original abstract†Abstracts here may not perfectly match originals, for a variety of technical and practical reasons. Some abstacts are truncated for my purposes here, if they are particularly long-winded and unhelpful. I occasionally add clarifying notes. And I make some minor corrections.
OBJECTIVE: To apply ultrasound (US) imaging techniques to better describe the characteristics of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) and the immediately adjacent soft tissue.
DESIGN: Four sites in each patient were labeled based on physical examination as active myofascial trigger points (A-MTrPs; spontaneously painful), latent myofascial trigger points (L-MTrPs; nonpainful), or normal myofascial tissue. US examination was performed on each subject by a team blinded to the physical findings. A 12 approximately 5MHz US transducer was used. Vibration sonoelastography (VSE) was performed by color Doppler variance imaging while simultaneously inducing vibrations (approximately 92Hz) with a handheld massage vibrator. Each site was assigned a tissue imaging score as follows: 0, uniform echogenicity and stiffness; 1, focal hypoechoic region with stiff nodule; 2, multiple hypoechoic regions with stiff nodules. Blood flow in the neighborhood of MTrPs was assessed using Doppler imaging. Each site was assigned a blood flow waveform score as follows: 0, normal arterial flow in muscle; 1, elevated diastolic flow; 2, high-resistance flow waveform with retrograde diastolic flow.
SETTING: Biomedical research center.
PARTICIPANTS: Subjects (N=9) meeting Travell and Simons' criteria for MTrPs in a taut band in the upper trapezius.
INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: MTrPs were evaluated by (1) physical examination, (2) pressure algometry, and (3) three types of US imaging including gray-scale (2-dimensional [2D] US), VSE, and Doppler.
RESULTS: MTrPs appeared as focal, hypoechoic regions on 2D US, indicating local changes in tissue echogenicity, and as focal regions of reduced vibration amplitude on VSE, indicating a localized, stiff nodule. MTrPs were elliptical, with a size of .16+/-.11 cm(2). There were no significant differences in size between A-MTrPs and L-MTrPs. Sites containing MTrPs were more likely to have a higher tissue imaging score compared with normal myofascial tissue (P<.002). Small arteries (or enlarged arterioles) near A-MTrPs showed retrograde flow in diastole, indicating a highly resistive vascular bed. A-MTrP sites were more likely to have a higher blood flow score compared with L-MTrPs (P<.021).
CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary findings show that, under the conditions of this investigation, US imaging techniques can be used to distinguish myofascial tissue containing MTrPs from normal myofascial tissue (lacking trigger points). US enables visualization and some characterization of MTrPs and adjacent soft tissue.
- “Assessment of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs): a new application of ultrasound imaging and vibration sonoelastography,” Siddhartha Sikdar, Jay P Shah, Elizabeth Gilliams, Tadesse Gebreab, and Lynn H Gerber, Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc, 2008.
- “Objective sonographic measures for characterizing myofascial trigger points associated with cervical pain,” Jeffrey J Ballyns, Jay P Shah, Jennifer Hammond, Tadesse Gebreab, Lynn H Gerber, and Siddhartha Sikdar, J Ultrasound Med, 2011.
- “Ultrasonic characterization of the upper trapezius muscle in patients with chronic neck pain,” Diego Turo, Paul Otto, Jay P Shah, Juliana Heimur, Tadesse Gebreab, Maryam Zaazhoa, Katherine Armstrong, Lynn H Gerber, and Siddhartha Sikdar, Ultrason Imaging, 2013.
These three articles on PainScience.com cite Sikdar 2009 as a source:
- Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain Syndrome — A guide to the unfinished science of muscle pain, with reviews of every theory and self-treatment and therapy option
- Save Yourself from Muscle Strain! — Muscle strain (pulled muscle) and muscle pain explained and discussed in great detail, plus every imaginable treatment option
- The Trigger Point Identity Crisis — The biological evidence that a trigger point is a lesion in muscle tissue
This page is part of the PainScience BIBLIOGRAPHY, which contains plain language summaries of thousands of scientific papers & others sources. It’s like a highly specialized blog. A few highlights:
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- A Bayesian model-averaged meta-analysis of the power pose effect with informed and default priors: the case of felt power. Gronau 2017 Comprehensive Results in Social Psychology.
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- Effect of NSAIDs on Recovery From Acute Skeletal Muscle Injury: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Morelli 2017 Am J Sports Med.