Three articles on PainSci cite Melzack 1981: 1. The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain 2. Mind Over Pain 3. Counterstimulation
original abstract †Abstracts here may not perfectly match originals, for a variety of technical and practical reasons. Some abstacts are truncated for my purposes here, if they are particularly long-winded and unhelpful. I occasionally add clarifying notes. And I make some minor corrections.
The gate control theory of pain describes the modulation of sensory nerve impulses by inhibitory mechanisms in the central nervous system. One of the oldest methods of pain relief is hyperstimulation analgesia produced by stimulating myofascial trigger points by dry needling, acupuncture, intense cold, intense heat, or chemical irritation of the skin. The moderate-to-intense sensory input of hyperstimulation analgesia is applied to sites over, or sometimes distant from, the pain. A brief painful stimulus may relieve chronic pain for long periods, sometimes permanently. Pain may be relieved by "closing the gate" by means of a central biasing mechanism possibly located in the brainstem reticular formation. Prolonged relief may require the disruption of reverberatory neural circuits responsible for the "memory" of pain. The termination of pain by either hyperstimulation, or by local injection of an anesthetic, normalizes function, which helps to prevent recurrence of abnormal neural activity. Thus, modulation of sensory inputs by use of many techniques may reduce pain more than by surgically interrupting the sensory input.
This page is part of the PainScience BIBLIOGRAPHY, which contains plain language summaries of thousands of scientific papers & others sources. It’s like a highly specialized blog. A few highlights:
- No long-term effects after a three-week open-label placebo treatment for chronic low back pain: a three-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial. Kleine-Borgmann 2022 Pain.
- Exercise and education versus saline injections for knee osteoarthritis: a randomised controlled equivalence trial. Bandak 2022 Ann Rheum Dis.
- Association of Lumbar MRI Findings with Current and Future Back Pain in a Population-based Cohort Study. Kasch 2022 Spine (Phila Pa 1976).
- A double-blinded randomised controlled study of the value of sequential intravenous and oral magnesium therapy in patients with chronic low back pain with a neuropathic component. Yousef 2013 Anaesthesia.
- Is Neck Posture Subgroup in Late Adolescence a Risk Factor for Persistent Neck Pain in Young Adults? A Prospective Study. Richards 2021 Phys Ther.