One article on PainSci cites Toth 2020: Zapped! Does TENS work for pain?
original abstract †Abstracts here may not perfectly match originals, for a variety of technical and practical reasons. Some abstacts are truncated for my purposes here, if they are particularly long-winded and unhelpful. I occasionally add clarifying notes. And I make some minor corrections.
BACKGROUND: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries and reconstruction (ACLR) promote quadriceps muscle atrophy and weakness that can persist for years, suggesting the need for more effective rehabilitation programs. Whether neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) can be used to prevent maladaptations in skeletal muscle size and function is unclear. PURPOSE: To examine whether early NMES use, started soon after an injury and maintained through 3 weeks after surgery, can preserve quadriceps muscle size and contractile function at the cellular (ie, fiber) level in the injured versus noninjured leg of patients undergoing ACLR. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. METHODS: Patients (n = 25; 12 men/13 women) with an acute, first-time ACL rupture were randomized to NMES (5 d/wk) or sham (simulated microcurrent electrical nerve stimulation; 5 d/wk) treatment to the quadriceps muscles of their injured leg. Bilateral biopsies of the vastus lateralis were performed 3 weeks after surgery to measure skeletal muscle fiber size and contractility. Quadriceps muscle size and strength were assessed 6 months after surgery. RESULTS: A total of 21 patients (9 men/12 women) completed the trial. ACLR reduced single muscle fiber size and contractility across all fiber types (P < .01 to P < .001) in the injured compared with noninjured leg 3 weeks after surgery. NMES reduced muscle fiber atrophy (P < .01) through effects on fast-twitch myosin heavy chain (MHC) II fibers (P < .01 to P < .001). NMES preserved contractility in slow-twitch MHC I fibers (P < .01 to P < .001), increasing maximal contractile velocity (P < .01) and preserving power output (P < .01), but not in MHC II fibers. Differences in whole muscle strength between groups were not discerned 6 months after surgery. CONCLUSION: Early NMES use reduced skeletal muscle fiber atrophy in MHC II fibers and preserved contractility in MHC I fibers. These results provide seminal, cellular-level data demonstrating the utility of the early use of NMES to beneficially modify skeletal muscle maladaptations to ACLR. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Our results provide the first comprehensive, cellular-level evidence to show that the early use of NMES mitigates early skeletal muscle maladaptations to ACLR.
This page is part of the PainScience BIBLIOGRAPHY, which contains plain language summaries of thousands of scientific papers & others sources. It’s like a highly specialized blog. A few highlights:
- No long-term effects after a three-week open-label placebo treatment for chronic low back pain: a three-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial. Kleine-Borgmann 2022 Pain.
- Exercise and education versus saline injections for knee osteoarthritis: a randomised controlled equivalence trial. Bandak 2022 Ann Rheum Dis.
- Association of Lumbar MRI Findings with Current and Future Back Pain in a Population-based Cohort Study. Kasch 2022 Spine (Phila Pa 1976).
- A double-blinded randomised controlled study of the value of sequential intravenous and oral magnesium therapy in patients with chronic low back pain with a neuropathic component. Yousef 2013 Anaesthesia.
- Is Neck Posture Subgroup in Late Adolescence a Risk Factor for Persistent Neck Pain in Young Adults? A Prospective Study. Richards 2021 Phys Ther.