PainSci summary of Morelli 2017?This page is one of thousands in the PainScience.com bibliography. It is not a general article: it is focused on a single scientific paper, and it may provide only just enough context for the summary to make sense. Links to other papers and more general information are provided at the bottom of the page, as often as possible. ★★★★★5-star ratings are for sentinel studies, excellent experiments with meaningful results. Ratings are a highly subjective opinion, and subject to revision at any time. If you think this paper has been incorrectly rated, please let me know.
“We can put a man on the moon,” but we still don’t really know if non-steroidal anti-inflammatories (NSAIDs) like ibuprofen have benefits other than pain relief for injured muscle tissue (mostly soreness after exercise). It’s even possible they impair healing by suppressing aspects of inflammation that are necessary for healing. This review of 41 relevant scientific papers, the first of its kind, concluded that NSAIDs may cause a “small to medium” drop in various signs of injury in the short term, compared to recovery without NSAIDs. Curiously, the effect is more pronounced in the lower body.
Also odd: recovery impairment was detected only in animals.
Most of the studies reviewed had a low risk of bias, which is a bit unusual in musculoskeletal medicine, and yet the eight studies that did have a higher risk of bias account for a substantial amount of the benefit detected. Take them out and the positive result starts to look downright unimpressive: a minor effect, on the margin of statistical significance. Arguably those studies should not have been included at all.
So the question still does not seem to be clearly answered. The benefits are unpredictable and/or modest at best.
original abstract†Abstracts here may not perfectly match originals, for a variety of technical and practical reasons. Some abstacts are truncated for my purposes here, if they are particularly long-winded and unhelpful. I occasionally add clarifying notes. And I make some minor corrections.
BACKGROUND: There is debate as to whether the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is beneficial after acute skeletal muscle injury. Some studies have suggested that NSAID use may be detrimental to injured muscle.
PURPOSE: To determine whether NSAID use affects recovery from skeletal muscle injury as assessed by strength loss, soreness, and/or blood creatine kinase level.
STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis.
METHODS: An extensive systematic review was completed searching 16 databases (eg, PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE). Inclusion criteria were (1) acute injury to skeletal muscle, (2) use of a control condition, (3) certainty of the NSAID dose administered, and (4) use of 1 or more of the 3 desired outcome measures. A total of 5343 study reports were screened, of which 41 studies were deemed suitable for inclusion. The standardized mean difference was used as the effect size (ES) and was calculated such that a positive ES indicated NSAID efficacy. Meta-analyses were run using a random-effects model.
RESULTS: For all studies, time points after injury, and injury markers combined, NSAID use was found to elicit a small to medium, significant decrease in the markers of injury (overall ES = +0.34; P = .0001). Because heterogeneity in study ES was apparent (ie, Q- df = 52.4, P = .000005; I(2) = 57%), subgroup meta-analyses and meta-regressions were run in an attempt to explain the heterogeneity. In human studies, study ESs were higher when lower body muscles were injured ( P = .045). In animal studies, study ESs were lower with longer NSAID administration durations ( P = .023) and at longer follow-up times after injury ( P = .010).
CONCLUSION: Overall, our analysis supports NSAID use for reducing strength loss, soreness, and blood creatine kinase level after an acute muscle injury, at least for humans and in the short term. Additional research is required to determine why NSAID use appears to be more effective when lower-body muscles in humans are injured. It would also be important to determine why NSAID use appears detrimental at later times after injury in animals but not humans.
- “Skeletal Muscle Inflammation Following Repeated Bouts of Lengthening Contractions in Humans,” Michael R Deyhle, Amanda M Gier, Kaitlyn C Evans, Dennis L Eggett, W Bradley Nelson, Allen C Parcell, and Robert D Hyldahl, Front Physiol, 2015.
One article on PainScience.com cites Morelli 2017 as a source:
- PS Post-Exercise, Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness — The biology & treatment of “muscle fever,” the deep muscle soreness that surges 24-48 hours after an unfamiliar workout intensity
This page is part of the PainScience BIBLIOGRAPHY, which contains plain language summaries of thousands of scientific papers & others sources. It’s like a highly specialized blog. A few highlights:
- A Bayesian model-averaged meta-analysis of the power pose effect with informed and default priors: the case of felt power. Gronau 2017 Comprehensive Results in Social Psychology.
- The neck and headaches. Bogduk 2014 Neurol Clin.
- Agreement of self-reported items and clinically assessed nerve root involvement (or sciatica) in a primary care setting. Konstantinou 2012 Eur Spine J.
- Effect of NSAIDs on Recovery From Acute Skeletal Muscle Injury: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Morelli 2017 Am J Sports Med.
- Association of Spinal Manipulative Therapy With Clinical Benefit and Harm for Acute Low Back Pain: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Paige 2017 JAMA.