One article on PainSci cites Staud 2006: The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain
original abstract †Abstracts here may not perfectly match originals, for a variety of technical and practical reasons. Some abstacts are truncated for my purposes here, if they are particularly long-winded and unhelpful. I occasionally add clarifying notes. And I make some minor corrections.
Characteristic symptoms of fibromyalgia syndrome (FM) include widespread pain, fatigue, sleep abnormalities, and distress. FM patients show psychophysical evidence for mechanical, thermal, and electrical hyperalgesia. To fulfill FM criteria, the mechanical hyperalgesia needs to be widespread and present in at least 11 out of 18 well-defined body areas (tender points). Peripheral and central abnormalities of nociception have been described in FM and these changes may be relevant for the increased pain experienced by these patients. Important nociceptor systems in the skin and muscle seem to undergo profound changes in FM patients by yet unknown mechanisms. These changes may result from the release of algesic substances after muscle or other soft tissue injury. These pain mediators can sensitize important nociceptor systems, including the transient receptor potential channel, vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1), acid sensing ion channel (ASIC) receptors, and purino-receptors (P2X3). Subsequently, tissue mediators of inflammation and nerve growth factors can excite these receptors and cause substantial changes in pain sensitivity. FM pain is widespread and does not seem to be restricted to tender points (TP). It frequently comprises multiple areas of deep tissue pain (trigger points) with adjacent much larger areas of referred pain. Analgesia of areas of extensive nociceptive input has been found to provide often long lasting local as well as general pain relief. Thus interventions aimed at reducing local FM pain seem to be effective but need to focus less on tender points but more on trigger points (TrP) and other body areas of heightened pain and inflammation.
This page is part of the PainScience BIBLIOGRAPHY, which contains plain language summaries of thousands of scientific papers & others sources. It’s like a highly specialized blog. A few highlights:
- Relationships Between Sleep Quality and Pain-Related Factors for People with Chronic Low Back Pain: Tests of Reciprocal and Time of Day Effects. Gerhart 2017 Ann Behav Med.
- Modulation in the elastic properties of gastrocnemius muscle heads in individuals with plantar fasciitis and its relationship with pain. Zhou 2020 Sci Rep.
- Association Between Plantar Fasciitis and Isolated Gastrocnemius Tightness. Nakale 2018 Foot Ankle Int.
- No Added Benefit of Combining Dry Needling With Guideline-Based Physical Therapy When Managing Chronic Neck Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Stieven 2020 J Orthop Sports Phys Ther.
- Effectiveness of customised foot orthoses for Achilles tendinopathy: a randomised controlled trial. Munteanu 2015 Br J Sports Med.