Exercise rehabilitation restores physiological cardiovascular responses to short-term head-out water immersion in patients with chronic heart failure
Three articles on PainSci cite Mourot 2010: 1. The Complete Guide to Chronic Tension Headaches 2. Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder 3. Get in the Pool for Pain
PainSci commentary on Mourot 2010: ?This page is one of thousands in the PainScience.com bibliography. It is not a general article: it is focused on a single scientific paper, and it may provide only just enough context for the summary to make sense. Links to other papers and more general information are provided wherever possible.
In patients with coronary artery disease, short-term head-out water immersion had several significant effects on circulatory function, especially, including a significantly decreased pulse rate, both before and after a rehabilitation program. Patients with chronic heart failure were initially unaffected by immersion, but “restored the usual central responses.” Arterial compliance was the only hemodynamic factor that was not affected by immersion.
~ Paul Ingraham
original abstract †Abstracts here may not perfectly match originals, for a variety of technical and practical reasons. Some abstacts are truncated for my purposes here, if they are particularly long-winded and unhelpful. I occasionally add clarifying notes. And I make some minor corrections.
PURPOSE: Rehabilitation programs increasingly involve immersed exercising, including inpatients suffering from severe cardiovascular diseases such as coronary artery disease (CAD) or chronic heart failure (CHF). The hemodynamic responses to short-term head-out water immersion are not well defined in these diseases. This study was aimed at evaluating (1) the cardiac and peripheral hemodynamic responses to short-term head-out water immersion in patients with CHF (n = 12) and CAD (n = 12) and (2) the effect of a rehabilitation program on these responses.
METHODS: Wrist arterial tonometry was performed in the upright posture before and during immersion (1.30-m depth) once before and once after a 3-week rehabilitation program including gymnic water exercises.
RESULTS: In patients with CAD, water immersion triggered a significant increase in stroke volume, cardiac output, and pulse pressure and a significant decrease in pulse rate, diastolic blood pressure, and systemic vascular resistances, both before and after the rehabilitation program. In patients with CHF, no significant immersion-linked changes in cardiovascular variables were observed before rehabilitation. However, after completion of the rehabilitation program, it was found that water immersion caused significant increases in stroke volume, cardiac output, and pulse pressure.
CONCLUSION: In patients with CHF, this 3-week rehabilitation program restored the usual central responses to head-out water immersion (increase in stroke volume and cardiac output). In both patients with CHF and CAD, acute water immersion did not change arterial compliance.
- “Maximum and Resting Heart Rate in Treadmill and Deep-Water Running in Male International Volleyball Players,” Cuesta-Vargas et al, International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education, 2009.
- “Effect of immersion, submersion, and scuba diving on heart rate variability,” Schipke et al, British Journal of Sports Medicine, 2001.
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