original abstract†Abstracts here may not perfectly match originals, for a variety of technical and practical reasons. Some abstacts are truncated for my purposes here, if they are particularly long-winded and unhelpful. I occasionally add clarifying notes. And I make some minor corrections.
Histochemical studies and morphometric fiber type analysis were done on biopsy specimens of anterior scalene muscle (ASM) from patients with thoracic outlet compression syndrome (TOS), without structural abnormality. Hypertrophy and atrophy factors were determined from muscle fiber histograms of ASM from controls, patients with TOS, and after scalene tenotomy. Scalene muscle from patients with TOS showed marked type 1 (tonic contracting) fiber predominance (85.1% +/- 5.1%) and type 1 fiber hypertrophy (55.6 +/- 2.7 microns). After tenotomy there is a reduction of type 1 fiber representation, selective atrophy in the type 1 fiber system (atrophy factor, 0.66 +/- 0.24), and increase of type 2 fibers. These distinctive changes indicate that ASM is uniquely structured in fiber composition to sustain prolonged contraction. The ASM in patients with TOS demonstrates an extraordinary adaptive transformation and recruitment response in the type 1 fiber system reflecting chronic increased tone or motor neuron stimulation. These observations form a basis for clarifying the structural and pathophysiologic changes in TOS.
These three articles on PainScience.com cite Machleder 1986 as a source:
- Massage Therapy for Neck Pain, Chest Pain, Arm Pain, and Upper Back Pain — Perfect Spot No. 4, an area of common trigger points in the odd scalene muscle group in the neck
- The Respiration Connection — How dysfunctional breathing might be a root cause of a variety of common upper body pain problems and injuries
- Does Massage Increase Circulation? — Probably not, and definitely not as much as a little exercise
This page is part of the PainScience BIBLIOGRAPHY, which contains plain language summaries of thousands of scientific papers & others sources. It’s like a highly specialized blog. A few highlights:
- Effectiveness of customised foot orthoses for Achilles tendinopathy: a randomised controlled trial. Munteanu 2015 Br J Sports Med.
- A Bayesian model-averaged meta-analysis of the power pose effect with informed and default priors: the case of felt power. Gronau 2017 Comprehensive Results in Social Psychology.
- The neck and headaches. Bogduk 2014 Neurol Clin.
- Agreement of self-reported items and clinically assessed nerve root involvement (or sciatica) in a primary care setting. Konstantinou 2012 Eur Spine J.
- Effect of NSAIDs on Recovery From Acute Skeletal Muscle Injury: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Morelli 2017 Am J Sports Med.