A sketch of books, representing the bibliography.

The Pain & Therapy Bibliography

A unique database of scientific sources about musculoskeletal pain, injury & treatment, constantly updated & annotated since 1997

Some people collect stamps; I collect science about painful musculoskeletal problems (with a smattering of important items from other areas of pain science). I have been building this database for about 24 years now. It’s big — about 2800 scientific papers, and another thousand other items like books, webpages, etc. — but it does not pretend to be comprehensive (there are huge institutional databases for that, especially the Physiotherapy Evidence Database).

What makes this bibliography valuable is that its contents were hand-picked, every record chosen for a reason, and many hundreds of them are also described and “translated,” their significance emphasized, with links to related articles. I favour sources with an interesting angle: surprising results, odd methods, profound implications, and so on.

In short, it has depth and character.

So where is it?

All around you! The bibliography is everywhere on PainScience.com, in the footnotes mostly,1Like so:

Woolf CJ. Central sensitization: Implications for the diagnosis and treatment of pain. Pain. 2010 Oct;152(2 Suppl):S2–15. PubMed #20961685 ❐ PainSci #54851 ❐
At the end of this page, every single article, book, and webpage cited by any article or book on this website is listed (currently about 2400 of them).

About footnotes & citation style

A robust bibliography and “good footnotes” still set PainScience apart in modern online publishing.2My footnotes contain either extra commentary and whimsical asides, or citations to science and other sources. It’s still rare to see effective footnoting on websites.3It’s a gnarly technology and design problem. Bibliographic data and citation formats do not play nicely with modern publishing technology. There’s lots of software for wrangling references on your PC, but it’s still almost impossible to integrate them (efficiently) into blogs and websites. It still has to mostly be done “manually”… and so it mostly doesn’t get done. I have invested heavily over the years in doing it right.

I first put PainScience.com on a firm bibliographic foundation in 2007 — a “footnotes first” content management system based on the fairly exotic BibTeX data format, a huge custom programming job. In 2015, I converted my referencing format to the Vancouver system,4In 1978, editors of medical journals from around the world met here — probably close to where I live — and thrashed out a new standard. It was so difficult and tedious that they named it after the city they were trapped in. Their work is still the standard today, and it is heavily documented. the standard used by most medical journals, along with a bunch of other upgrades — a massive project.5I had to re-tool the footnote factory & re-train all the bibliography gnomes. Weirdly, I felt much more comfortable diving into this Sysyphean chore simply because the new standard was named after where I live. Every footnote is lovingly crafted by software — essential for mass production. I had to reprogram that software to speak “Vancouver style.” Read more.

All of this is extraordinary for a private educational site — unique, in fact. I take referencing really seriously!

Recent bibliography highlights

The last 10 items added with a summary of more than 120 words.

Articles about science, research, and citing

All 2412 citations on PainScience.com

Sort of. This is large and messy data set! But it is more or less correct and current as of Feb 2020.

  1. Gajhede-Knudsen M, Ekstrand J, Magnusson H, Maffulli N. Recurrence of Achilles tendon injuries in elite male football players is more common after early return to play: an 11-year follow-up of the UEFA Champions League injury study. Br J Sports Med. 2013 Aug;47(12):763–8.
  2. Habets B, van den Broek AG, Huisstede BM, Backx FJ, van Cingel RE. Return to Sport in Athletes with Midportion Achilles Tendinopathy: A Qualitative Systematic Review Regarding Definitions and Criteria. Sports Med. 2018 Mar;48(3):705–723.
  3. Mafi N, Lorentzon R, Alfredson H. Superior short-term results with eccentric calf muscle training compared to concentric training in a randomized prospective multicenter study on patients with chronic Achilles tendinosis. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2001;9(1):42–7.
  4. Roos EM, Engström M, Lagerquist A, Söderberg B. Clinical improvement after 6 weeks of eccentric exercise in patients with mid-portion Achilles tendinopathy -- a randomized trial with 1-year follow-up. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2004 Oct;14(5):286–95.
  5. Wolfe F, Clauw DJ, Fitzcharles MA, et al. 2016 Revisions to the 2010/2011 fibromyalgia diagnostic criteria. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2016 12;46(3):319–329.
  6. Galvez-Sánchez CM, Reyes Del Paso GA. Diagnostic Criteria for Fibromyalgia: Critical Review and Future Perspectives. J Clin Med. 2020 Apr;9(4).
  7. Lee JW, Mok KM, Chan HC, Yung PS, Chan KM. Eccentric hamstring strength deficit and poor hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio are risk factors for hamstring strain injury in football: A prospective study of 146 professional players. J Sci Med Sport. 2018 Aug;21(8):789–793.
  8. van Dyk N, Bahr R, Burnett AF, et al. A comprehensive strength testing protocol offers no clinical value in predicting risk of hamstring injury: a prospective cohort study of 413 professional football players. Br J Sports Med. 2017 Dec;51(23):1695–1702.
  9. Green B, Bourne MN, Pizzari T. Isokinetic strength assessment offers limited predictive validity for detecting risk of future hamstring strain in sport: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Sports Med. 2018 Mar;52(5):329–336.
  10. Lewis C, Souvlis T, Sterling M. Strain-Counterstrain therapy combined with exercise is not more effective than exercise alone on pain and disability in people with acute low back pain: a randomised trial. J Physiother. 2011;57(2):91–8.
  11. Wong CK. Strain counterstrain: current concepts and clinical evidence. Man Ther. 2012 Feb;17(1):2–8.
  12. Loopik MF, Winters M, Moen MH. Atrophy and Depigmentation After Pretibial Corticosteroid Injection for Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome: Two Case Reports. J Sport Rehabil. 2016 Dec;25(4):380–381.
  13. Singh P, Madanipour S, Bhamra JS, Gill I. A systematic review and meta-analysis of platelet-rich plasma versus corticosteroid injections for plantar fasciopathy. Int Orthop. 2017 06;41(6):1169–1181.
  14. Macmull S, Jaiswal PK, Bentley G, et al. The role of autologous chondrocyte implantation in the treatment of symptomatic chondromalacia patellae. Int Orthop. 2012 Jul;36(7):1371–7.
  15. David WS, Bowley MP, Mehan J, et al. Case 19-2017 - A 53-Year-Old Woman with Leg Numbness and Weakness. N Engl J Med. 2017 Jun;376(25):2471–2481.
  16. Cope JR, Ratard RC, Hill VR, et al. The first association of a primary amebic meningoencephalitis death with culturable Naegleria fowleri in tap water from a US treated public drinking water system. Clin Infect Dis. 2015 Apr;60(8):e36–42.
  17. Chen J, Zhang F, Chen H, Pan H. {Rhabdomyolysis After the Use of Percussion Massage Gun: A Case Report}. Phys Ther. 2020 11.
  18. McCarthy M, Raval AP. The peri-menopause in a woman's life: a systemic inflammatory phase that enables later neurodegenerative disease. J Neuroinflammation. 2020 Oct;17(1):317.
  19. Mascarenhas RO, Souza MB, Oliveira MX, et al. Association of Therapies With Reduced Pain and Improved Quality of Life in Patients With Fibromyalgia: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA Intern Med. 2020 Oct.
  20. McKenzie B. Placebos for Pets? The Truth About Alternative Medicine in Animals. 1st ed. Ockham Publishing; 2019.
  21. Prather AA, Pressman SD, Miller GE, Cohen S. Temporal Links Between Self-Reported Sleep and Antibody Responses to the Influenza Vaccine. Int J Behav Med. 2020 Mar.
  22. Haller H, Lauche R, Sundberg T, Dobos G, Cramer H. Craniosacral therapy for chronic pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2019 Dec;21(1):1.
  23. Behm D, Alizadeh S, Anvar S, et al. Non-local muscle fatigue effects on muscle strength, power, and endurance in healthy individuals: A systematic review and meta- analysis. SportRxiv. 2020 Sep.
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  26. Wang W, Shi M, Zhou C, et al. Effectiveness of corticosteroid injections in adhesive capsulitis of shoulder: A meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017 Jul;96(28):e7529.
  27. Smuck M, Schneider BJ, Ehsanian R, Martin E, Kao MC. Smoking Is Associated with Pain in All Body Regions, with Greatest Influence on Spinal Pain. Pain Med. 2020 Sep;21(9):1759–1768.
  28. Rechardt M, Shiri R, Karppinen J, et al. Lifestyle and metabolic factors in relation to shoulder pain and rotator cuff tendinitis: a population-based study. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2010 Jul;11:165.
  29. Stafford MA, Peng P, Hill DA. Sciatica: a review of history, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and the role of epidural steroid injection in management. Br J Anaesth. 2007 Oct;99(4):461–73.
  30. Ropper AH, Zafonte RD. Sciatica. N Engl J Med. 2015 Mar;372(13):1240–8.
  31. Ashbrook J, Rogdakis N, Callaghan MJ, Yeowell G, Goodwin PC. The therapeutic management of back pain with and without sciatica in the emergency department: a systematic review. Physiotherapy. 2020 Jul;109:13–32.
  32. Gerhart JI, Burns JW, Post KM, et al. Relationships Between Sleep Quality and Pain-Related Factors for People with Chronic Low Back Pain: Tests of Reciprocal and Time of Day Effects. Ann Behav Med. 2017 Jun;51(3):365–375.
  33. Brown AM, Zifchock RA, Lenhoff M, Song J, Hillstrom HJ. Hip muscle response to a fatiguing run in females with iliotibial band syndrome. Hum Mov Sci. 2019 Apr;64:181–190.
  34. Williams AC, Fisher E, Hearn L, Eccleston C. Psychological therapies for the management of chronic pain (excluding headache) in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Aug;8:CD007407.
  35. Challoumas D, Kirwan PD, Borysov D, et al. Topical glyceryl trinitrate for the treatment of tendinopathies: a systematic review. Br J Sports Med. 2019 Feb;53(4):251–262.
  36. Zhou JP, Yu JF, Feng YN, et al. Modulation in the elastic properties of gastrocnemius muscle heads in individuals with plantar fasciitis and its relationship with pain. Sci Rep. 2020 02;10(1):2770.
  37. Nakale NT, Strydom A, Saragas NP, Ferrao PN. Association Between Plantar Fasciitis and Isolated Gastrocnemius Tightness. Foot Ankle Int. 2018 03;39(3):271–277.
  38. Mease PJ, Van den Bosch F, Sieper J, et al. Performance of 3 Enthesitis Indices in Patients with Peripheral Spondyloarthritis During Treatment with Adalimumab. J Rheumatol. 2017 05;44(5):599–608.
  39. Matthew Whalan, Ric Lovell, John A Sampson. Do Niggles Matter? - Increased injury risk following physical complaints in football (soccer). Science and Medicine in Football. 2020;4(3):216–224.
  40. Cavaleri R, Thapa T, Beckenkamp PR, Chipchase LS. The influence of kinesiology tape colour on performance and corticomotor activity in healthy adults: a randomised crossover controlled trial. BMC Sports Sci Med Rehabil. 2018;10:17.
  41. Hoffman KM, Trawalter S, Axt JR, Oliver MN. Racial bias in pain assessment and treatment recommendations, and false beliefs about biological differences between blacks and whites. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 Apr;113(16):4296–301.
  42. Forner LB, Beckman EM, Smith MD. Symptoms of pelvic organ prolapse in women who lift heavy weights for exercise: a cross-sectional survey. Int Urogynecol J. 2020 Aug;31(8):1551–1558.
  43. Fuller JT, Lynagh M, Tarca B, et al. Functional Movement Screen Pain Location and Impact on Scoring Have Limited Value for Injury Risk Estimation in Junior Australian Football Players. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2020 Feb;50(2):75–82.
  44. Moberg M, Lindholm ME, Reitzner SM, et al. Exercise Induces Different Molecular Responses in Trained and Untrained Human Muscle. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2020 Aug;52(8):1679–1690.
  45. Finucane LM, Downie A, Mercer C, et al. International Framework for Red Flags for Potential Serious Spinal Pathologies. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2020 Jul;50(7):350–372.
  46. Ermutlu C, Aksakal M, Gümüştaş A, et al. Thickness of plantar fascia is not predictive of functional outcome in plantar fasciitis treatment. Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc. 2018 Nov;52(6):442–446.
  47. Cariga P, Ahmed S, Mathias CJ, Gardner BP. The prevalence and association of neck (coat-hanger) pain and orthostatic (postural) hypotension in human spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2002 Feb;40(2):77–82.
  48. Gao B, Dwivedi S, Milewski MD, Cruz J. Lack of Sleep and Sports Injuries in Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. J Pediatr Orthop. 2019;39(5):e324–e333.
  49. Dennis J, Dawson B, Heasman J, Rogalski B, Robey E. Sleep patterns and injury occurrence in elite Australian footballers. J Sci Med Sport. 2016 Feb;19(2):113–6.
  50. van Dyk N, Bahr R, Whiteley R, et al. Hamstring and Quadriceps Isokinetic Strength Deficits Are Weak Risk Factors for Hamstring Strain Injuries: A 4-Year Cohort Study. Am J Sports Med. 2016 Jul;44(7):1789–95.
  51. Pinto MD, Blazevich AJ, Andersen LL, Mil-Homens P, Pinto RS. Hamstring-to-quadriceps fatigue ratio offers new and different muscle function information than the conventional non-fatigued ratio. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2018 Jan;28(1):282–293.
  52. Simons LE, Moulton EA, Linnman C, et al. The human amygdala and pain: evidence from neuroimaging. Hum Brain Mapp. 2014 Feb;35(2):527–38.
  53. Flor H. New developments in the understanding and management of persistent pain. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2012 Mar;25(2):109–13.
  54. Nitter AK, Pripp AH, Forseth KØ. Are sleep problems and non-specific health complaints risk factors for chronic pain? A prospective population-based study with 17 year follow-up. Scand J Pain. 2012 Oct;3(4):210–217.
  55. Jurado-Fasoli L, De-la-O A, Molina-Hidalgo C, et al. Exercise training improves sleep quality: A randomized controlled trial. Eur J Clin Invest. 2020 Mar;50(3):e13202.
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