The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Science update, stretching section — Brought some more science to this discussion, especially Sandler et al on a link between stretching and back pain, and Tunwattanapong et al with modestly good news. Plus a bunch of editing.
S2017Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — Improved — Beefed up information on over-the-counter medications.
S2017The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — Science update, stretching section — Cited and discussed the implications of Eng 2015, which purports to show that the IT band uses elastic energy to enhance running efficiency.
S2017Should You Get A Lube Job for Your Arthritic Knee? — Science update, cited Siemieniuk.
S2017A Rational Guide to Fibromyalgia — Science update — Added minor citation to Cook et al on the neural consequences of exercise in CFS/ME patients.
S2017A Rational Guide to Fibromyalgia — Science update — Added minor citations to Light et al on heritability of fibromyalgia.
S2017The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Science update, surgery chapter — Cited Siemieniuk — the British Medical Journal strongly denouncing the common athroscopic surgeries.
S2017Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — Science update, nature of the beast — Cited and briefly discussed Riel et al’s 2017 suggestion that “plantar fasciitis” is a misleading name.
L2017The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — New section, Hypermobility and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.
S2017Your Back Is Not Out of Alignment — Science update, evidence review section — Cited Wallace et al: knee osteoarthritis prevalence doubled in the 20th Century independent of age and weight.
L2017Quite a Stretch — New section — Discussion of four ways that stretching may cause harm, especially for medically vulnerable people.
S2017Does Fascia Matter? — New summaries — Added two new summaries of recently added sections.
S2017Does Fascia Matter? — Edited, “release” section — A new introduction, clarified definition, and miscellaneous other minor improvements.
L2017Does Epsom Salt Work? — New section — Really fun new section based on Chandrasekaran et al. I laughed out loud repeatedly writing this one. Because what’s funnier than harvested human skin, amiright?
M2017The Complete Guide to Muscle Strains — Expanded — Added some substance, mainly citing and discussing Ramos et al on the lack of evidence for common treatments. It’s still a short introduction to the second half to the book , but not as absurdly brief as it was.
S2017The Complete Guide to Muscle Strains — Improvements — Added more information about swelling and muscle deformation.
M2017💩 Massage Therapists Say — Added a new load of shit, and started integrating examples from both Alice and Paul. If you’ve been here before, the new items are at the bottom, starting here.
L2017The Art of Bioenergetic Breathing — This is one of the oldest articles on PainScience.com, dating back to the early 2000s when I had quite different values and beliefs, long before I considered myself a “science journalist.” Today I gave it a thorough editing, so that the ideas and advice given are consistent with my publishing style and goals, and I wouldn’t be too embarrassed if, say, mentors in critical analysis were to read it. But that’s probably the last significant edit this will ever get — the topic is not a focus for me today, and the page is archived.
L2017Does Fascia Matter? — New section, about the origins and types of fascial therapy.
S2017The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Science update — Added a substantive footnote explaining the relationship between ulcers, stress, and H. pylori infection as one of the best examples of a “stress-sensitive condition.”
S2017Trigger Point Doubts — More perspective (and citations) added to the discussion of the state of the evidence about trigger point treatment.
M2017When to Worry About Low Back Pain — Added a mobile-only article summary.
M2017The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Upgraded, discussion of massage and nerve trauma — Added much more information about massage “endangerment sites,” discussion of the potential relevance of neuritis, extensive clarifications and editing.
L2017Does Massage Therapy Work? — Rewritten, trigger point section — I’ve changed my position from positive to unknown, “more study needed,” based on a thorough update and review of the science. I updated the evidence for massage for back pain at the same time, with similar results.
L2017Does Massage Therapy Work? — Rewritten, back pain section — I’ve changed my position from positive to unknown, “more study needed,” based on a thorough update and review of the science. I updated the evidence for trigger point massage at the same time, with similar results.
S2017The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Science update — Finally added some basic information about “text neck” — mostly that it’s not actually a thing, and a good example of bogus information about neck pain.
M2017Anxiety & Chronic Pain — New section: “Consider quitting coffee.”
M2017Dupuytren’s Contracture — More detail and references about stretching. Miscellaneous editing.
M2017The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Science update — An important follow-up on August’s major massage evidence update, I’ve now added a summary of the evidence for trigger point massage. Although the topic is not covered in detail here, much study went into making this summary possible.
M2017Massage Therapy for Low Back Pain (Again) — Miscellaneous improvements. Finally added a diagram!
L2017The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Full science review, massage efficacy section — Another huge update, though mostly “under the hood” — I have now completed a comprehensive informal review of all the available science, about 16 papers. The section now includes a large table of papers with links to all the summaries. Most readers are not going to want/need to click on all those links and read them all, but their availability is important.
L2017(Almost) Never Use Ice on Low Back Pain! — Rewritten. I came close to just tossing this article in the digital trash, but decided it could be saved by a rewrite fairly easily. In a rare move towards brevity, it is now much shorter! The role of trigger points have been demoted to a minor subtopic (they were previously the focus of the article). Sensitization and the “mind game” in low back pain are now the focus.
M2017Does Epsom Salt Work? — New section — A new section based largely on the findings of Park et al.
M2017A Rational Guide to Fibromyalgia — Science update — Added two key citations to Heffez 2004 and Heffez 2007 about the link between fibromyalgia and myelopathy: both fascinating, surprising, and important studies.
M2017Science versus Experience in Musculoskeletal Medicine — Merged in a couple older blog posts, added several references and footnotes, revised and re-framed et voila: this is now the official new “science versus experience” page for PainScience.com.
M2017Most Pain Treatments Damned With Faint Praise — Added a couple citations and an important technical point about false positives when “testing magic.”
S2017The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Science update — Finally brought a little science to support the claim that trigger points complicate injury. More needed, but it’s a start.
M2017The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Revision, the role of trigger points in neck pain — This section was aging poorly. Reviewing it recently, it seemed too much like I was defensively explaining a pet theory (and I suppose I was). So I’ve done some thorough revision to bring it up to my current standards: less overconfidence, more science.
L2017Does Fascia Matter? — New section — Analysis of Chapelle and Bove’s 2013 study of visceral massage in rats, concluding that it’s mildly interesting massage science, but not fascia science specifically, let alone clinically relevant fascia science.
S2017Does Fascia Matter? — Added image — Added an image of a “ghost heart” (fascial scaffolding), a good example of fascial ubiquity and genuine fascia science.
M2017The Pressure Question in Massage Therapy — Added a new section: “Horror stories: what’s the worst-case scenario from too much pressure?”
L2017💩 Massage Therapists Say — Added extensive new annotations and a new featured image.
S2017How Many Muscles Are In the Human Body? — Added a cartoon.
M2017Deep Friction Massage Therapy for Tendinitis — Three small new sections added to the discussion of how frictions allegedly work: compressive tendinopathy, placebo, and diffuse noxious inhibitory control. I also now clearly state that I have described the rationale for frictions, not endorsed it. Added a recommendation not to pay for frictions. There is a skeptical theme to today’s updates. 😉
S2017Why Do We Get Sick? — Added brief discussion of the role of the mind in pain.
M2017The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Edited, strengthening as treatment section — Miscellaneous minor science updates; reduced confidence about the effect of trigger points on resistance training.
L2017The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Rewritten, weakness section — Totally revised discussion of the effect of trigger points on strength; in particular, my old opinions are now clearly labelled as speculation, rather than presented as fact.
M2017Does Fascia Matter? — Science update — Extensive revisions inspired by new evidence from new (unethical) experiments on pigs: Bishop 2016 and Langevin 2017.
S2017Quite a Stretch — Science update — Added preliminary discussion of evidence on the prevention of muscle strains. (More to come on this topic.)
S2017Deep Friction Massage Therapy for Tendinitis — Cited Chaves on the prevalence of friction massage and inconsistent technique; a few minor related edits.
M2017The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Science update, trigger point diagnostic reliability — A new citation, thorough discussion of Rathbone, and extensive related editing. The bottom line has been tweaked: I think the reliability evidence is encouragingly non-bad.
M2017Trigger Point Doubts — Science update — new citation for the diagnostic reliability question. I added a thorough discussion of Rathbone, and made tweaks to the bottom line:
L2017Is Diagnosis for Pain Problems Reliable? — New section: “Unreliable reliability science,” in which I dumb down reliability stats and their challenges.
M2017When to Worry About Neck Pain … and when not to! — New section: “Signs of arthritis are not red flags.”
M2017The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Upgraded, tool massage section — Added some more detailed safety advice and discussion of vibrating massage tools. Removed and de-emphasized a couple tools. Better images. Thorough editing the whole section.
S2017Pain & Injury Survival Tips — Added bonus tip — Muscle clenching has been shown to reduce pain sensitivity (Smith et al) — a good additional reason to challenge muscles.
M2017The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — New tip — Added a weird bonus strengthening tip based on Smith et al, which showed that clenching leg muscles reduced pain everywhere in patients with chronic neck pain.
S2017Does Fascia Matter? — Minor update — Added another good example of “fascia babbling.”
M2017Many Pages — Sitewide accessibility upgrade: all 600+ pull quotes on PainScience.com are now hidden from screen readers (using the “aria-hidden” attribute), and also when Javascript/CSS is disabled. This has been a minor annoyance to me and a small but important minority of readers for many years, and I’m delighted to have finally gotten around to fixing it.
S2017Pain & Injury Survival Tips — Science update — Cited another new review (Nugent), more focused on pain, that tempered my enthusiasm a bit. The tip stands, but not as tall.
S201738 Surprising Causes of Pain — Science udpate — Cited evidence that statin myalgia could be bogus, not actually a real problem.
M2017The Trouble with Chairs — Major upgrade to my debunking of “sitting is the new smoking,” based on a beefier “paralysis perspective,” and on new evidence from Diaz.
M2017Anxiety & Chronic Pain — New section: “Fighting, flighting, tending, and befriending.” And significant revision of another: “Anxiety has a biological signature (and it’s sneaky).”
S2017Your Back Is Not Out of Alignment — Science update — Cited evidence that leg length differences cannot be reliably diagnosed.
S2017The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Science update. — Cited and discussed evidence that statin myalgia could be a nocebo—that is, not actually a real problem.
S201713 Kinds of Bogus Citations — Added a brief acknowledgement of my own fallibility in the citation department.
M2017The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Science upgrade — More evidence on how much (or little) pain is caused by cervical disc herniations, plus other miscellaneous citations and clarifications. Removed the claim that herniations actually decrease with age — the reference for that was no longer persuasive.
S2017(Almost) Never Use Ice on Low Back Pain! — Editing and modernization, mainly modernizing my explanation for the role of trigger points in back pain.
L2017The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Major upgrade — Extensive new analysis of the scientific evidence of efficacy for massaging trigger points (mostly inconclusive). But I provide much more detail now, fully reviewing several noteworthy studies, and there’s more to come. The section has roughly quadrupled in length.
L2017The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Major update — Rewritten and updated. I revisited all the evidence on massage for back pain, especially integrating Furlan et al (a major 2015 meta-analysis on this topic). The bottom line is now that the science is inconclusive and discouraging instead of optimistic. Sorry, everyone.
M2017A Rational Guide to Fibromyalgia — New sub-topic — Added discussion of PACE and graded exercise therapy to the exercise section.
M2017A Rational Guide to Fibromyalgia — New sub-topic — Added repressed emotions.
L2017A Rational Guide to Fibromyalgia — New section, The fatigue connection, CFS vs ME.
L2017Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — New section — A review of other kinds of problems with the plantar fascia and how some might be related to and confused with plantar fasciitis.
S2017Tissue Provocation Therapies in Musculoskeletal Medicine — Added a great visual example of Woolf’s law at work on the arm bones of tennis players (Haapasalo).
M2017Vitamin D for Pain — Significant removal of obsolete content, plus revision and updating of dosing and safety information.
M2017The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Revision — Added an example of SMT injury and a footnote about fearmongering, and then found myself editing the whole section.
S2017Strength Training Frequency — Science update based a nice bit of good news about weight lifting reducing the risk of metabolic syndrome (Bakker et al).
S2017Chronic, Subtle, Systemic Inflammation — Science update, treatment — Science update based on a nice bit of good news about weight lifting reducing the risk of metabolic syndrome (Bakker et al).
M2017The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — New section — An odd new section about trigger points in animals, with some interesting tangents and perspective.
M2017Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — New section, posture.
L2017Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — Major science update, arch stretching — The section now takes a much more detailed look at the only relevant science.
M2017Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — Science update, night splints — Night splints now have their own section, along with some more detail and science updates.
L2017Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — Rewrite, calf stretching section — Complete citation reboot and much more thorough critical analysis of calf stretching science.
L2017Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — Rewrite, stretching intro — Complete revision of the introduction to stretching.
S2017The Unstretchables — Science update — added citations relevant to IT band stretching.
L2017A Rational Guide to Fibromyalgia — New section, Stress and fibromyalgia.
M2017A Rational Guide to Fibromyalgia — New sub-topic — Added adrenal fatigue.
L2017A Deep Dive into Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness — New sections dedicated to inflammation and the effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatories on healing. Elaborated on the bizarre findings of Deyhle et al and integrated evidence from a major new review (Morelli et al). Some re-organization of the article for clarity.
L2017A Deep Dive into Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness — Major science update about a series of Japanese rat studies that suggest DOMS is basically “neurological growing pains,” summarized by Mizumura et al It’s a fascinating potential solution to the DOMS mystery.
M2017The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — Science update, stretching section — Added important discussion of the implications of Willett et al.
M2017The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — Upgraded, tightness discussion — Made a few changes and added a few new paragraphs exploring the implications of Willett et al.
M2017Is Running on Pavement Risky? — Science update: changed the description of the nature of chronic exertional compartment syndrome based on Franklyn-Miller et al (because it may be mis-named), and added a citation to Lenhart et al regarding the function of the gluteus medius and minimus.
M2017The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Minor update — Widespread minor improvements to complete the integration of central sensitization into the book. The neck pain book is now fully sensitive about sensitization!
S2017Vitamins, Minerals & Supplements for Pain & Healing — Added a small but important public service announcement about supplement contamination, based on Rao et al.
S2017Homeopathy Schmomeopathy — Added reference about contamination of homeopathic products.
S2017Does Arnica Gel Work for Pain? — Added reference about contamination of homeopathic products.
M2017The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — Improved — Improvements to the discussion of cervical myodural bridges.
L2017Massage Therapy for Tension Headaches — Added new section, “Do you have a trigger point under your skull? Or is that just a cervical myodural bridge?” Added more detail about stretching. Plus several other minor improvements.
S2017Does Acupuncture Work for Pain? — Added citation to Vickers et al, with skeptical analysis.
M2017Quite a Stretch — Science update, muscle pain section — Cited and discussed implications of anti-inflammatory effect reported by Berrueta et al.
M2017Quite a Stretch — Revised, preventing soreness section — A heavy edit for clarity and brevity.
L2017The 3 Basic Types of Pain — New section — “Appendix: Neuropathic versus nociceptive pain.”
S201713 Kinds of Bogus Citations — Added two citations substantiating the prevalence of predatory/fraudulent journals.
M2017Cramps, Spasms, Tremors & Twitches — Added discussion of tetany. Expanded on personal experience with fasciculations. Several clarifications and minor corrections.
M2017Guide to Repetitive Strain Injuries — Cited new evidence on the limited benefits of steroid injections for rotator cuff tendinopathy (Mohamadi) — an interesting contrast with the effects of steroids on frozen shoulder. Also cited new evidence that shoulder decompression does not work for supraspinatus tendinopathy (Ketola et al)—a really great example of the problem with looking at RSIs mechanistically.
S2017Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — Science update — Cited new evidence on the limited benefits of steroid injections for rotator cuff tendinopathy (Mohamadi) — an interesting contrast with the effects of steroids on frozen shoulder.
S2017The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Science update — Added brief discussion of an interesting theory about the effect of stretching on inflammation in connective tissue.
L2017Is Running on Pavement Risky? — New section: “Impact reduction take-home points.”
S2017The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Minor addition, introduction — Added an excellent recent example of awful back pain information.
L2017Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — New section — Important revisions and a new section based on important new evidence (Wong et al) that frozen shoulder is not a self-limiting condition as everyone has assumed for decades.
L2017A Rational Guide to Fibromyalgia — New section.
S2017Vitamins, Minerals & Supplements for Pain & Healing — Added a citation about the effect of caffeine on performance.
S2017Pseudo-Quackery in Physical Therapy — Added citations to and quotes from Zusman 2011.
S2017The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Minor update — Integrated discussion of central sensitization, reframing the “confidence cure” as treatment for central sensitization.
S2017Anxiety & Chronic Pain — Added an sidebar about the absence of anxiety in aphasia patients — not useful, but fascinating.
S2017The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Science update, trigger points intro — Light editing, plus a new paragraph and citation to Morikawa et al, an odd little study showing that neck massage is relaxing, or possibly more.
S2017Chronic, Subtle, Systemic Inflammation — Science update, metabolic syndrome — Added interesting citation to Hussain et al, showing evidence of the metabolic/inflammatory roots of back pain.
S2017The Dubious Science of Kinesiology Tape — Added footnote about a class action lawsuit of taping claims.
M2017Chronic, Subtle, Systemic Inflammation — Science update — Added interesting citation to Bäckryd et al, the first evidence of extensive inflammation in fibromyalgia patients.
L2017A Rational Guide to Fibromyalgia — New sub-topic — Inflammation as a driver of sensitization, based on new evidence of an “extensive inflammatory profile” in fibromyalgia patients (Bäckryd).
L2017The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — New section — A much more thorough discussion of vibrating massage tools.
M2017Tissue Provocation Therapies in Musculoskeletal Medicine — An especially neat science update about changes in intervertebral discs in runners (Belavý).
M2017Is Running on Pavement Risky? — New section on intervertebral disc adaptation to running as indirect evidence that running on pavement may be risky, based on Belavý et al.
S2017The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Edited, medications section — Several minor miscellaneous clarifications and elaborations, and some additional references.
M2017Is Running on Pavement Risky? — Added a footnote about the importance of psychological factors in rehab (such as not being scared of the surface you run on). Added beefy footnotes about springing and muscle tuning: two biomechanical shock absorption tactics in human biology.
S2017The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Clarification, breathing section — Made it much clearer that changes in blood acidity with respiratory alkalosis are minor and transient. Miscellaneous minor edits.
M2017The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) — Added a couple quotes, citations to two new reviews, and some clarifications about the role of SFMA versus FMS.
S2017Your Back Is Not Out of Alignment — Science update, evidence review section — Quoted and cited Tumminello et al on “the corrective exercise trap,” a topic closely related to structuralism.
S20176 Main Causes of Morning Back Pain — Added a mostly amusing footnote about natural sleeping postures or “paleo sleeping” (but worthwhile for perspective).
S2017Many Pages — Cited recent BMJ meta-analysis of NSAIDs and heart attack risk (Bally et al) in many places around PainScience.com where pain-killers are summarized.
S2017Many Pages — Usability upgrade to the way footnotes and other popups (overlays) are displays: better on small screens, better large popups, and clearer close buttons.
M2017The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Revision — Clarifications about the value of treating inflammation in principle.
M2017The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Science update, steroid injections — Significant science upgrade based on McAlindon et al.
S2017The Power of Barking: Correlation, causation, and how we decide what treatments work — Added a paragraph that, I hope, summed up a couple key effectively.
M2017Don’t Worry About Lifting Technique — Many improvements; no important changes in position, just a bunch more detail and references. Clarified the scope of the article, and linked prominently to Greg Lehman’s more thorough and technical review of both sides of the spinal flexion debate. Added video of a strongman stone lift showing extreme stoop lifting. Added evidence that there’s surprisingly little difference in forces on the spine in stoop vs squat lifting. Added the idea that most good lifting technique is simple and intuitive and cannot be improved by teaching. Revised the powerlifting section in a way that I hope powerlifters will think is more acceptable, but doubled down on the most contentious point: I think the evidence is clear that it is impossible to avoid, and I added citations to shore that up.
S2017Your Back Is Not Out of Alignment — Science update, evidence review section — Cited evidence of poor correlation between hip pain and radiographic signs of arthritis (Kim et al).
S2017Massage Therapy for Bruxism, Jaw Clenching, and TMJ Syndrome — Added citation to Webb et al regarding massage efficacy.
S2017Massage Therapy for Back Pain, Hip Pain, and Sciatica — Science update — Cited evidence of poor correlation between hip pain and radiographic signs of arthritis (Kim et al).
S2017Does Massage Therapy Work? — Science update, massage efficacy — Added citation to Webb et al, plus related edits.
S2017The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Science update, trigger point therapy — Added citation to Webb et al, plus related edits.
L2017A Rational Guide to Fibromyalgia — New section, Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for fibromyalgia.
S2017Spinal Fracture Bracing and Fixation — Added citation to Avilés about the similarity of outcomes from surgery versus conservative therapy for burst fractures.
L2017A Rational Guide to Fibromyalgia — New section, Exercise for fibromyalgia, with some evidence-inspired tips.
L2017Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — New section.
M2017Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — Improvements — Added more movement recommendations.
L2017Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — New section.
M2017The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Revised, section on nerve blocks etc. — Thoroughly revised section and, unfortunately, a reversal from optimism to pessimism about the efficacy of nerve blocks.
S2017Does Posture Matter? — Science update — Added citation to good evidence of embodied psychological changes caused by non-verbal expansiveness.
M2017Are Orthotics Worth It? — Added a section about spring-loaded shoes (not as lame as it sounds).
S2017Does barefoot running prevent injuries? — Science update: upgraded a couple citations about the injury-preventing powers of shoes (or lack thereof).
L2017Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — Rewrite — Like-new section with many new concepts, citations, and recommendations related to impact.
M2017When to Worry About Neck Pain … and when not to! — Added important red flag information about artery tears with pain as the only symptom.
S2017What Happened To My Barber? — Added information about artery tears with pain as the only symptom.
L2017Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — Rewritten — Thorough revision with many updated citations, focusing mainly on orthotics efficacy.
M2017The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Expanded — Added important red flag information about artery tears with pain as the only symptom.
M2017The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — Expanded — Added important red flag information about artery tears with pain as the only symptom.
M2017Are Orthotics Worth It? — Added a section about orthotics and low back pain.
M2017Are Orthotics Worth It? — Science update: cited Junior 2016 regarding the lack of link between running injuries and biomechanical asymmetries, and Richter 2011 on efficacy of orthotics for lower limb injuries.
M2017Does barefoot running prevent injuries? — Minor update: editing and clarification of the introduction; added a citation strengthening the case against barefoot running.
S2017The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Minor update — Added discussion of orthotics to treat leg length differences for back pain.
L2017The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — New section — An important and interesting acknowledgement that mechanical causes of back pain do exist.
M2017Icing for Injuries, Tendinitis, and Inflammation — Rewrote “What ice is not for (back pain, usually)” for clarity and thoroughness.
M2017The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — New subsection — Added content inspired by decades-old evidence of reduced spinal degeneration in “primitive” cultures where squatting is common. Some light editing of everything else in the chapter.
M2017The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Science update — Added a small but key new point and citation about genetic factors in degeneration; and an important new citation about the disconnect between imaging results and pain.
S2017Many Pages — After years of using both “tendinitis” and “tendonitis” at random, I’ve finally implemented a firm editorial policy for this tricky term: all 560 usages on PainScience.com have been changed to the more correct one — tendinitis — and I’ve attached an explanatory footnote to the first usage in a couple dozen articles.
M2017Icing for Injuries, Tendinitis, and Inflammation — Upgraded rebuttal to the argument that icing impedes healing.
S2017The Trouble with Chairs — Added a significant footnote about the (unclear) relationship between habitual squatters and back pain.
L2017Shin Splints Treatment, The Complete Guide — Like new — Rewrote discussion of shoes, surfaces, impact, etc. Several new references; recommendations haven’t changed much, but the explanation for them is greatly improved.
M2017Ice versus Heat for Pain and Injury — Added several clarifications and footnotes, especially about heating for muscle stiffness and pain.
L2017Organ Health Does Not Depend on Spinal Nerves! — Important update about autonomic dysregulation of organs after spinal trauma.
M2017The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Science update — Discussed important new review of SMT for acute low back pain. Significant revision of the section.
M2017The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Upgrade — Shoes now have a section to themselves (orthotics discussed separately), and I made several improvements at the same time, mostly about spring-based shoes as a generic concept.
L2017The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Major upgrade — Much more detail and modernized references. The entire section is now dedicated to orthotics (and shoes have their own section, also upgraded).
S2017Vitamins, Minerals & Supplements for Pain & Healing — Added a footnote about the (lack) of evidence concerning the long term effects ogf caffeine on pain.
L2017The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — Rewritten — Six years after the last re-write, another major renovation of the topic of hard-surface running and shock absorption: new ideas and advice spelled out and supported much more thoroughly.
S2017Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — Minor update — Added an analogy, an example, a useful link, and generally modernized the section.
M2017Cramps, Spasms, Tremors & Twitches — Added a note about chronic dehydration; some speculation about why unwanted contraction is common but usually harmless; clarification of the spasm myth, and more about what does cause sharp back pains. Miscellaneous other changes.
M2017Cramps, Spasms, Tremors & Twitches — New section: “Reassurances: twitching and tremors almost never indicate a serious problem.” Also added some more detail about my own strange example of myokymia.
S2017Does Epsom Salt Work? — Added depth — Expanded on discussion of inhalation as a vector for salt magnesium absorption.
M2017Are Orthotics Worth It? — Miscellaneous improvements to the section about special/technical running and walking shoes.
S2017Does Epsom Salt Work? — Minor correction — Correction about the size of water molecules, and some clarification about how skin waterproofing works thanks to some interesting science.
M2017The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Revision — Modernization and expansion; added more information about surgical options in particular.
L2017How to Treat Sciatic Nerve Pain — New section: “Disc herniations are much less of a problem than most people think.”
S2017The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Science update — Strong new reference to Andrade et al fully supports the main message of the section.
M2017Anxiety & Chronic Pain — Added another important example of a possible medical cause of anxiety (positional cervical cord compression).
M2017The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Science update — Newer, better, evidence-based good news about disc herniation resorption.
L2017The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — New section — Tips and a checklist for trying to estimate how much your neck pain might be about sensitization.
S2017The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — Minor upgrade — Added evidence from a new dissection study and edited the whole section for currency and clarity. Time flies: it’s been a long time since I last looked at this topic!
M2017Get in the Pool for Pain — Science updated. Added a couple key citations about the efficacy of aquatic therapy, and spelling out the case for it a bit more.
M2017The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Science update — Updated references for debunking of TENS for back pain. Added ultrasound to the section.
L2017A Rational Guide to Fibromyalgia — Expanded — Added more and better descriptions of relevant medical specialities.
L2017A Rational Guide to Fibromyalgia — New sub-topics — Added small-fibre neuropathies and positional cervical cord compression.
M2017Does Ultrasound Therapy Work? — Added a brief acknowledgement of the surprisingly positive evidence for shockwave therapy for plantar fasciitis, plus a bunch of miscellaneous editing.
L2017Does Fascia Matter? — New section — In which I finally explore one of the most interesting findings in fascia science.
M2017Is Running on Pavement Risky? — Lots of new information about impact forces on different surfaces, mostly based on Fu et al. This is the sixth substantial update so far in 2017. Phew: what a rabbit hole!
S2017The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Minor improvement — Added a proper summary of Roffey et al, and a relevant personal footnote.
M2017Poisoned by Massage — Miscellaneous minor editing, and a new section, “No, PMSM is not caused by a Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction.”
M2017Vitamin D for Pain — New section: “Does Vitamin D prevent colds/flu?” Not really, no, contrary to recent headlines.
S2017The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Correction — An evidence-based correction regarding computer display position.
M2017Massage Therapy Side Effects — Added emboli (blood clots stuck in vessels) with three case studies.
L2017The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Big upgrade — Continued to beef up the science of psychological risk factors, and also added much more about other kinds of risk factors. The section almost doubled in size.
S2017The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Science update — Two key new citations to support the idea that the state of muscle tissue is a big factor in neck pain.
S2017Digital Motion X-Ray: A Dangerous Illusion of Diagnostic Power — Added a couple key points based on references, both comparing DMX to MRI.
S2017The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Science update — A paragraph about genetic vulnerability to persistent neuropathic pain.
S2017Sensitization in Chronic Pain — Several minor clarifications and a new footnote about peripheral sensitization.
S2017Does Fascia Matter? — Science update — Cited an unusually on-point study of fascial thickness and stiffness in patients with and without compartment syndrome.
M2017Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — Improved — Added some history, which is nice new context for this topic.
M2017Is Running on Pavement Risky? — Many miscellaneous improvements. I’ve now mostly completed the process of eliminating the assumption that pavement is risky from the old second half of the article.
M2017A Rational Guide to Fibromyalgia — Improvements — Added an introduction (“everything causes everything”!), and items about B12 deficiency and celiac disease.
S201713 Kinds of Bogus Citations — Added a paragraph about the existence and purpose of the junk journal industry.
M2017The Insomnia Guide for Chronic Pain Patients — New section, “‘Get lots of exercise’ is not an insomnia treatment for everyone.”
S2017Insomnia Until it Hurts — Science update, added a citation about the relationship between sleep quality and metabolic syndrome (which has implications for chronic inflammation and pain).
M2017Chronic, Subtle, Systemic Inflammation — Improvements, inflammation and stress — Revision and upgrades to the link between stress and inflammation: more citations, more ideas, more clarity. Added a citation about the link between metabolic syndrome and sleep disturbance (as a proxy for stress).
M2017How to Treat Sciatic Nerve Pain — Exercise and surgery updates related to two valuable new citations, both from Fernandez et al. Improved the mobilizations section especially.
L2017The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — New section — Substantial new section about sensitization, an important perspective on chronic neck pain.
S2017Is Running on Pavement Risky? — Widened and deepened the discussion of the science of impact and injury. Added citations about stress fractures and grass versus concrete hardness.
M2017Anxiety & Chronic Pain — New section: “Change your environment (a.k.a. get away from assholes).” Added a fascinating citation to the cognitive behavioural therapy section.
M2017A Rational Guide to Fibromyalgia — Added detail — Added more detail about positional cervical cord compression.
M2017When to Worry About Low Back Pain — Substantially beefed up and modernized the introduction footnotes.
S2017Modality Empires — Added an excellent expert quote.
S2017Sports Injury Prevention Tips — Minor science update, a couple citation drop-ins for the introduction.
S2017Psoas, So What? — Added a citation that strongly emphasizes that psoas is not critical to core stability.
M2017The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) — Science update based on the first systematic review of studies of the predictive validity of FMS.
M2017The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Addition — Added a profound and very cool example of abnormal anatomy that confounds diagnosis of hard lumps in tissue.
S2017Cramps, Spasms, Tremors & Twitches — Miscellaneous editing and minor improvements. Added new section “The myth of painful spasms.”
S2017Get in the Pool for Pain — Added a footnote with some tips about how to cope with getting chilly in pools.
S2017The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Science update — Solid little science update based on Nakashima et al, showing huge numbers of intervertebral disc bulges in healthy people.
M2017Is Running on Pavement Risky? — Polishing of the arguments for and against road running. Added much more information about the science of the relationship between injury and impact forces.
S2017Does Posture Matter? — Science update — Added a paragraph about the lack of association between a hunched upper back and shoulder or back pain, with a couple good citations.
M2017Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — New section — An important tip I should have written about long ago, finally added.
M2017The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — Elaborated — Significantly beefed up discussion of other causes of headaches.
M2017Massage Therapy for Low Back Pain — Added a lot of substance to the anatomy and function section, supported by several new references.
M2017Vitamin D for Pain — Safety update. Sterner and more detailed warnings about the risks of tanning beds, and the dilemma they present to chronic pain patients.
M2017Placebo Power Hype — New section: “Are animals are immune to placebo? Of course not.”
S2017How Many Muscles Are In the Human Body? — Added a “fun fact” about the pupillary muscles.
S2017Do You Believe in Qi? — Added three new citations, minor editing.
M2017When To Worry About Shortness of Breath … and When Not To — Thorough editing of the introduction, upgraded sources, various minor corrections, and a new section about the qualities of dyspnea.
S2017Pain & Injury Survival Tips — Abridged — Made the summary more concise, now that there is a featured article for aquatic therapy.
S2017Ugly Bags of Mostly Water — Added a small paragraph about the therapeutic significance of our watery nature.
S201738 Surprising Causes of Pain — Added a table of contents. A few minor edits.
M2017A Rational Guide to Fibromyalgia — Substantive editing.
S2017The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Correction — Small but important correction about the value of opioids in severe cases that resemble fibromyalgia.
S2017The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Minor improvements — Clarified several points and added a link to a new PainScience.com article dedicated to fibromyalgia.
S2017Is Diagnosis for Pain Problems Reliable? — Science update: added a reference to Herzog et al’s remarkable MRI reliability results. The list of good examples unreliable diagnosis is now up to ten.
L2017When to Worry About Neck Pain … and when not to! — Several good red flag clarifications and a couple interesting new references about spinal cord compression. Also added three new sections: “Necks just hurt sometimes,” “Sharp, stabbing, and shooting neck pains are usually false alarms,” and “Is a stiff neck serious?” Miscellaneous editing.
M2017The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Science update — Added discussion of a remarkable example of poor MRI reliability.
L2017Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — New section — A substantial and interesting reader-submitted case study plus a little commentary.
M2017Is Running on Pavement Risky? — More introduction polish and much more thorough rebuttals the arguments against the riskiness of running on pavement.
M2017The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Upgraded — Several good red flag clarifications and a couple interesting new references about spinal cord compression.
L2017Vitamin D for Pain — Major udpate. Four new short practical sections about how to get more vitamin D: food sources, supplementation tips, sunshine versus supplementing, and all about tanning beds.
L2017The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Major science update — I have reversed my position on vastus medialis isolation on the basis of new evidence.
M2017Pain & Injury Survival Tips — New section — Marijuana finally makes it to the tips page! Overdue, but the evidence is good enough now.
L2017Cramps, Spasms, Tremors & Twitches — Major upgrade. Tripled the length of the article, an upgrade from a sketchy stub to a proper featured article, and now an official and worthy part of the PainScience.com library. Still plenty of sub-topics to come though!
M2017Anxiety & Chronic Pain — A significant infusion of the science of cognitive behavioural therapy, with several related clarifications and elaborations.
S2017The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Minor addition — Added a fun example of mistaken lump identity, and clarified warnings about how easily this can happen.
M2017Is Running on Pavement Risky? — Another wave of revisions: the scientific uncertainties now permeate the whole intro; all the arguments against “running pavement is risky” are now much more thorough; title is now a question: “Is Running on Pavement Risky?”
S2017Poisoned by Massage — Added a sidebar about how many PMSM stories I’ve been receiving from readers.
M2017The Insomnia Guide for Chronic Pain Patients — New section about delayed sleep phase syndrome.
S2017Tissue Provocation Therapies in Musculoskeletal Medicine — Science update. Cited a new review of all relevant research so far (Cheatham et al). Also clarified the example of eccentric loading.
S2017The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — Science update — Cited a useful new review of studies of instrument-assisted soft tissue mobilization (IASTM) — scraping massage — plus some general cleanup and clarifications about IASTM.
S2017The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Minor maintenance — Some modernization, cleanup, and especially another “symptom checker” option.
S2017The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Science update — Arcane but neat “bonus elaboration on the thalamic-convergence theory.”
L2017How to Treat Sciatic Nerve Pain — Threw out the stale, simple old section about posture and ergonomics and wrote a completely new one.
S2017The 3 Basic Types of Pain — Added an important point to the definition of neuropathy: it tends to be more chronic.
M2017The Complete Guide to Muscle Strains — Science update — Added a very interesting good-news reference that actually provides some decent support for massaging strains.
S2017The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — Minor addition — Added peroneus longus to the list of muscles to massage, because of evidence that it contributes to IT band tension.
M2017The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — New topic — A much more encouraging new conclusion to this section, endorsing simple massage for a simple reason.
M2017Pain & Injury Survival Tips — Removal — Got rid of advice to buy fancy “ergonomic” chairs. I no longer believe it’s good advice, because back pain is not linked to sitting too much.
S20176 Main Causes of Morning Back Pain — Added footnote about the lack of a link between back pain and sitting too much.
L2017Microbreaking — Major revision based on a much more clearly spelled out and evidence-based rationale for microbreaking that does not depend on sitting as a risk factor for back pain.
L2017The Trouble with Chairs — Major correction — New section explains my new position, which is the opposite of my old position: “Sitting a lot is not — repeat, not — a risk factor for low back pain.” Read more about the mistake.
L2017The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Major correction — An evidence-based reversal of position and advice about sitting and back pain, correcting a long-standing error: my long-term assumption that too much sitting is a risk factor for back pain was never defensible.
S2017The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — General improvement — Purged some defunct resources, added a couple new ones, and made several corrections (broken links etc).
S2016Zapped! Does TENS work for pain? — Added a note about the potential of vagus nerve stimulation to control inflammation.
S2016Does Massage Therapy Work? — Minor addition — Added a footnote linking to an interesting article about the neurology of touch as a major mechanism of massage.
M2016The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Science update — Significant revision and some important new citations more firmly establishing the link between psychological and lifestyle factors and poor recovery from neck pain. Previously this section relied too much on similar evidence about other problems: it is now more neck-centric.
S2016Strength Training Frequency — Cited Arruda et al, an important criticism of Schoenfeld et al. Thanks to Tobias S. for pointing it out.
M2016Microbreaking — A variety of minor revisions, clarifications, and modernizations throughout the article.
M2016Is Running on Pavement Risky? — New section, “Citation badly needed! Are roads really risky?” This now introduces the uncertainties on this topic more thoroughly, with some relevant links and citations.
M2016Is Running on Pavement Risky? — The premise of this article needs questioning. I’ve added a prominent, important caution to the introduction about the lack of evidence that any running surface is actually risky. I also removed and changed some a few particularly overconfident statements about injury risk. Major revisions forthcoming.
S2016Does Acupuncture Work for Pain? — Science updated — added citation to the NICE guidelines for low back pain.
M2016Many Pages — Three new PainScience.com indexes based on subject categories: conditions, treatments, and explanations for pain.
S2016Massage Therapy for Neck Pain, Chest Pain, Arm Pain, and Upper Back Pain — Edited for clarity.
S2016Massage Therapy Side Effects — Minor reorganization of the article; added a couple more examples.
S2016The Tyranny of Yoga and Meditation — Science update: added a citation to Bower et al, which is very positive about the health benefits of mind-body therapies — a welcome injection of optimism into this article.
M201638 Surprising Causes of Pain — New conclusion, with both discouraging and encouraging perspectives, taken from a recent blog post about the challenge of medically unexplained symptoms.
M2016Strength Training Frequency — Significant science update, with substantive commentary on Schoenfeld et al and Timmons.
L2016Chronic, Subtle, Systemic Inflammation — New section.
S2016The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Science update — Added commentary on the “do not offer” acupuncture recommendation in the new NICE guidelines for back pain.
S2016Many Pages — Major improvements to printing of all PainScience.com pages. My apologies to visitors and customers who have been less than thrilled with their printing efforts.
S2016Pain & Injury Survival Tips — Minor addition — A note about aquajogging.
S2016Many Pages — Updates to help pages and customer information about offline reading options for PainScience.com tutorials.
M2016Diagnosing Runner’s Knee — Significant revision. The article now gets to the point quicker, and is less wordy overall. Several side points were been moved into footnotes. Added some links and a couple citations.
M2016The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — Elaborated — Added table contrasting tension headache with migraine — quite useful for many visitors, I hope.
M2016Zapped! Does TENS work for pain? — Added a mobile-only article summary. Added a paragraph about sensation-enhanced placebo.
M2016Placebo Power Hype — New section: “Sensation-enhanced placebo: the basis for most therapies for pain.”
L2016Vitamin D for Pain — Major update. Total renovation of this article continues with many additions and changes today: several citations and footnotes, some important new key points, some less important but interesting tangents, more specific recommendations, and a lot of reorganizing to continue making the page more useful to readers.
L2016Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — New section, shrunk not stuck.
M2016Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — Science update — Revised introduction to treatments, citing Diercks as an interesting example.
M2016Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — New section, article abstract.
S2016Vitamin D for Pain — Added fun little footnote about the cloudiest places on Earth. I live in one of them …
S2016The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Science update — Added some useful new indirect evidence about SMT for migraine (Chaibi et al).
S2016The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — Science update — Cited Chaibi et al on spinal manipulative therapy for migraine.
M2016Objectivity is Overrated — A couple additions and some revision.
M2016The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Edited — Added some important footnotes and clarifications.
S2016Insomnia Until it Hurts — Science update, added a citation about the relationship between sleep quality and immunity.
M2016Does Ultrasound Therapy Work? — Big science update — Added a table of summarized recent reviews, including six new citations from the last decade (basically all still about scanty, crappy evidence). Several related editorial changes.
S2016Zapped! Does TENS work for pain? — Minor science update, added a new review (Desmeules) of TENS for rotator cuff tendinopathy.
S2016The Pressure Question in Massage Therapy — Added a particularly high quality mobile-only article summary.
M2016The Power of Barking: Correlation, causation, and how we decide what treatments work — Three deep, dorky new sections about the human talent for causality inference and how it leads us astray. (Man, this is a really weird article, but I’m not giving up on it.)
S2016The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Science update — Added a few new citations about the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and it’s correlation with chronic pain.
L2016Vitamin D for Pain — Major update. All new introduction explaining and exploring the link between vitamin D deficiency and chronic pain, with a much greater focus on being of service to readers. Includes discussion of the recent controversy over whether or not vitamin D deficiency is a “pandemic.”
M201638 Surprising Causes of Pain — Added Vitamin D deficiency and chronic low-grade inflammation.
M2016Vitamins, Minerals & Supplements for Pain & Healing — Added new section about vitamin D.
M20166 Main Causes of Morning Back Pain — New section about vitamin D deficiency and the nighttime bone pain caused by osteomalacia.
M2016A Deep Dive into Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness — Added new sections about vitamin D deficiency and the general concept of excessive DOMS as a symptom of other health problems.
M2016Homeopathy Schmomeopathy — Additions: a very substantial related reading section, and a new section about the FTC’s new crackdown on homeopathy products.
S2016Does Arnica Gel Work for Pain? — Minor additions: a sidebar about the FTC’s recent crackdown on homeopathy, some new resources, and news about the North American brand change from “Traumeel” to “T-Relief.”
M2016Quite a Stretch — Rewritten — Complex and thorough modernization and other improvements.
S2016Smoking and Chronic Pain — Added a related reading section with links to help with quitting. Added a minor item with citation about smoking being (ironically) a short term pain-killer.
L2016Chronic, Subtle, Systemic Inflammation — New section.
S2016Does Massage Therapy Work? — Minor upgrade — Added an important point about the potential of novel sensory input to treat chronic pain.
M2016Your Back Is Not Out of Alignment — Content added — Greg Lehman’s “Fundamentals of Treatment” — some specific guidelines for structuralism-free treatment.
M2016Sensitization in Chronic Pain — Added a special sidebar, “Fundamentals of Treatment” — some practical, sensitization-friendly treatment principles for pros.
S201638 Surprising Causes of Pain — Minor addition: a sidebar about “the wilderness of the medically unexplained.”
M2016Your Back Is Not Out of Alignment — New section.
M2016Why So “Negative”? — Added a minor funny note about hate e-mailers who can’t be bothered to specify what they are complaining about.
L2016Stuck in My Throat — Added more updates about to the story about on-going episodes of globus, more integration of the implications of my updates, miscellaneous minor editing, and a new list of possible musculoskeletal causes (from sources like Kortequee). Also added a mobile-only article summary.
M2016Salamander and Regeneration Science — New section about the naked mole rat’s pain immunity superpower.
M2016The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Rewrite — A new way of looking at how trigger points cause the sensation of “stiffness” and what happens when we try to stretch them out.
M2016The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Modest revision — Reorganized presentation of the practical and theoretical challenges with stretching trigger points.
L2016The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Major update — Almost all of the stretching sections have been edited, revised, and modernized.
M2016Your Back Is Not Out of Alignment — New section — “Manual therapy needs to get beyond being ‘manual’.”
M2016Strength Training for Pain & Injury Rehab — Added “Why is exercise healthy?” sidebar.
M2016Modality Empires — New section: “Manual therapy needs to get beyond being ‘manual’.”
S2016A Historical Perspective On Aches ‘n’ Pains — Minor edit: added a particularly good turn of phrase to the conclusion (“the speculations of desperate patients and opportunistic cure purveyors”).
M2016The Trouble with Chairs — Added “Why is exercise healthy?” sidebar.
S2016The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Minor editing — Made the point of the section more clearly.
M2016Vitamin D for Pain — Significant science update. Added a significant new citation (Wu, plus some older ones, and upgraded the article to use popup footnotes instead of inline links.
L2016Placebo Power Hype — New section: “Placebo minimization: what if we sell it with a wink?”
S2016The Chiropractic Controversies — Added a mobile-only article summary.
M20166 Main Causes of Morning Back Pain — Added an article summary. Miscellaneous improvements, mainly to the introduction and about fibromyalgia.
S2016Guide to Repetitive Strain Injuries — Small but important clarification about load management: new first paragraph of resting section.
S2016Does Acupuncture Work for Pain? — Added a mobile-only article summary.
S2016Vitamins, Minerals & Supplements for Pain & Healing — Added a mobile-only article summary.
S2016A Deep Dive into Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness — Added a particularly high quality mobile-only article summary.
S2016Guide to Repetitive Strain Injuries — Added a mobile-only article summary.
S2016Does Posture Matter? — Summarized — Added a smartphone-only article summary.
S2016Does Massage Therapy Work? — Revised — An expanded and improved introduction, and a new smartphone-only article summary.
M2016A Deep Dive into Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness — Short new section: “DOMS timing: just how delayed is it?”
M2016Many Pages — More than 40 key articles on the site now have carefully crafted summaries visible to mobile users only, where they are most needed (see more information & examples). I’ll be adding batches of new summaries for months to come!
S2016Chronic, Subtle, Systemic Inflammation — Minor addition — Added a “perspective” sidebar warning against snake oily imposters.
M2016Chronic, Subtle, Systemic Inflammation — Added mobile summary.
S2016Does Epsom Salt Work? — Minor clarification — Small but worthwhile clarifications of the 500 Dalton rule and the “Osmosis mistake” (which I continue to get too much ignorant email about).
M2016The Chiropractic Controversies — Editing and reorganization of the introduction, a new summary of the main controversies, and a significant new reference about Medicare billing.
M2016Anxiety & Chronic Pain — Revision of the first three sections: more careful use of terminology, more clarity about what this article is about, and more nuance about the idea that it’s hard to “outsmart” anxiety. Added an important citation about insomnia as a risk factor for anxiety.
M2016The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Edited — Thorough revision and modernization. Although I revised this section just five years ago, it needed it again!
M2016The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Edited — Thorough revision and modernization. Although I revised this section a mere five years ago, it needed it again!
M2016The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Edited — Thorough revision and modernization. Although I revised this section just five years ago, it needed it again!
M2016Placebo Power Hype — Science update: coverage of another round of nonsense about “placebos without deception.”
S2016(Almost) Never Use Ice on Low Back Pain! — Light editing, miscellaneous clarifications and modernization, especially an introduction to the idea of sensitization.
M2016Voltaren Gel: Does It Work? — Added link to new opioids article, and a footnote clarifying the mechanism of action of “gut burning.” Added information about availability and the new generic equivalent of Voltaren.
M2016Why Do Muscles Feel Stiff and Tight? — Several miscellaneous improvements, especially new information about the role of inflammation and “inflammaging.”
M2016Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — Science update — Littlewood et al now provides some more substantive support for the theory of functional freezing and related rehabilitation methods.
M2016Chronic, Subtle, Systemic Inflammation — New section.
S2016Diagnosing Runner’s Knee — Improved some formatting, especially on mobile.
L2016The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — New section — More than a thousand new words on the topic of neck cracking.
S2016Why Do Muscles Feel Stiff and Tight? — Minor update. Added a neat footnote and citation about the trouble with “average” ranges of motion. Plus miscellaneous editing.
S2016What Happened To My Barber? — Minor update to references related to SMT for headache.
S2016The Trigger Point Identity Crisis — Added some detail about electromyography and the results of a studies of endplate noise.
M2016The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — Science update & elaboration — More and better references and detail about spinal manipulation for headache. Conclusion? Meh.
M2016Massage Therapy for Low Back Pain — Many miscellaneous improvements.
M2016Does Acupuncture Work for Pain? — Significant science update. New short section about Chae et al, the “phantom acupuncture” study. Also added a couple related reading links, and a sidebar about spellings/meanings of “qi.”
M2016Your Back Is Not Out of Alignment — Science update — Added an excellent scientific example of how disk herniations are less clinically significant than most people expect … but they still matter.
L2016Pain Relief from Personal Growth — Significant revision. Migrated many points to footnotes for readability. Added several new links. Clarified the purpose of the article (what it is, and what it’s not). Added a fun featured image.
S2016A Historical Perspective On Aches ‘n’ Pains — Minor edit: mentioned physiatry and PM&R (a strange oversight, overdue for correction).
S2016Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — Clarification — Added an interesting clarification about my wife’s strange experience with frozen shoulder.
M2016Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — Improvements — Many miscellaneous improvements.
M2016Chronic, Subtle, Systemic Inflammation — Updated, whole article — Many miscellaneous minor improvements.
S2016How to Treat Sciatic Nerve Pain — Minor update. Edited sciatica surgery section.
M2016Is Running on Pavement Risky? — Added a new section about plantar fasciitis.
M2016Many Pages — Web tech has advanced far enough that I can now safely use Emoji, and they will render appropriately for 98% of readers. I promise to use them sparingly, but I think they add a lot of character. 😜 There’s now 75 spread out across several hundred pages.
M2016The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Science update — There is now a good scientific concensus on the subject of spinal fusion, thanks to papers like Mannion 2013 and Hedlund 2016. Putting a spotlight on this called for some serious revision and editing. The whole section is greatly improved.
M2016Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — Science update — More recent test and reviews of steroid injection now cited. No significant change in recommendations, but the evidence is more settled now.
L2016Shin Splints Treatment, The Complete Guide — New section — Added a great, practical new tip for diagnosing and predicting medial tibial stress syndrome.
S2016Icing for Injuries, Tendinitis, and Inflammation — Minor revision. Some more commentary about the popularity of debunking icing lately.
M2016Healer Syndrome — Significant revision: many nice little adjustments and polishing, especially several important citations and useful links. Added related reading section. Added a new featured image.
L2016When To Worry About Shortness of Breath … and When Not To — Major revision. Rewrote and revised to put a much stronger spotlight on anxiety and “head games” as a factor in shortness of breath. Reorganized the article in three clearer parts. Added a new summary.
L2016Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — Expanded — Added much more information.
S2016Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — Science update — Added brief discussion of rotator cuff abnormalities in asymptomatic people.
M2016Guide to Repetitive Strain Injuries — Significant science update. Revised the “Head Games” section to emphasize the implications of a pair of really interesting references (Andersson 2011 and Neogi 2015).
S2016Tissue Provocation Therapies in Musculoskeletal Medicine — Science update. Cited a high quality new study of Graston technique, Crothers et al.
S2016Statistical Significance Abuse — Science update: citation to Pereira 2012 about the lack of large treatment effects in medicine.
S2016Ioannidis: Making Medical Science Look Bad Since 2005 — Science update: citation to Pereira 2012 about the lack of large treatment effects in medicine.
S2016Most Pain Treatments Damned With Faint Praise — Science update: citation to Pereira 2012 about the lack of large treatment effects in medicine.
M2016Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — Improvements — Editing, and added a diagram of the hypothetical relationship between adhesive and functional freezing.
L2016The Respiration Connection — More general revision, mostly organizing and clarifying treatment suggestions.
M2016The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — Science update — Added information about the Ober test, finally — and the brand new evidence that it doesn’t measure IT band tightness after all.
S2016The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Simplified — This section has been simplified, and now only covers key points about opioids and the relevance of opioids to MPS specifically. Detailed information about opioids has been moved to a separate article, Opioids for Chronic Aches & Pains.
L2016Pain is Weird — New section.
M2016How Many Muscles Are In the Human Body? — Substantial miscellaneous improvements. Added a couple notable citations about anatomical variations. New featured image.
S2016Anxiety & Chronic Pain — Added a more formal and complete definition of anxiety to the introduction.
S2016The Respiration Connection — Added a paragraph and footnote about controlled frequency breathing.
M2016Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — Revision — Some revisions to the discussion of treating systemic inflammation with diet, and added an important link out to a new article on that topic.
M2016The 3 Basic Types of Pain — Added a nice new Venn diagram depicting the intersection of all three kinds of pain in “hell.” Added section “Do sensitization and centralization belong in the “other” category?”
M2016The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — Elaborated — Added an explanation of why we call it a “tension” headache, and a few other small changes.
M2016Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — Expanded — Added more information.
L2016Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — New section.
L2016The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Major rewrite — Thorough revision of the introduction to sarcomeres, inspired by the book Life’s Ratchet, about molecular machines.
S2016The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Science update — Revised the introduction to treatments for clarity and completeness, added new references, and a new short paragraph about risks and harms.
S2016Modality Empires — Minor but fun: added Adam Meakin’s very amusing and apt random modality name generator.
M2016Massage Therapy for Upper Back Pain — Miscellaneous editing, and in particular replaced paragraph about the evolutionary perspective on back pain with some more relevant explanation of the anatomy of this area. New image showing the location of Spot 11.
M201638 Surprising Causes of Pain — Added sidebar about the basic types of pain, nociceptive and neurpathic. Added #10, about exaggerated inflammation.
S2016The 3 Basic Types of Pain — Added sidebar about migraine, and converted section about the influence of the brain to a sidebar. Elaborated on overlapping pain problems.
M2016The 3 Basic Types of Pain — Extensive next day revisions.
M2016Studying the Pain Studies — Added a new section about how I find out about good new research.
S2016Icing for Injuries, Tendinitis, and Inflammation — Added evidence of efficacy of NSAIDs for common injuries.
S2016Heat for Pain and Rehab — Added evidence of efficacy of NSAIDs for common injuries.
M2016Opioids for Chronic Aches & Pains — Improved footnotes/citations regarding other pain-killers. Added key citations about opioid and NSAID efficacy for musculoskeletal pain. Added more early emphasis on the position of pain patient advocacy groups. Miscellaneous editing.
S2016Pain & Injury Survival Tips — Revised — Integrated a near-duplicate section and updated the language a bit.
S20166 Main Causes of Morning Back Pain — Minor science update: interesting new citation about evidence of inflammation suppression at night (Hand et al).
S2016Stuck in My Throat — Updated my last update: status report on globus recovery one full year “Post Stone.”
M2016Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — Expanded — Added information about joint capsule inflating.
M2016Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — Expanded — Added interesting new evidence about arthrographic distension.
L2016Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — New section.
M2016Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — Expanded — Added recommendation to try a ketogenic diet.
L2016Massage Therapy for Shoulder Pain — Added a photograph of small massage balls. Added a new section about rotator cuff injuries. Miscellaneous editing. Started logging updates.
S2016Your Back Is Not Out of Alignment — Minor update — Supported the claim that nocebo is an issue with a great quote from Flynn et al.
S2016Opioids for Chronic Aches & Pains — Added citation about opioid non-responders. Added a TL;DR summary.
S2016The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Correction — Removed overconfident statements about the clinical significance of the effects of psychoactive drugs, plus related minor updates.
L2016The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Major update — Broadened scope of section to include all pain killers. Added a summary of opioids, and a guide to experimenting with the over-the-counter meds; added more science; merged and edited previously separate sections on rebound pain and muscle relaxants.
S2016The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Correction — Removed overconfident statements about the clinical significance of the effects of psychoactive drugs, plus related minor updates.
M2016The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Upgrade — Greatly improved information about opioids (and linking to much more information).
M2016The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Upgrade — Added much more information.
S2016The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Correction — Removed overconfident statements about the clinical significance of the effects of psychoactive drugs, plus related minor updates.
L2016The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — New chapter.
S2016Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — Science update — Added more general evidence about treatment efficacy.
S2016The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Minor update — Some editing and new caveats.
S2016The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Minor update — Some editing and new caveats.
M2016Water Fever and the Fear of Chronic Dehydration — Cited Spigt 2012 on headaches. Added a paragraph about the “water cure.”
M2016Should You Get A Lube Job for Your Arthritic Knee? — Added a section about other surgical procedures for context.
M2016The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Science update — More information and citations about ineffective knee surgeries for context.
S2016Smoking and Chronic Pain — Added example of the effect of smoking on shoulder pain/injuries.
M2016The Respiration Connection — More editing. Modernization of footnotes and citations. Added a drawing of a man beathing, and an anatomical diagram of the diaphragm.
S2016Is Diagnosis for Pain Problems Reliable? — Added an example of diagnosis that is reliable.
S2016Icing, Heating & Tissue Temperature — Cited Petrofsky 2009, regarding the effect of adipose tissue.
L2016Hydrotherapy, Water-Powered Rehab — Extensive upgrades and modernization.
L2016Does Craniosacral Therapy Work? — Added summary and good/bad/ugly points. Added a good new related reading link, and quoted from it a bit.
S2016Spinal Fracture Bracing and Fixation — Added citations to Louw and Harris about ineffective surgeries in general.
M2016A Historical Perspective On Aches ‘n’ Pains — Added more medical and scientific context and some new citations, particularly about orthopedic surgeries and opioids. Some general editing. Removed a small section of dubious value.
S2016The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — Minor update — Added general perspective on the efficacy and safety of orthopedic surgeries.
S2016The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Science update — Some fresh citations that strongly reinforce the main point of the section, and a few entertaining new examples of weird placebo effects.
L2016Opioids for Chronic Aches & Pains — Major update. Added disclaimer (needed more for this article than most). Edited extensively to focus the article more strongly on official guidelines and reporting expert opinion and official guidelines, and greater acknowledgement of controversy. Added related reading section.
M2016Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — Improvements — Several clarifications about diagnosis, and some new citations and expert quotes. Added a paragraph about x-rays.
M2016The Respiration Connection — More thorough editing of the introduction, and modernization of discussion of trigger points.
M2016Opioids for Chronic Aches & Pains — Editing, added several references, and a new section about safety issues with over-the-counter medications for perspective.
S2016The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Minor update — Cited van Gent 2007 on training volume and the “fine balance.”
S2016The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Minor update — Cited van Gent 2007 for perspective.
L20166 Main Causes of Morning Back Pain — Huge upgrade: completely rewrote almost everything about trigger points and added much more about fibromyalgia; revised everything about tissue stagnancy, postural stress, and sleeping position; added an important large new section about inflammation and “inflammaging”; added a minor new section about mattresses; added several more specific tips and suggestions.
S2016Medical Errors in Perspective — Clarified a key point and added a couple links.
M2016The Causes of Runner's Knee Are Rarely Obvious — Added new images. Beefed up final section about non-biomechanical explanations. Several edits for clarity.
S2016Does Cartilage Regeneration Work? — Miscellaneous minor improvements and updates.
S2016Does Cartilage Regeneration Work? — Added citation to Louw 2016. Converted all inline citations to footnotes.
M2016Alternative Medicine’s Choice — Added citation to Louw 2016 about bogus surgeries, plus a couple minor edits. Added a picture.
L2016The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — New section — Important new evidence that undermines my own debunking, thoroughly acknowledged and analyzed.
L2016Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — New section.
L2016Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — New section.
M2016Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — Science update — Added more information about range of motion and reliability of assessment of ROM.
L2016Massage Therapy for Low Back Pain (So Low That It’s Not In the Back) — More editing for clarity. Added much more detail (and science) about the sacroliac joint.
L2016The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — New section.
M2016Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — Improvements — Expanded and added several new citations.
S2016Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — Minor addition — Added a little about smoking as a risk factor.
S2016Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — Minor addition — Added footnote about other frozen joints, like frozen hips.
L2016Opioids for Chronic Aches & Pains — Transferred and adapted content from a chapter in The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain.
S2016Anxiety & Chronic Pain — Added connection between anxiety and inflammation to the introduction.
M20166 Main Causes of Morning Back Pain — Added some information about fibromyalgia and some other causes of non-back morning pain.
L2016Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — New section.
M2016Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — Upgraded — Article is now substantive enough for removal of “half-baked” disclaimer, and a title change from frozen shoulder “primer” to “guide.”
S2016Your Back Is Not Out of Alignment — Science update — Cited Salata et al.
L2016The Causes of Runner's Knee Are Rarely Obvious — Long overdue revision, upgrades, updating. Added much more scientific context and several citations.
S2016A Deep Dive into Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness — Added citation about compression garments (Beliard et al).
M2016The Complete Guide to Muscle Strains — Expanded — New evidence-based prevention risks and tips.
M2016When to Worry About Neck Pain … and when not to! — Revised intro, clarified a couple points, added a several links to authoritative sources of information on other conditions that can affect the neck.
M2016Massage Therapy for Low Back Pain (So Low That It’s Not In the Back) — Revised the first few hundred words for clarity.
S20166 Main Causes of Morning Back Pain — Edits and elaborations for new nocturnal disc swelling section.
M2016The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Safety update — Updated for consistency with new CDC guidelines. Thorough editing of the section.
M2016The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — Edited — General editing, a new citation, more information about general exercise.
S2016Anxiety & Chronic Pain — Added footnote about the discovery of GABA-eating gut bacteria.
L2016Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — New section.
S2016When to Worry About Neck Pain … and when not to! — Added a couple images, some links. Minor editing.
S2016A Historical Perspective On Aches ‘n’ Pains — New introductory paragraph, for additional historical context.
S2016The Chiropractic Controversies — Cited Bruce Walker’s “aberrant practices that cause significant reputational damage to the profession” (Walker).
M20166 Main Causes of Morning Back Pain — New section: “What about nocturnal intervertebral disc swelling?”
S2016Your Back Is Not Out of Alignment — Science update — Added subsection on risk factors for running injuries.
L2016A Recipe for Chronic Neck Pain After Whiplash — Revised for clarity and thoroughness. Added more recent scientific review, adding support to the original citation the article is based on. New, more descriptive headings.
S2016The Trigger Point Identity Crisis — Added Dr. James’ bio, miscellaneous minor corrections and editing.
M2016The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Safety update — Updated opioid summary for consistency with new CDC guidelines.
M20166 Main Causes of Morning Back Pain — More editing, clarifying the idea of postural stress at night: “the dosage makes the poison.”
M2016Massage Therapy for Back Pain, Hip Pain, and Sciatica — Added footnote explaining contralateral gluteus medius and minimus action. Added footnote about the poor safety record of hip replacement surgery. Miscellaneous minor edits.
S2016The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — Science update — Added two footnotes.
L2016Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — New section.
S2016Spinal Subluxation — Added reference to body perception, Moseley 2008.
M2016The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Update — Added new intro to section about distorted body image.
S2016The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Update — Added new intro to section about distorted body image.
L2016Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — New section.
M2016Trigger Point Doubts — Added a summary of major points to the beginning of the article. Added the story of my evolving views of the subject.
S2016The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Important new related reading — Although not an update to the book itself, I’ve published some important related articles about the scientific controversy over the explanation for trigger points: (1) a heavily referenced review of the evidence that a trigger point is a “tiny cramp”; (2) a summary of the academic controversy about trigger point science; (3) the story of my own doubts and how they’ve changed over the years (this is the “main” article on this theme; it was around before but has been revised heavily). All of this stuff is inside baseball, and not of interest to most readers, but it’s critical to my credibility as an author on this topic — it shows that I’ve really done my homework, and I’m not ignoring the concerns of skeptical experts — so for now I’ve made everything freely available to all site visitors instead of integrating them into the book. Nevertheless, the book has already been heavily influenced by this work, and will continue to be.
L2016Trigger Point Doubts — Major update: new conclusion, and extensive editing for consistency with the launch of two important new related articles, The Trigger Point Identity Crisis and Trigger Points on Trial.
L2016Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — Miscellaneous improvements — Added links to several authoritative/useful sources. General editing to clean up and clarify recent additions. More descriptive headings. Added related reading recommendations.
S2016The Trigger Point Identity Crisis — Editing and integration with other related articles.
L2016Does Epsom Salt Work? — New section — New section discussing the small size of magnesium ions and the 500 Dalton rule of absorption. This isn’t exactly a reversal of my position on absorption, because I was always officially and openly agnostic about it. However, I also clearly thought absorption was a priori implausible, and this update reverses that opinion, which is worth emphasizing.
M2016The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — Improvements — Added more information and a citation about causes of thunderclap headache, and “don’t panic” graphic.
S2016The Insomnia Guide for Chronic Pain Patients — Science update: evidence for CBT for insomnia is now quite strong, see Trauer.
L20166 Main Causes of Morning Back Pain — Editing for clarity and readability, first half. More information about the vulnerability of the paraspinals to trigger points. New image of a messy bed.
S2016The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Minor update — Added a good new example of a trigger point “whisperer” myth.
S2016Water Fever and the Fear of Chronic Dehydration — Added a couple fun pictures, and a tiny bit of editing.
M2016Muscle Pain as an Injury Complication — Revised the introduction.
S2016Does Posture Matter? — Correction — A helpful reader pointed out that a 2010 study of “power poses” may not be very good science. Revised accordingly, and made a few other changes.
L20166 Main Causes of Morning Back Pain — Major revision: a new structure for the article. It’s now built around three possible causes of morning back pain. Modernization of trigger point information as well.
L20166 Main Causes of Morning Back Pain — An important update: added a whole bunch of new information about inflammatory back pain. Its absence in previous versions of the article was a major oversight.
S2016Does Posture Matter? — Science update — Added citation about “text neck.”
M2016The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — Upgraded — Added citation about “text neck,” and some modernization of recommendations related to posture and ergonomics.
M2016The Trigger Point Identity Crisis — Important clarifications about presumptive treatment, and a more precise definition of “spasm” and the difference from non-neurologically mediated contracture. Miscellaneous editing.
S2016Sensitization in Chronic Pain — Added citation about the effect on sleep problems on sensitization.
M2016The Not-So-Humble Healer — General editing and modernizing. Added several links to relevant articles that have been written since.
M2016Massage Therapy for Back Pain, Hip Pain, and Sciatica — Miscellaneous editing and improvements. Fixed a few minor errors, moved some details into footnotes.
M2016Healer Syndrome — Editing, modernization, added some footnotes.
S2016The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Minor update — Finally added lacrosse ball recommendation.
L2016Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder — New section.
L2016The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Major update — Fully modernized risk and safety information about all over-the-counter analgesics.
S2016The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Science update — Added citation about the efficacy of ibuprofen for headache.
M2016The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — Science update — Added citations about causes of thunderclap headaches.
M2016Insomnia Until it Hurts — Science update: added information about central senitization and cited Burton et al.
S2016The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Minor update — Clarification of the significance of some previously cited science, Ferreira et al.
S2016The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Science update — New citations and more information about spontaneously resolving herniations.
S2016Smoking and Chronic Pain — General editing for clarity.
M2016Icing, Heating & Tissue Temperature — Corrections and clarifications, and new information about body temperature in baths, more information about fat as an insulator, and an interesting video.
S2016Is Diagnosis for Pain Problems Reliable? — Added motion palpation. Added a citation about detecting craniosacral therapy. Started update logging.
M2016Zapped! Does TENS work for pain? — Added more information about possible harms, a really bad pun, a link to The Road to Wellville, and a reader comment about the “fancyness” of TENS devices over the years.
L2016Zapped! Does TENS work for pain? — Added section about pulsed electromagnetic field therapy.
S2016Shin Splints Treatment, The Complete Guide — Science update — Significant revision in light of (finally!) good new evidence about natural running and injury prevention.
M2016Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — Science update — Significant revision in light of (finally!) good new evidence about natural running and injury prevention.
S2016The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Science update — Significant revision in light of (finally!) good new evidence about natural running and injury prevention.
M2016The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — Science update — Significant revision in light of (finally!) good new evidence about natural running and injury prevention.
M2016The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — Additions — Added more information about spinal adjustment.
M2016The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — Additions — Added more information about red flags.
S2016The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Science update — Beefed up the evidence that vertebroplasty is an ineffective surgical fix for an allegedly structural problem.
S2016Vitamins, Minerals & Supplements for Pain & Healing — Minor science update about glucosamine.
S2016The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Science update — Added some particularly good science to shore up the personal anecdote added in January.
M2016Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — Good news update — Another good news update: ESWT is starting to look more promising. The section has been revised to be much more positive.
L2016Placebo Power Hype — New section: “Is it okay to pay for a placebo?”
S2016The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Science update — More evidence about more serious side effects of statins, and controversy about prevalence.
S2016Don’t Worry About Lifting Technique — A couple minor changes to make sure it’s completely clear that the article is not arguing that technique doesn’t matter in powerlifting. It does. This article is about occupational lifting, and powerlifting is raised only for an interesting perspective on that topic.
S2016The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Minor science update — Added a note about the odds of back pain having a serious cause.
M2016Water Fever and the Fear of Chronic Dehydration — Added several examples of other personal habits that have clear origins in marketing rather than science. (Also, finally started logging updates, after years of unlogged updates.)
S2016The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Improved — Added a new key point about how to recognize the pain of a nerve root pinch.
L2016Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — New advice — Not only a new section but new good news! First version added Feb 2, substantial edit and expansion Feb 26.
S2016When to Worry About Low Back Pain — Added a bunch of further reading suggestions.
S2016The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Science update — Beefy tune-up for the “pillars” of trigger point science: several new and carefully written footnotes, linking to many painstakingly summarized papers for readers who really want to delve. It’s a bigger update than it looks like on the surface.
S2016Shin Splints Treatment, The Complete Guide — Minor science update — Citation of Collins 2008, a review of icing evidence (or the lack of it), plus related editing.
S2016Does Massage Therapy Work? — Science update — New bad news evidence about manual lymphatic drainage.
L2016Don’t Worry About Lifting Technique — Completed major revision and modernization. (After languishing in obscurity for the last eight years — almost never visited by anyone! And forgotten by me.)
S2016The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Science update — New footnote supporting the use of education (like this tutorial!) to treat chronic pain.
S2016Pain & Injury Survival Tips — Edited — Clarified a key concept: the methodology of self-treatment experimentation.
S2016The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Science update — Added a strong (and interesting) reference about surgical lavage and debridement.
L2016When to Worry About Low Back Pain — Added a substantial new section about left and right low back pain.
L2016Stuck in My Throat — Added “Appendix: A story about a real lump in the throat.”
M2016When to Worry About Low Back Pain — More editing, more! Added some better information about pain being a poor indicator, and the role of myofascial trigger points. This article has become extremely busy in the last couple months — about 4,000 readers per day, as described here — so I am really polishing it and making sure that it’s the best possible answer to people’s fears about back pain.
S2016The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Science update — Added some general explanation of cognititive-behavioural therapy, with a key reference.
M2016When to Worry About Low Back Pain — Added table of worst possible causes of back pain. Miscellaneous editing and organizing.
S2016The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Minor update — Added a good personal anecdote … because my spine is degenerating! Also, a footnote about surprisingly painless joint damage.
M2016Shin Splints Treatment, The Complete Guide — Update — Careful and thorough editing/update of NSAID recommendations, especially with regards to safety.
M2016Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — Update — Careful and thorough editing/update of NSAID recommendations, especially with regards to safety.
M2016The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — Update — Careful and thorough editing/update of NSAID recommendations, especially with regards to safety.
L2016Placebo Power Hype — New section: “Is the placebo effect getting stronger? The Tuttle kerfuffle”
S2015The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) — Minor science update.
S2015The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — Science update — Discussed the implications of some (weak but noteworthy) evidence about screening for the risk of lower limb injuries in athletes.
M2015The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Science update — Added citations to shore up efficacy, and evidence that taping tinkers with knee sensation.
M2015The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Science update — Added discussion of a popular acupuncture-for-back-pain paper, Cherkin 2009. Which is not fit to line a birdcage, in my opinion.
S2015The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — Minor science update — Added citation to shore up evidence that taping tinkers with knee sensation.
M2015The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Edited — Modernization of trigger point summary, more science, and more acknowledgement of controversies.
S2015The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Science update — Added some hard evidence on the minor (non-lethal) risks of SMT from Carlesso 2010.
S2015The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Science update — Added an interesting reference to Carlesso 2013 with some discussion of the implications.
S2015The Complete Guide to Muscle Strains — Minor science update — Citation of Collins 2008 and Bleakley 2012, reviewing icing evidence (or the lack of it), and a few related edits.
M2015The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Edited — Modernization of trigger point summary, more science, acknowledgement of controversies.
M2015The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Edited — Yet more modernization and clarification.
M2015The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Edited — Modernization and clarification.
M2015The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Edited — Modernization and clarification.
M2015The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Edited — Modernization and clarification.
S2015The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Science update — Added more evidence showing no causal connection with hip weakness, plus related editing.
S2015The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Science update — Added a humility citation, conceding the absence of scientific evidence that massage helps neck pain. Also, modernization summary of trigger point therapy.
M2015Tennis Elbow Guide — Isometric contraction for pain control, based on Rio.
M2015The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Edited — Tuned for consistency with my current views.
L2015Massage Therapy for Bruxism, Jaw Clenching, and TMJ Syndrome — Added new section, “Don’t neglect your neck.”
S2015The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Science update — Added a footnote about trigger points being associated with jaw pain.
S2015Contrast Hydrotherapy — Added a citation about icing science. General editing. Moved several examples and elaborations into footnotes.
S2015The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Science update — Added surprisingly good news about methylene blue injections.
S2015The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Science update — Added surprisingly good news about methylene blue injections.
M2015Extraordinary Health Claims — First edit since the article was created about a decade ago.
S2015The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Science update — Added a little more information about the nature of uncovertebral joints.
M2015How to Treat Sciatic Nerve Pain — Added a section about over-the-counter pain-killers.
L2015The Insomnia Guide for Chronic Pain Patients — Added section “Using medications to prevent minor aches and pains from interfering with sleep.”
S2015The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — Minor science update — Citation of Collins 2008, a review of icing evidence (or the lack of it), plus a few related edits.
M2015The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Upgraded — More and clearer red flag details, especially about spinal cord trouble (myelopathy).
M2015The Respiration Connection — Some basic editing of the first half of the article, through “8 reasons.”
L2015The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — New section.
M2015Stuck in My Throat — Good news: added another update on my own story, reporting on the successful resolution of my globus.
M2015The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Revised — Just modernizing and clarifying.
L2015Shin Splints Treatment, The Complete Guide — New section — Made a new section dedicated to other causes, after adding a science update about a fascinating example of a rare cause of stubborn shin pain.
M2015Guide to Repetitive Strain Injuries — Updated discussion of risks and benefits of medications.
S2015The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — New links — Added links to several other relevant articles around the site, and most of those have been updated recently.
S2015Does Epsom Salt Work? — Correction — Fixed an incorrect premise of a minor point: water vapour is pure by definition and cannot be salty, and therefore cannot be even a slightly plausible mechanism of delivery of salt to mucous membranes.
M2015The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Science update — Some referencing about central sensitization, especially this “fun” fact: muscle pain may be especially good at causing CS.
L2015Stuck in My Throat — Added a section “Maybe muscle pain?” and a good photograph of my bizarre tonsil stone.
L2015The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — New section — Better late than never, I’ve added a summary of the expanded integrated hypothesis from Gerwin et al. (2004).
M2015Pain & Injury Survival Tips — Adjustments — Small but meaningful improvements regarding safety and efficacy.
M2015Does Epsom Salt Work? — Correction and improvement — Fixed incorrect information about skin pruning and added the actual (and much more interesting) explanation; cited to substantiate the impermeability of the stratum corneum.
S2015The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Science update — There’s been more study of the role of bacteria in back pain. And still not enough!
L2015Tennis Elbow Guide — Added information about ESWT ultrasound.
L2015Stuck in My Throat — Added a major update: the discovery of a very likely organic cause for my globus.
S2015Does Arnica Gel Work for Pain? — Added some arnica trial evidence.
S2015Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — Science update — Some good news changed to bad news: a discouraging follow-up study on arch-specific stretching.
S2015Pain & Injury Survival Tips — New.
S2015Pain & Injury Survival Tips — Minor update — Added statins.
L2015The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Major update — Completely rewritten and greatly expanded, with much more science, emphasizing strength as a worthwhile treatment option.
M2015The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Revised — Editing and some new science about changing head posture.
S2015The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Minor update — More data on neck pain recovery rates.
S2015The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Minor addition — Added a patient anecdote about a strange muscle spasm experience … which I know all too well.
S2015The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Minor update — Added an expert quote.
M2015Your Back Is Not Out of Alignment — Upgrade — This article went viral on Facebook today. As I often do when an article gets a crapload of traffic, I did some work on it: a table of contents and a bunch of miscellaneous editing and polishing.
M2015Quite a Stretch — Upgrade — Added table of contents.
M2015Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — Upgraded — Many editorial and referencing improvements.
L2015Massage Therapy for Bruxism, Jaw Clenching, and TMJ Syndrome — Added new section, “When massage and relaxation aren’t enough: management of nastier jaw pain.”
L2015The Insomnia Guide for Chronic Pain Patients — Added section about lighting and gadgets.
S2015The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches — Addition — Added sidebar about osmophobia and migraine.
M2015Muscle Pain as an Injury Complication — Added the example of tension headaches in post-concussion syndrome, and some miscellaneous minor editing.
M2015Massage Therapy for Neck Pain, Chest Pain, Arm Pain, and Upper Back Pain — Miscellaneous improvements.
S2015Does Fascia Matter? — Minor update — Small addendum regarding physical therapy.
S2015The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Science update — Added strong evidence from Freedman et al that Q-angles aren’t worth measuring.
S2015The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Science update — Added brief example of nerve pinch by vertebral artery twistiness.
M2015The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Science update — Added information and references about transitional vertebrae and Bertolotti’s syndrome.
M2015The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Science update — Added three good references and a diagram about how much “wiggle” room nerve roots have.
M2015The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Science update — Added three good references and a diagram about how much “wiggle” room nerve roots have.
M2015The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Science update — Added 3 good references and a diagram about how much “wiggle” room nerve roots have.
M2015The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — Expanded — Added several items that might cause diagnostic confusion.
L2015Does Massage Therapy Work? — New section.
M2015The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Expanded — Added about 350 words about neck circle safety.
M2015The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — New sub-topic — Added IT band plungering. No really! If it’s stuck, suck it!
M2015The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Science update — Two new science reviews considered and cited.
M2015Does Massage Therapy Work? — Upgrade — Added a table of contents (finally).
M2015Voltaren Gel: Does It Work? — Significant safety update (and a reassuring one).
M2015The Complete Guide to Muscle Strains — Expanded — Added discussion of surprising data about rates of reinjury.
M2015The Complete Guide to Muscle Strains — Expanded — More than doubled the size of the section with an interesting addition: “Rupture: not as obvious as you’d think!”
S2015The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Minor update — Added an interesting subsection about “fabella syndrome.”
L2015The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) — Added new section, based on Whiteside. A little miscellaneous modernizing and editing.
S2015The Respiration Connection — Upgraded “hydraulics” diagram.
L2015Does Massage Therapy Work? — New section — Added an appendix about the Skeptical Massage Therapists Facebook group.
S2015Pain & Injury Survival Tips — Minor update — Made the tip more concise, and linked out to a new short article about smoking and pain.
M2015The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Rewritten — Completely revised for the 3rd edition of the Workbook: I no longer recommend it.
S2014The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — New citation — Added an important new reference to a scientific paper critical of conventional wisdom.
S2014Are Orthotics Worth It? — Minor clarifications about pedorthist scope of practice.
S2014Shin Splints Treatment, The Complete Guide — Correction — Reduced confidence in the results of a major study of special footwear (Knapik, the subject of the last update). Later removed the citation altogether.
S2014The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Correction — Reduced confidence in the results of a major study of special footwear (Knapik, the subject of the last update). Later removed the reference altogether.
M2014Stuck in My Throat — Added a brief epilogue, and clarification of several of the all-in-your-head concepts.
L2014Stuck in My Throat — Added information about Eagle syndrome and gargling.
S2014Does Fascia Matter? — Minor update — More introduction editing for readability.
S2014The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Science update — Added a new good-news study about massage for neck pain.
S2014The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Minor update — Added a reference for reassuring data about recovery rates.
S2014The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Minor update — Upgraded references on neck pain recovery rates.
S2014Shin Splints Treatment, The Complete Guide — New item — Added a brief but well-researched review of platelet-rich plasma injection.
L2014Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — New section — A short new section, finally, on PRP injections. It’s brief, but links to a main, free article covering the topic in some detail.
L2014The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — New section — A short new section, finally, on PRP injections. I’ve also published a more detailed free article about this.
M2014The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — New item — Added a brief but well-researched review of platelet-rich plasma injection.
L2014The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — New section — A short new section, finally, on PRP injections. I’ve also published a more detailed free article about this.
L2014The Complete Guide to Muscle Strains — Like new — New, but shorter: just a topic summary now, linking to a main, free article.
S2014The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Minor update — General editing, plus a stronger and clearer statement about targeting the vastus medialis.
S2014The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Minor update — General editing and polish, now that the dust has settled from the 2nd edition launch.
S2014The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Minor update — General editing and polish, now that the dust has settled from the 2nd edition launch.
L2014The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Major update — Extensive revision for the 2nd edition.
L2014The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Major update — Extensive revision for the 2nd edition.
L2014The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — New section — A new section for the 2nd edition.
L2014The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — New section — A new section for the 2nd edition.
L2014The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — New section — A new section for the 2nd edition.
L2014The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — New section — A new section for the 2nd edition.
M2014The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Updated — Significant revision and expansion for the 2nd edition.
L2014The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — New edition — Major revision of the book with the help of, Tony Ingram, PT, MSo. The new edition has a few new sections, a strong new focus on the value of judicious exercise therapy, and updated and expanded citations for many key points. Read more about the 2nd edition.
L2014The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Major update — The first complete professional editing of this book has now been completed. Although the difference will not be obvious to most readers, several hundred improvements and corrections were made, and it is definitely a smoother read.
M2014Tennis Elbow Guide — General editing and more details throughout first half. New section about exercise. Improved description of forearm mobilizations.
S2014The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Science update — Added some important acknowledgements that the science of trigger points is a bit half-baked, and linked out to much more information for the curious.
M2014The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — More content — Explanation of the difference between a subluxation and a MID.
S2014The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Minor update — Added Digital Motion X-ray.
M2014Your Back Is Not Out of Alignment — Added interesting perspective from veterinary medicine: as with humans, correlations between structure and pain and disability in animals are poor.
L2014Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — Major edit — Modernized. I continue to hone my understanding of pain weirdness science and its implications.
S2014The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Minor update — New footnotes about the theory of acupuncture/trigger point overlap.
S2014The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Minor update — Plugged a good quality microbreaking reminder app Backache… which was actually inspired by this book. Very cool!
S2014The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Minor Update — Added some humour: a funny video about a core strengthening product.
S2014The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Science update — And, so sorry, it’s bad news.
S2014The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Science update — Added citation to a key 2012 study of the effectiveness of adjustment for neck pain.
L2014The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — New — A new section, but also a summary of an existing free article.
L2014Tennis Elbow Guide — Traffic to this article has increased sharply, so I gave it some love: a thorough general upgrade. I particularly clarified icing rationale and diagnosis.
S2014Pain & Injury Survival Tips — New tip — New tip about an extremely efficient, convenient exercise routine.
S2014Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — Minor addition — Brief review of calf-stretching gadgets.
S2014Shin Splints Treatment, The Complete Guide — Minor update — Added a fun sidebar about a bizarre source of shin pain.
L2014The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — New section — A minor topic, but one of the most overdue sections I’ve ever added to the book: I’ve been asked about these devices a lot over the years.
S2014The Complete Guide to Muscle Strains — Science update — More perspective and detailed information on stretching for recovery.
L2014Shin Splints Treatment, The Complete Guide — New section — A new section mostly based on a particularly striking new treatment story from a reader.
M2014Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — Upgraded — Much more information about the (minor) significance of bone spurs. They may not matter a lot, but it’s good, useful, evidence-based context.
M2014The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — Updated — Added good news story from a reader about a case with a cyst, and improved the information about cysts at the same time.
L2014Does Massage Therapy Work? — New section — New section about massage for fibromyalgia and Li et al.
S2014The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Science update — Added evidence about the effect of massage on fibromyalgia.
L2014The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — Major update — The first complete professional editing of this book has now been completed. Although the difference will not be obvious to most readers, several hundred improvements and corrections were made, and it is definitely a smoother read.
M2014The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Editing — General revision for quality. Added the cheek-bite analogy story for colour.
M2014The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Editing — General revision for quality.
M2014The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Rewritten — Cleaned up and modernized, more information, especially a more useful and evidence-based self-treatment tip.
M2014The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Rewritten — Cleaned up and modernized, more information, especially a more useful and evidence-based self-treatment tip.
S2014The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Minor update — Added a story about phantom limb pain.
L2014Healer Syndrome — Added section “Chronic pain may not have a solution.”
L2014Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — Major update — The first complete professional editing of this book has now been completed. Although the difference will not be obvious to most readers, several hundred improvements and corrections were made, and it is definitely a smoother read.
M2013Your Back Is Not Out of Alignment — Added evidence that being a dirty rotten pronator is … no big deal. Also (finally) added a concluding section about alternatives to structuralism.
S2013The Complete Guide to Muscle Strains — Science update — A (slightly) good news science update about the effect of stretching on recovery.
S2013Shin Splints Treatment, The Complete Guide — Science update — Added another bad-news citation, and type of evidence.
S2013The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Science update — Added another bad-news citation, and type of evidence.
S2013The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Minor update — Added some great backup from a terrific surgeon blogger — who advocates for the necessity of testing placebo surgeries, exactly as I have in this section for many years.
S2013The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Minor update — Minor but fascinating new item about the myth of anaesthetic paralysis and the dominance of the CNS over muscle tone — the kind of nifty item I just love to add to the book!
M2013The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Expanded — Added subsection on electroacupuncture.
M2013The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Science update — Reporting on the greatest hits of back pain science (Machado 2009, a source of several important points here and in other sections).
S2013The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Minor yoga update — Added a reference and paragraph about the risks of yoga, which are minor but real, especially for neck pain.
L2013The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — New section — An introduction to one of the most important theoretical challengers to the traditional explanation for trigger points.
L2013Does Fascia Matter? — New section — Well, sort of new. I blogged about this in the summer of 2011, and I’m just now getting around to transplanting it here. But “here” was always its ultimate destination.
S2013Shin Splints Treatment, The Complete Guide — Science update — I didn’t really ever expect a science update about tuning-fork diagnosis. But here it is! See the concluding footnote.
S2013Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — Minor update — Added a fun science item about the amazing ankle mobility of the Twa people of Africa.
S2013The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Science update — Added a bad-news citation. Sorry about that.
S2013The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — Science update — Added a bad-news citation. Sorry about that.
L2013The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — New section — Intriguing new evidence of circulatory impairment in PFPS patients.
L2013The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — New section.
S2013The Complete Guide to Muscle Strains — Minor update — Added a couple paragraphs about exactly where in a muscle strains tend to occur, and why.
S2013The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — New case study — Added a fascinating and extreme example of the effect of running style from a case study of an ultra-runner.
S2013The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Science update — Some science showing that the effect of hamstring tightness on back function/pain isn’t exactly potent.
M2013The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Science update — Added some science, to start building an evidence-based case for resting.
S2013The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Science update — Another good news science update: more about how surprisingly well knees handle running.
S2013The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Science update — Interpretation of a little junky new science about Pilates.
S2013The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Science update — Added a new study to the pile of evidence that abnormalities are common in healthy people and vice versa.
M2013Does Massage Therapy Work? — Science update — Updated several references, and added an important new one about massage for low back pain, which also spawned an entire new section about the failure of supposedly “advanced” massage techniques.
M2013Mind Over Pain — Science update — A couple of clarifications inspired by, and quotes from a new article by Lorimer Moseley for theConversation.com: Pain really is in the mind, but not in the way you think.
S2013The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Minor science update — Added a tiny, flawed study about yoga for neck pain (for what little it’s worth).
S2013The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Minor update — Added a quote that beautifully expresses the reason for treating chronic pain with … maturity.
S2013Does Fascia Matter? — Minor update — Edited introduction for clarity, and added a couple new “to-do” topics.
S2013Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — New recommendation — Now recommending a specific type of MRI to scan for bone swelling. Thanks to reader R Russell for the suggestion.
S2013The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Science update — A particularly “good news” science update about how running is, counterintuitively, actually pretty good for joints — not hard on them.
M2013The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — Science update — A particularly “good news” science update about how running is, counterintuitively, actually pretty good for joints — not hard on them.
L2013The Complete Guide to Muscle Strains — Major update — Much more detailed and evidence-based tips for estimating recovery time.
M2013The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — Update — A new introduction for the chapter about the trend of anti-running “science.”
S2013The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Minor update — Added a reader anecdote about stretching the IT band helping her anterior knee pain.
L2013The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — New section — Important new chapter about a hype-hot news item.
S2013Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — Minor update — Added a terrific quote from a famous podiatrist about inconsistency in orthotics prescriptions.
M2013Guide to Repetitive Strain Injuries — Revised the introduction a bit: just a little richer and creamier.
M2013Tennis Elbow Guide — Added surgery section with fascinating results of placebo surgery.
L2013Does Posture Matter? — New section.
M2013Mind Over Pain — Science update — Added an important good-news citation, Vibe-Fersum et al, and discussion.
S2013The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Science update — Good news update: new study shows a clear reduction in nonspecific musculoskeletal pain after vitamin D supplementation.
S2013The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — New evidence — Rare good news: the first good quality scientific test showing that reducing fear is actually good medicine. The section got a decent editing as well.
L2013The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — New section.
S2013The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — New evidence — Rare good news: the first good quality scientific test of “the confidence cure” had promising results — which is just about the best thing that could have happened to this chapter.
M2013The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — Updated — Added more detail and a couple examples.
S2013Does Fascia Matter? — Minor update — Interesting new information about what Ida Rolf believed about the relationship beween thixotropy and the idea of fascial release (hint: “nonsense”).
M2013When to Worry About Low Back Pain — More editing and minor improvements. Added the barking dog image. Made the article more “shareable,” with new metadata for social media sites.
S2013Does Massage Therapy Work? — Minor update — Trivial but fun addition of the sloth cuddling cat video.
S2013The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Minor update — Apt aging joints humour added, via comedian Louis CK.
S2013The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — Minor update — Minor but nice: a really good new quote adds some entertaining and genuinely fascinating perspective to this section.
S2013The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Minor update — Interesting, useful new reference.
S2013Pain & Injury Survival Tips — Minor update — Upgraded risk and safety information about Voltaren Gel.
S2013The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Minor update — Upgraded risk and safety information about Voltaren Gel.
S2013Shin Splints Treatment, The Complete Guide — Minor update — Upgraded risk and safety information about Voltaren Gel.
S2013Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — Minor update — Upgraded risk and safety information about Voltaren Gel.
S2013The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Minor update — Upgraded risk and safety information about Voltaren Gel.
S2013The Complete Guide to Muscle Strains — Minor update — Upgraded risk and safety information about Voltaren Gel.
S2013The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Minor update — Upgraded risk and safety information about Voltaren Gel.
S2013The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — Minor update — Upgraded risk and safety information about Voltaren Gel.
S2013The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Minor update — Modernized and expanded a bit, a couple new references, and a generally much better explanation of what fibromyalgia is.
M2013Does Fascia Matter? — Rewritten — A major editing job, particularly to include the much more specific idea that piezoelectricity accounts for releases.
M2013When to Worry About Low Back Pain — Edits and miscellaneous minor improvements. Added one red flag.
L2013Does Fascia Matter? — New section.
L2013Does Fascia Matter? — New section.
M2013Does Massage Therapy Work? — Science update — Important good-science-news additions about the effects of stretching on heart rate regulation, and the effects of massage on anxiety and depression (it reduces them).
L2013Does Posture Matter? — Major new version — An all new article, really: almost nothing untouched.
L2013Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — Product upgrade — Audiobook version now available.
M2013The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — Product upgrade — Audiobook version now available. See the announcement for more information.
S2013Does Fascia Matter? — Minor update — Several minor additions and edits.
L2013The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Major update — All major professional treatment options now summarized.
L2013The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — New section — New standard section I’m introducing to most of the tutorials to “manage expectations.” Too many readers assume there’s going to be a specific miracle treatment plan.
L2013The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Major update — All major self-treatment options now summarized.
L2013The Insomnia Guide for Chronic Pain Patients — Rewrote section, “How to fill those sleepless moments.” The section now deals with the likelihood that it is actually healthy and normal to be awake for a little bit in the middle of the night. A small thing, but the section pretty much had to be completely revised.
L2013Pain & Injury Survival Tips — New section.
M2013The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Edited — Nothing in particular has changed, but it’s definitely a better chapter now.
S2013Does Epsom Salt Work? — Improvement — Added an explanation of why it is probably a bad idea to use Epsom salts as a replacement for a tetanus shot after a dirty puncture wound.
L2013Pain & Injury Survival Tips — New section.
L2013Pain & Injury Survival Tips — New section.
M2013Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — Improved — Expanded and edited. Reflexology and acupuncture added.
S2013Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — improved — A little more and better advice.
L2012Pain & Injury Survival Tips — New section.
S2012The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Science update — The writing was on the wall, but a new comprehensive review of knee lube jobs has confirmed that knee lube jobs are all washed. The section now reflects that.
L2012Pain & Injury Survival Tips — New section.
L2012Pain & Injury Survival Tips — New section — Another psychologically oriented pain-busting tip.
L2012Pain & Injury Survival Tips — New section — A new section for the only two nutraceuticals I consider worth trying for chronic pain.
M2012Pain & Injury Survival Tips — More positive — I have stopped declaring that “all” nutraceuticals are bogus. There are some exceptions, discussed in the following tip.
S2012The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Science update — Some more evidence showing the role of smoking in chronic pain.
M2012Pain & Injury Survival Tips — More positive — I feel better about frictions as a treatment than I used to, so I made this tip sound better.
L2012Vitamins, Minerals & Supplements for Pain & Healing — Turned around on creatine. That stuff seems to work as advertised.
S2012The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Science update — Added references showing connections between smoking and chronic pain.
S2012The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Minor update — Added a funny sidebar about bad anatomy.
S2012Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — Minor update — More detail in my personal story of truly structural foot problem.
S2012The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Science update — Added (more) evidence showing the role of smoking in chronic back pain.
S2012The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — Minor update — Added some fun stuff and context about IT band anatomy.
L2012Pain & Injury Survival Tips — New section.
S2012The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Science update — Two new studies of the connection between knee pain and the inner thigh muscles, showing … modest correlations of dubious significance.
M2012Pain & Injury Survival Tips — Rewritten — Shifted the focus to elementary pain neurology and a more practical and specific implication: generating a “placebo” effect through education.
M2012Shin Splints Treatment, The Complete Guide — Expanded — Added much more detailed self-help information for trigger points.
M2012Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — Expanded — Added much more detailed self-help information for trigger points.
M2012The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — Expanded — Added much more detailed self-help information for trigger points.
L2012Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — Major upgrade — Rewritten, modernized, expanded.
S2012Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — Minor update — Some customizing of “brain wrangling” for plantar fasciitis.
S2012The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Minor update — Some customizing of “brain wrangling” for patellofemoral pain syndrome.
S2012Shin Splints Treatment, The Complete Guide — Science update — Weak but interesting new evidence on natural running and injury prevention.
S2012Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — Science update — Weak but interesting new evidence on natural running and injury prevention.
S2012The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Science update — Weak but interesting new evidence on natural running and injury prevention.
S2012The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — Science update — Weak but interesting new evidence on natural running and injury prevention.
L2012The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Major update — Greatly expanded. Now offers a comprehensive summary of all treatment options: the good, the bad and the ugly.
L2012The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — New section — New standard section I’m introducing to most of the tutorials to “manage expectations.” Too many readers assume there’s going to be a specific miracle treatment plan.
L2012The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — New section — An important new section created as a direct response to reader demand.
M2012The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Medium update — Added a few paragraphs about foam rolling and trying to “elongate” the IT band.
S2012The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — Science update — Added evidence from the first foam rolling research ever done.
S2012The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Science update — New reference strongly supporting a key, controversial point.
M2012Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — Rewritten — Bigger, better, more positive discussion of this option.
L2012The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — Major update — Numerous significant clarifications, revisions, and new references, and a generally stronger recommendation.
S2012The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Minor update — Added an intriguing quote about evolution and the lack of back pain in hunter gatherers.
L2012Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — Major update — A “minor” science item really changed the tone of this section. The point is still the same — avoid heels — but now it’s a more interesting point.
S2012The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Science update — A minor but interesting new item about high heels.
S2012The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Science update — Put “foot fear” in context with some reassuring high heels science.
S2012Pain & Injury Survival Tips — Science update — Added a depressing but important citation showing that chronic pain probably shortens lifespan.
S2012The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Science update — Added evidence that the stakes are high with chronic pain: it may even shorten lives.
S2012The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Science update — Added evidence that the stakes are high with chronic pain: it may even shorten lives.
S2012The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Minor update — A minor case study and some science to help establish that muscle can indeed be the source of pain.
S2012Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — Science update — Unimportant but interesting science update about the forces required for arch muscles to activate for support.
L2012The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — New section.
S2012The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Minor update — Added an item about “mobile” bumps that people often mistake for trigger points.
S2012The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Science update — Added a key reference about the effectiveness of massage for back pain, with the (safe) assumption that it probably applies to neck pain as well.
S2012The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Minor update — Added a new suggestion for safe, pleasant self-tractioning.
L2012The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — New section.
M2012Your Back Is Not Out of Alignment — A thorough, modernizing edit and general cleanup. A number of references added, a few tired and weaker ones removed.
M2012The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — Rewritten — Now about four times more detailed than before and much more strongly focused on the positive, what my final recommendations are, and how to “put it all together.”
L2012Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — New section — New standard section I’m introducing to most of the tutorials to “manage expectations.” Too many readers assume there’s going to be a specific miracle treatment plan.
M2012The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — Nice upgrade — After years of procrastination, I have finally created a video demonstration of a tricky ITBS stretch! About time!
L2012The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — New section — New standard section I’m introducing to most of the tutorials to “manage expectations.” Too many readers assume there’s going to be a specific miracle treatment plan.
M2012Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — Rewritten — Completely revised to reflect new science and new understanding of the interaction of ice with “inflammation.”
S2012Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — New science — Same content, more science support.
L2012Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — New section.
S2012Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — Science update — References pretty much completely renovated and upgraded — and generally good news for once.
L2012Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — New section.
L2012Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — Like new — Major upgrade, with a much more detailed introduction to this part of the book, and long and useful list of summarized treatment options.
S2012Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — Minor update — Slightly expanded and clarified. Added a note about feeling a thickened plantar fasciitis with your fingers.
S2012Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — Minor update — Several minor clarifications and improvements.
L2012Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — New section.
L2012The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — New section.
L2012Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — New section.
L2012Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — New section.
M2012Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — Edited — Revision in preparation for audiobook production, with a focus on modernizing information about trigger points.
M2012Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — Edited — Revision in preparation for audiobook production, with a focus on modernizing information about trigger points.
M2012Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — Rewritten — Merged information on arches and pronation, rewrote for clarity, and added a couple nice new supporting quotes.
M2012Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — Edited — Longer and clearer than before. In particular, I came up with a much better way of explaining the fragility of “bony” spurs.
S2012Does Fascia Matter? — Minor update — Added some acknowledgement that fascia contractility may still have some slow-motion “power” even if it is quite weak. I’ll probably expand on this soon.
S2012Does Fascia Matter? — Minor update — Added a very useful link to FasciaResearch.de.
M2012The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Edited — Now more accurate and clearer. Edits in preparation for audiobook version.
L2012Does Epsom Salt Work? — New section — Reported on evidence against the absorption of Epsom salt.
S2012Does Massage Therapy Work? — Minor update regarding DOMS.
L2012Does Fascia Matter? — New section.
M2012Does Massage Therapy Work? — A new item at the end of the myths section: “fascia matters.” And improved information about detoxification myths.
L2012Does Fascia Matter? — Major update — Article launched as a compilation of about four previous articles on this topic, with revisions and some new information.
L2012The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Major update — New evidence that massage can cause “rhabdomyolysis” makes it quite a lot easier to understand a lot of negative reactions to trigger point therapy. This is valuable perspective, and the section has been heavily revised to exploit it.
M2012Does Massage Therapy Work? — More on “tightness matters”: interesting evidence that massage therapists cannot reliably find the side of pain by feel.
S2012Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — Science update — Added good new evidence that customization of orthotics isn’t very accurate.
S2012The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Science update — A new study shows that massage therapists cannot reliably find the side of pain by feel — good evidence that no gross spasm (or other structural factor) is usually involved.
S2012The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Science update — Interesting evidence that massage therapists cannot reliably find the side of pain by feel.
M2012Guide to Repetitive Strain Injuries — Added a small concluding section — didn’t really know where else to put it! “Sort of an afterword: RSI and trauma, sittin’ in a tree.”
S2012The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — New diagram — Nice new diagram, “Key locations for massage treatment of ITBS.”
S2012Does Arnica Gel Work for Pain? — Minor update … but an important integrity check. Oberbaum et al is one of only a handful of better trials of homeopathy with positive results, and the only one I know of with no obvious flaws. I added some analysis of this important example paper. Also: added a “warning” to casual readers about which science sections they can skip over. Some places in the article have gotten pretty dense. 😃
S2012The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Minor update — This introduction now does a better (and more honest) job of mentioning some trigger point controversies, and links to an important companion article about them, for keener readers, Trigger Point Doubts.
S2012The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Minor update — Added a fine example of taking yoga very, very seriously as an option. See first footnote in section.
L2012Does Arnica Gel Work for Pain? — Major update. Detailed analysis of claims and citations on a manufacturer’s website I restored exploration of research into arnica in ointment form, with new references. There is now generally much more information about these creams as “hybrid” products, both homeopathic and herbal. Many sections were expanded and clarified. New editorial images.
S2012The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Minor update — Another nice swimming update: I added some excellent perspective from an experienced competitive swimmer.
L2012Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — New section — Inspired by something surprising that I learned writing the new surgery section, this is a brief description of another major possible explanation for persistent symptoms.
L2012Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — New section — Substantive new section of about 1400 words, with several footnotes and new references.
M2012Pain is Weird — Science update — Added references to and quotes from Atul Gawande’s excellent article, Scratching an itch through the scalp to the brain.
M2012Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis — More expert opinion — Added a particularly strong anti-steroids opinion to the section.
S2012The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Minor update — Very simple swimming tip added. Hat tip to reader Eric C.
S2012The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — Minor update — Very simple swimming tip added. Hat tip to reader Eric C.
S2012The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Minor update — A minor but good: clearer, better language. Editing continues as I work on the audiobook version.
M2012The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Update — Editing, and several new paragraphs about safety issues.
S2012The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Minor update — Some simple revision for clarity and quality, and a bit more content.
S2012The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Minor update — More editing for clarity and thoroughness. This also happens to be one of the first edits I’m doing to prepare for audiobook production.
M2012The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Science update — More science, and a few substantial new footnotes fielding common concerns and questions.
L2012The Complete Guide to Muscle Strains — New section.
S2012The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Science update — I revised the warning away from hydration, and included some fun new myth-busting evidence about hydration and cramping.
M2012Pain & Injury Survival Tips — General improvements — The whole document got some love today, in the form of widespread editing and clarifications. There’s definitely more polish here.
L2012Pain & Injury Survival Tips — New section.
L2012Pain & Injury Survival Tips — New section.
L2012Pain & Injury Survival Tips — New section.
M2012Does Massage Therapy Work? — Added a new massage myth that “tightness matters,” with an interesting footnote about palpatory pareidolia.
M2012The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain — Science update — Clarified information about pelvic tilt, and beefed it up with some more science.
M2012Vitamins, Minerals & Supplements for Pain & Healing — Added a reference to a new Protandim study, only the second ever in humans … and it’s irrelevant and negative.
M2012Are Orthotics Worth It? — General editing and significant expansion.
L2012The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — Major update — Rewritten and expanded, much clearer and more detailed. Not much new science, though — ITBS+orthotics science is pretty scarce!
M2012Does Massage Therapy Work? — Beefed up my explanation of how massage can be psychologically and emotionally important. See “Personal growth: a massage benefit that may be impossible to define or measure.
L2012The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — New section.
S2012The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain — Minor update — Added an item about non-pain symptoms, like itching.
M2012The Complete Guide to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome — Updated — Answered some common reader concerns about planning.
S2012The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks — Minor update — Added some creative problem-solving for hot climates.
S2012The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — Minor update — Added a paragraph about elliptical machines.
S2012The Complete Guide to IT Band Syndrome — Minor update — Added an example of surgery gone wrong.