original abstract †Abstracts here may not perfectly match originals, for a variety of technical and practical reasons. Some abstacts are truncated for my purposes here, if they are particularly long-winded and unhelpful. I occasionally add clarifying notes. And I make some minor corrections.
Unaccustomed strenuous exercise that includes lengthening contraction (LC) often causes delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), characterised as muscular mechanical hyperalgesia. Previously we reported that a bradykinin-like substance released from the muscle during exercise plays a pivotal role in triggering the process of muscular mechanical hyperalgesia by upregulating nerve growth factor (NGF) in exercised muscle of rats. We show here that cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) are also involved in DOMS. COX-2 inhibitors but not COX-1 inhibitors given orally before LC completely suppressed the development of DOMS, but when given 2 days after LC they failed to reverse the mechanical hyperalgesia. COX-2 mRNA and protein in exercised muscle increased six- to 13-fold in mRNA and 1.7-2-fold in protein 0-12 h after LC. COX-2 inhibitors did not suppress NGF upregulation after LC. Instead, we found GDNF mRNA was upregulated seven- to eight-fold in the exercised muscle 12 h-1 day after LC and blocked by pretreatment of COX-2 inhibitors. In situ hybridisation studies revealed that both COX-2 and GDNF mRNA signals increased at the periphery of skeletal muscle cells 12 h after LC. The accumulation of COX-2 mRNA signals was also observed in small blood vessels. Intramuscular injection of anti-GDNF antibody 2 days after LC partly reversed DOMS. Based on these findings, we conclude that GDNF upregulation through COX-2 activation is essential to mechanical hyperalgesia after exercise.
- “Bradykinin and nerve growth factor play pivotal roles in muscular mechanical hyperalgesia after exercise (delayed-onset muscle soreness),” Shiori Murase, Etsuji Terazawa, Fernando Queme, Hiroki Ota, Teru Matsuda, Kenji Hirate, Yasuko Kozaki, Kimiaki Katanosaka, Toru Taguchi, Hisako Urai, and Kazue Mizumura, J Neurosci, 2010.
- “Decreased nerve growth factor upregulation is a mechanism for reduced mechanical hyperalgesia after the second bout of exercise in rats,” H Urai, S Murase, and K Mizumura, Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 2013.
- “Delayed onset muscle soreness: Involvement of neurotrophic factors,” Kazue Mizumura and Toru Taguchi, J Physiol Sci, 2016.
This page is part of the PainScience BIBLIOGRAPHY, which contains plain language summaries of thousands of scientific papers & others sources. It’s like a highly specialized blog. A few highlights:
- Relationships Between Sleep Quality and Pain-Related Factors for People with Chronic Low Back Pain: Tests of Reciprocal and Time of Day Effects. Gerhart 2017 Ann Behav Med.
- Modulation in the elastic properties of gastrocnemius muscle heads in individuals with plantar fasciitis and its relationship with pain. Zhou 2020 Sci Rep.
- Association Between Plantar Fasciitis and Isolated Gastrocnemius Tightness. Nakale 2018 Foot Ankle Int.
- No Added Benefit of Combining Dry Needling With Guideline-Based Physical Therapy When Managing Chronic Neck Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Stieven 2020 J Orthop Sports Phys Ther.
- Effectiveness of customised foot orthoses for Achilles tendinopathy: a randomised controlled trial. Munteanu 2015 Br J Sports Med.