PainSci summary of Ruhli 2004?This page is one of thousands in the PainScience.com bibliography. It is not a general article: it is focused on a single scientific paper, and it may provide only just enough context for the summary to make sense. Links to other papers and more general information are provided at the bottom of the page, as often as possible. ★★☆☆☆2-star ratings are for studies with flaws, bias, and/or conflict of interest; published in lesser journals. Ratings are a highly subjective opinion, and subject to revision at any time. If you think this paper has been incorrectly rated, please let me know.
This study of changes in spinal characteristics (in Swiss adults) since the late 19th century found … well, basically nothing. Spines are pretty much the same now as they were then. At least in Switzerland.
original abstract†Abstracts here may not perfectly match originals, for a variety of technical and practical reasons. Some abstacts are truncated for my purposes here, if they are particularly long-winded and unhelpful. I occasionally add clarifying notes. And I make some minor corrections.
Low back pain origins have been a matter of great controversy. While spinal stenosis is now radiologically traceable, the alteration of intervertebral foramen is less clear. The aim of this study was to assess "secular trends"-alterations occurring from one generation to the next-in osseous intervertebral foramina of the major vertebral segments in an industrialized society, and to discuss their possible clinical implication. The macerated "maximum intervertebral foramen width" and "intervertebral foramen height" of all major vertebral levels in 71 non-pathologic Swiss adult skeletons from the nineteenth and early twentieth century, with known individual age and sex and similar geographic and socio-economic background, were measured by sliding caliper at validated landmarks. A secular trend of the increase in "maximum intervertebral foramen width" is found for most levels, with females showing a more prominent alteration. Additionally, the non-pathologic "maximum intervertebral foramen width" does not change with respect to individual age, nor is a significant side difference detectable. "Intervertebral foramen height," hereby defined as the difference of the dorsal vertebral body height minus pedicle height, demonstrates for most levels, and either sex, an insignificant negative secular trend. Neither stature nor skeletal robustness vary significantly through time within this particular sample. The results of this study, despite obvious inadequacies of methods used, exclude secular narrowing of the "maximum intervertebral foramen width" as the only cause of radiculopathy or spinal stenosis. Furthermore, we found a mild insignificant decrease of the clinically more relevant "intervertebral foramen height." Nevertheless, the detected short-time variability of the bony intervertebral foramen, independent of individual stature, skeletal robustness or age, argues for an enhanced focus on the understanding of clinically relevant changes of spinal morphology from generation to generation.
One article on PainScience.com cites Ruhli 2004 as a source:
- PS Save Yourself from Low Back Pain! — Low back pain myths debunked and all your treatment options reviewed
This page is part of the PainScience BIBLIOGRAPHY, which contains plain language summaries of thousands of scientific papers & others sources. It’s like a highly specialized blog. A few highlights:
- Effectiveness of customised foot orthoses for Achilles tendinopathy: a randomised controlled trial. Munteanu 2015 Br J Sports Med.
- A Bayesian model-averaged meta-analysis of the power pose effect with informed and default priors: the case of felt power. Gronau 2017 Comprehensive Results in Social Psychology.
- The neck and headaches. Bogduk 2014 Neurol Clin.
- Agreement of self-reported items and clinically assessed nerve root involvement (or sciatica) in a primary care setting. Konstantinou 2012 Eur Spine J.
- Effect of NSAIDs on Recovery From Acute Skeletal Muscle Injury: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Morelli 2017 Am J Sports Med.