PainSci summary of Zhang 2011?This page is one of thousands in the PainScience.com bibliography. It is not a general article: it is focused on a single scientific paper, and it may provide only just enough context for the summary to make sense. Links to other papers and more general information are provided at the bottom of the page, as often as possible. ★★★★☆4-star ratings are for bigger/better studies and reviews published in more prestigious journals, with only quibbles. Ratings are a highly subjective opinion, and subject to revision at any time. If you think this paper has been incorrectly rated, please let me know.
This study demonstrates that much more information can be obtained by imaging the neck in a range of positions (dynamic MRI), as opposed to just a neutral position. 50 patients on their way to neck surgery to help with spinal cord trouble were much more thoroughly scanned than they normally would have been. Cord impingement was spotted in just 17 patients in the neutral position, but thirty-seven in extension (and several in flexion as well). Cord inflammation was visible in just 13 patients in neutral position but twenty in a flexed position. The authors concluded that “Dynamic MRI is useful to determine more accurately the number of levels where the spinal cord is compromised.”
original abstract†Abstracts here may not perfectly match originals, for a variety of technical and practical reasons. Some abstacts are truncated for my purposes here, if they are particularly long-winded and unhelpful. I occasionally add clarifying notes. And I make some minor corrections.
STUDY DESIGN: The authors evaluated preoperative modifications of the cervical spinal canal in flexion and extension in 50 patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) and looked for impingement of the spinal cord not diagnosed in the neutral position.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the usefulness of preoperative flexion-extension magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for patients with CSM.
SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Dynamic factors contribute to CSM. Although the clinical manifestations and spinal or spinal cord morphology in patients with myelopathy have been reported, to our knowledge, there are no studies that include the cervical spinal cord length, sagittal diameter, and available space in patients with CSM in flexion, extension, and the neutral position.
METHODS: Dynamic MRI changes in canal stenosis during flexion-extension were evaluated in 50 patients with CSM in the supine position. The authors determined length of the cervical cord (LCC, C1-C7), cervical cord sagittal diameter (CCSD, C3-T1), cervical cord available space (CCAS, C3-T1), intramedullary high-intensity signal (IHIS) changes, number of stenosis, and severity of cord impingement in flexion, extension, and the neutral positions.
RESULTS: On both the anterior and posterior edges of the cord, mean LCC in flexion was longer than in extension or the neutral position and longer in the neutral position than in extension (P < 0.05). In all three positions, the average length of the anterior edge of the cervical cord was longer than the posterior edge (P < 0.05). The mean value of CCSD at each level in extension was greater than in flexion or the neutral position (P < 0.05). In the neutral position, CCSDs were greater than in flexion from C4 to C7 (P < 0.05), but this difference failed to reach significance at levels C3 and T1. In the neutral position, CCAS was greater than in either extension or flexion (P < 0.05), and CCAS was greater in flexion than in extension (P < 0.05) at all levels except C6, at which CCAS was greater in flexion than in either extension or the neutral position (P < 0.05). MRI demonstrated functional cord impingement (grade 3 of Mühle) in 6 of the 50 (12%) patients in flexion, in 17 patients (34%) in the neutral position, and in 37 patients (74%) in extension. IHIS was observed in flexion in 20 patients (40%), in the neutral position in 13 patients (26%), and in extension in 7 patients (14%).
CONCLUSION: Cervical spondylotic myelopathy results from the synergistic action of static and dynamic factors, the latter of which play an important role. In some patients, IHIS on T2 images is only visible with the neck in flexion. That might explain why IHIS is first detected after surgery in some patients in whom MRI was obtained before surgery only in the neutral position. Dynamic MRI is useful to determine more accurately the number of levels where the spinal cord is compromised, and to better evaluate narrowing of the canal and IHIS. New information provided by flexion-extension MRI might change our strategy for CSM management.
These two articles on PainScience.com cite Zhang 2011 as a source:
- PS Digital Motion X-Ray — What’s the risk from the radiation exposure? Is the diagnostic potential worth it?
- PS A Rational Guide to Fibromyalgia — The science of the mysterious disease of pain, exhaustion, and mental fog
This page is part of the PainScience BIBLIOGRAPHY, which contains plain language summaries of thousands of scientific papers & others sources. It’s like a highly specialized blog. A few highlights:
- A Bayesian model-averaged meta-analysis of the power pose effect with informed and default priors: the case of felt power. Gronau 2017 Comprehensive Results in Social Psychology.
- The neck and headaches. Bogduk 2014 Neurol Clin.
- Agreement of self-reported items and clinically assessed nerve root involvement (or sciatica) in a primary care setting. Konstantinou 2012 Eur Spine J.
- Effect of NSAIDs on Recovery From Acute Skeletal Muscle Injury: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Morelli 2017 Am J Sports Med.
- Association of Spinal Manipulative Therapy With Clinical Benefit and Harm for Acute Low Back Pain: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Paige 2017 JAMA.