The influence of cervical traction, compression, and spurling test on cervical intervertebral foramen size
Five articles on PainSci cite Takasaki 2009: 1. The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain 2. How to Treat Sciatic Nerve Pain 3. The Complete Guide to Low Back Pain 4. The Complete Guide to Neck Pain & Cricks 5. Neuropathies Are Overdiagnosed
original abstract †Abstracts here may not perfectly match originals, for a variety of technical and practical reasons. Some abstacts are truncated for my purposes here, if they are particularly long-winded and unhelpful. I occasionally add clarifying notes. And I make some minor corrections.
STUDY DESIGN: A comparative measurement design investigating the C4-Th1 intervertebral foramen under simulated clinical tests for cervical radiculopathy using magnetic resonance imaging.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate functional changes in the cervical intervertebral foramen during the axial compression test (ACT), axial distraction test (DT), and Spurling test (SST).
SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Although alterations of the cross-sectional area of the cervical intervertebral foramen during flexion/extension and rotation have been reported, there are no studies that have measured functional changes in foramen cross-sectional area (FCSA) or shape during the simulation of clinical tests for cervical radiculopathy.
METHODS: 23 participants (12 men, age: 24.52 years) without history of significant spinal disorders were studied. The 3-dimensional sequence of the magnetic resonance imaging of the foramen was performed with a 0.2-T horizontally open unit. Measurements were taken of FCSA and foramen shape (ratio of foramen height to FCSA). These measurements were conducted under 4 different conditions; control-resting in supine, DT-neck in neutral with a 12 kg distraction force, ACT-neck in neutral with a 7 kg axial compression force, SST-the cervical spine was extended (12.79 degrees), rotated (63.36 degrees), and laterally flexed (28.49 degrees), in a standardized manner.
RESULTS: At all levels except for C7-Th1, the FCSA significantly increased (P < 0.05) during the DT to around 120% of control. In contrast, FCSA significantly decreased to approximately 70% of control (P < 0.05) at all levels during the SST. In addition, there were significant differences (P> 0.05) in foramen shape between the ACT and SST condition, but only at the C4-C5 and C5-C6 levels.
CONCLUSION: During 3 clinical tests for cervical radiculopathy functional, relevant, and changes in the cervical intervertebral foramen were evident particularly in the middle cervical spine.
- “Morphometric analysis of the roots and neural foramina of the lumbar vertebrae,” Torun et al, Surgical Neurology, 2006.
- “Computed tomographic evaluation of lumbar spinal structures during traction,” Sari et al, Physiother Theory Pract, 2005.
This page is part of the PainScience BIBLIOGRAPHY, which contains plain language summaries of thousands of scientific papers & others sources. It’s like a highly specialized blog. A few highlights:
- Inciting events associated with lumbar disc herniation. Suri 2010 Spine J.
- Prediction of an extruded fragment in lumbar disc patients from clinical presentations. Pople 1994 Spine (Phila Pa 1976).
- Characteristics of patients with low back and leg pain seeking treatment in primary care: baseline results from the ATLAS cohort study. Konstantinou 2015 BMC Musculoskelet Disord.
- Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of universal school-based mindfulness training compared with normal school provision in reducing risk of mental health problems and promoting well-being in adolescence: the MYRIAD cluster randomised controlled trial. Kuyken 2022 Evid Based Ment Health.
- Is there a relationship between throbbing pain and arterial pulsations? Mirza 2012 J Neurosci.