Sensible advice for aches, pains & injuries

Is IT Band Tendonitis Really a Tendonitis?

Recent research has clearly shown that the IT band itself is not the anatomy that gets inflamed, which has significant implications for treatment

updated (first published 2008)
by Paul Ingraham, Vancouver, Canadabio
I am a science writer and a former Registered Massage Therapist with a decade of experience treating tough pain cases. I was the Assistant Editor of for several years. I’ve written hundreds of articles and several books, and I’m known for readable but heavily referenced analysis, with a touch of sass. I am a runner and ultimate player. • more about memore about

This short article introduces you to a basic concept in IT band pain that surprises almost everyone — even doctors and therapists. Then it refers you on to an advanced tutorial that covers every possible aspect of iliotibial band syndrome, including every possible treatment option.

I am an “expert” in iliotibial band syndrome — not just because I’m a runner and I’ve had it myself, nor even because I’ve treated many patients with the condition. I know a lot about it because I’ve studied the subject hard for several years now, and because I’ve had the good fortune to be in contact with literally thousands of patients around the world who read my website, consult with me, and tell me their stories.

But like everything else in life, the more you learn, the less you know!


IT band pain is not as simple as you think

Iliotibial band syndrome is a mysterious condition. It’s amazing how many things we still don’t understand about. You would think that science would have mastered a little thing like this long ago! But that’s not the case.

For instance, it was only recently discovered that the IT band does not actually “rub” across the side of the knee, as the conventional wisdom had always assumed (it even used to be called IT band friction syndrome for this reason).

In 2007, John Fairclough of University of Wales Institute, with seven coauthors, challenged the definition of iliotibial band syndrome, and even of the iliotibial band itself, in a paper published in the Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. They presented a compelling analysis, concluding that “the perception of movement of the ITB across the epicondyle is an illusion.”

They were basically suggesting that the function and anatomy of the iliotibial band has been misunderstood and oversimplified for decades!

And then again in 2008 this new idea was strongly validated by a new study. Michels et al operated on 35 knees, trying to solve IT band syndrome in a completely new way, based on the new understanding of the anatomy. If the new theory was wrong, their procedure would be pointless and ineffective. But it worked!

So what’s actually inflamed?

If the iliotibial band is not the irritated structure in ITBS … what is?

The most likely suspect is actually a layer of fat and loose connective tissue pinched between the iliotibial band and the knee! And this isn’t just an educated guess: it is supported by MRI studies, which provide good evidence that it is a layer of tissue under the iliotibial band that is inflamed (an abnormal appearance in the scan compared to healthy knees). Dissection study has also shown evidence of this. And of course there is also the brand new study by Michels et al mentioned above.

So it’s not so much a “tendonitis” as a “layer-of-fat-itis”!

Other problems with the conventional wisdom

Oy, where do I start?!

If IT band syndrome isn’t really a tendonitis, exactly, then most of the conventional wisdom already has to go out the window right there. But there are numerous other problems and surprises, like the fact that researchers have also found that people with iliotibial band syndrome don’t have tight IT bands! Or at least, no more than anyone else.

Hip strengthening, often optimistically believed to be a cure for this condition, is under heavy scientific attack the past couple years.

An a array of structural problems such as short legs and tilted pelvises, once assumed to be the root cause of the problem, are looking less and less likely to have anything to do with runner’s knee.

So, what should you do?

You cannot actually expect to get good advice from most doctors and therapists about ITBS. Your knee pain is an important problem to you, but to most professionals it’s just a trivial entry in a textbook — probably an old textbook, that doesn’t come within ten years of including this new information. In school, I probably studied no more than a paragraph about ITBS, and perhaps I answered a single test question about the condition in three years of training. I would estimate that less than 1% of professionals have a firm grip on recent IT band science.

Fortunately, most people with IT band “tendonitis” recover reasonably well with a little rest and ice. However, many cases do become chronic, especially if some unwise trainer or therapist advises you to try to exercise your way out of it (bad idea, by the way). If you’re serious about your knees, it’s well worth it to learn all about iliotibial band syndrome … and learn it sooner rather than later.

An extremely detailed iliotibial band syndrome tutorial

In addition to hands-on therapy, I make my living by studying pain problems like iliotibial band syndrome for years, and then publishing and selling extremely best-in-class tutorials about them. I have published eight such tutorials since 1999. I set out to make each one of them the single best resource on the subject. My ITBS tutorial has always been the most popular of them — so many people have the condition, and so many people have gotten frustrated by ineffective treatment, that the tutorial seems to have found an extremely large (and grateful) audience. For many years now my tutorial has been the best thing you can find on the subject … and it is still constantly improved by reader feedback and by integrating new scientific evidence. There’s simply nothing else like it.

Paul Ingraham, Publisher
778-968-0930 (Vancouver)

Full access to the ITBS tutorial is available immediately for USD$1995. Click the “Buy Now” button to purchase access.

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Plus …

read on any device, no passwords
refund at any time, in a week or a year
call 778-968-0930 for purchase help

Here is what some readers have said about the iliotibial band syndrome tutorial over the years. Feedback is always welcome. I focus on the positive in this section, but I want to acknowledge that I certainly do receive some criticisms as well. In many cases I respond by making improvements to the tutorial. However, the vast majority of feedback is enthusiastic. Thanks, everyone!

I owe you many thanks. Your tutorial has given me great hope. I was extremely discouraged and frustrated by the issues I was having, but I experienced more relief in my first session with a trigger point therapist than I did in 12 weeks of physical therapy.

— Ryan Luke, MA, CSCS, Department of Kinesiology and Health, Georgia State University

Thanks for your great work. I’ve read about ITBS for years and everything I’ve ever read did not add up to ½ of the information you provided.

— Kevin Burnett, runner, California

I appreciate your research on this subject, and that you have clearly debunked lots of poor quality “science.”

— Sukey Jacobsen, Sukey Design Studio, Mount Vernon, Washington — fine art, tiles and functional art

When investigating my IT band injury online, the information I found was superficial. That changed when I came upon your well-researched report. I teach scientific writing as part of my class and as I read your report I kept thinking that I'd love for my students to read it and see that well-researched work can be fun to write and read as well. Your plan is the only one I have seen based on peer-reviewed research, evidence, and professional and personal experience. No doubt, it'll take a healthy dose of patience, self-restraint, diligence, and positive attitude on my part, but what you wrote and the runner testimonials showed me that ITB injuries are not something to mess around with. Thanks for the great work, Paul!

— Cortney Martin, PhD, Virginia Tech

I really appreciate your objectivity.

— Dr. Bryan Allf, MD, North Carolina

On May 21st, 2008, Dr. M. Gilbart released my IT band and now all is well. This is 2 years and 5 months after the first diagnosis. Thank you again for all your encouragement. I re-read your iliotibial band syndrome tutorial several times over the last few months, and each time I found new nuggets of advice.

— Rosemaree Gentles, recovered iliotibial band syndrome sufferer

One more special comment. In the Spring of 2009, I received an incredible endorsement from Jonathon Tomlinson, a GP in Hackney, East London, praising the whole website and every tutorial:

I'm writing to congratulate and thank you for your impressive ongoing review of musculoskeletal research. I teach a course, Medicine in Society, at St. Leonards Hospital in Hoxton. I originally stumbled across your website whilst looking for information about pain for my medical students, and have recommended your tutorials to them. Your work deserves special mention for its transparency, evidence base, clear presentation, educational content, regular documented updates, and lack of any commercial promotional material.

— Dr. Jonathon Tomlinson, MBBS, DRCOG, MRCGP, MA, The Lawson Practice, London

High praise indeed! Thank you, Dr. Tomlinson — testimonials just don’t get much better than that.

read on any device, no passwords
refund at any time, in a week or a year
call 778-968-0930 for purchase help

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