PainSci summary of Thordarson 1995?This page is one of thousands in the PainScience.com bibliography. It is not a general article: it is focused on a single scientific paper, and it may provide only just enough context for the summary to make sense. Links to other papers and more general information are provided at the bottom of the page, as often as possible. ★★★☆☆3-star ratings are for typical studies with no more (or less) than the usual common problems. Ratings are a highly subjective opinion, and subject to revision at any time. If you think this paper has been incorrectly rated, please let me know.
This article as summarized by Bolgla: “The posterior tibialis provides the most significant dynamic arch support during the stance phase of gait. The posterior tibialis eccentrically lengthens to control pronation and reduce the tension applied to the plantar fascia during weight acceptance.” And we also know from Basmajian 1963 that the arch muscles only “kick in” to under quite heavy loads: about 400 pounds.
original abstract†Abstracts here may not perfectly match originals, for a variety of technical and practical reasons. Some abstacts are truncated for my purposes here, if they are particularly long-winded and unhelpful. I occasionally add clarifying notes. And I make some minor corrections.
This study was designed to evaluate the dynamic support provided to the human longitudinal arch by the leg muscles active in the stance phase of gait and by the plantar aponeurosis. Ten fresh adult cadaveric specimens were mounted in a materials testing machine. The tendons of the posterior tibialis, flexor digitorum longus, flexor hallucis longus, peroneus longus, peroneus brevis, and Achilles tendon were attached to force transducers. Plantar loads of 0, 350 and 700 N were applied, and the tendons were tensioned individually. The Achilles tendon was tensioned an amount equal to the plantar load; the posterior tibialis, flexor digitorum longus, flexor hallucis longus, peroneus longus, and peroneus brevis were tensioned a fractional amount (depending on the proportion of the cross-sectional area to the gastrocsoleus complex). The angular relationships between the first metatarsal, navicular, and talus were recorded using a 3-dimensional movement analysis system. An additional series of measurements was obtained by positioning the ankle plantarflexed 10 degrees under a plantar load of 350 N. Dorsiflexing the toes with the ankle in a neutral position and loading the foot to 350 N and 700 N permitted an evaluation of the effect of the plantar aponeurosis. The plantar aponeurosis, via dorsiflexion of the toes, contributed the most significant arch support in the sagittal plane with a 3.6 degrees increase between the first metatarsal and talus at 350 N and a 2.3 degrees increase at 700 N. The posterior tibialis tendon consistently provided arch support at plantar loads of 350 N and 700 N. The peroneus longus consistently abducted the forefoot in the transverse plane at 350-N and 700-N load levels. The study provides further insight into the dynamic supporting and deforming forces of the longitudinal arch.
These three articles on PainScience.com cite Thordarson 1995 as a source:
- PS Massage Therapy for Shin Splints — Perfect Spot No. 3, in the tibialis anterior muscle of the shin
- PS Massage Therapy for Tired Feet (and Plantar Fasciitis!) — Perfect Spot No. 10, in the arch muscles of the foot
- PS Save Yourself from Plantar Fasciitis! — Plantar fasciitis explained in great detail, including every possible treatment option, and all supported by recent scientific research
This page is part of the PainScience BIBLIOGRAPHY, which contains plain language summaries of thousands of scientific papers & others sources. It’s like a highly specialized blog. A few highlights:
- Effectiveness of customised foot orthoses for Achilles tendinopathy: a randomised controlled trial. Munteanu 2015 Br J Sports Med.
- A Bayesian model-averaged meta-analysis of the power pose effect with informed and default priors: the case of felt power. Gronau 2017 Comprehensive Results in Social Psychology.
- The neck and headaches. Bogduk 2014 Neurol Clin.
- Agreement of self-reported items and clinically assessed nerve root involvement (or sciatica) in a primary care setting. Konstantinou 2012 Eur Spine J.
- Effect of NSAIDs on Recovery From Acute Skeletal Muscle Injury: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Morelli 2017 Am J Sports Med.