Five articles on PainSci cite Takasaki 2009: (1) The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain (2) A Guide to Sciatica Treatment for Patients (3) Complete Guide to Low Back Pain (4) The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks (5) Nerve Pain Is Overdiagnosed
original abstract †Abstracts here may not perfectly match originals, for a variety of technical and practical reasons. Some abstacts are truncated for my purposes here, if they are particularly long-winded and unhelpful. I occasionally add clarifying notes. And I make some minor corrections.
STUDY DESIGN: A comparative measurement design investigating the C4-Th1 intervertebral foramen under simulated clinical tests for cervical radiculopathy using magnetic resonance imaging.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate functional changes in the cervical intervertebral foramen during the axial compression test (ACT), axial distraction test (DT), and Spurling test (SST).
SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Although alterations of the cross-sectional area of the cervical intervertebral foramen during flexion/extension and rotation have been reported, there are no studies that have measured functional changes in foramen cross-sectional area (FCSA) or shape during the simulation of clinical tests for cervical radiculopathy.
METHODS: 23 participants (12 men, age: 24.52 years) without history of significant spinal disorders were studied. The 3-dimensional sequence of the magnetic resonance imaging of the foramen was performed with a 0.2-T horizontally open unit. Measurements were taken of FCSA and foramen shape (ratio of foramen height to FCSA). These measurements were conducted under 4 different conditions; control-resting in supine, DT-neck in neutral with a 12 kg distraction force, ACT-neck in neutral with a 7 kg axial compression force, SST-the cervical spine was extended (12.79 degrees), rotated (63.36 degrees), and laterally flexed (28.49 degrees), in a standardized manner.
RESULTS: At all levels except for C7-Th1, the FCSA significantly increased (P < 0.05) during the DT to around 120% of control. In contrast, FCSA significantly decreased to approximately 70% of control (P < 0.05) at all levels during the SST. In addition, there were significant differences (P> 0.05) in foramen shape between the ACT and SST condition, but only at the C4-C5 and C5-C6 levels.
CONCLUSION: During 3 clinical tests for cervical radiculopathy functional, relevant, and changes in the cervical intervertebral foramen were evident particularly in the middle cervical spine.
- “Morphometric analysis of the roots and neural foramina of the lumbar vertebrae,” Fuat Torun, Habibullah Dolgun, Hakan Tuna, Ayhan Attar, Aylin Uz, and Atilla Erdem, Surgical Neurology, 2006.
- “Computed tomographic evaluation of lumbar spinal structures during traction,” Hidayet Sari, Ulkü Akarirmak, Ilhan Karacan, and Haluk Akman, Physiother Theory Pract, 2005.
This page is part of the PainScience BIBLIOGRAPHY, which contains plain language summaries of thousands of scientific papers & others sources. It’s like a highly specialized blog. A few highlights:
- Relationships Between Sleep Quality and Pain-Related Factors for People with Chronic Low Back Pain: Tests of Reciprocal and Time of Day Effects. Gerhart 2017 Ann Behav Med.
- Modulation in the elastic properties of gastrocnemius muscle heads in individuals with plantar fasciitis and its relationship with pain. Zhou 2020 Sci Rep.
- Association Between Plantar Fasciitis and Isolated Gastrocnemius Tightness. Nakale 2018 Foot Ankle Int.
- No Added Benefit of Combining Dry Needling With Guideline-Based Physical Therapy When Managing Chronic Neck Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Stieven 2020 J Orthop Sports Phys Ther.
- Effectiveness of customised foot orthoses for Achilles tendinopathy: a randomised controlled trial. Munteanu 2015 Br J Sports Med.