PainSci summary of Leddy 2018: ?This page is one of thousands in the PainScience.com bibliography. It is not a general article: it is focused on a single scientific paper, and it may provide only just enough context for the summary to make sense. Links to other papers and more general information are provided at the bottom of the page, as often as possible.
This is a positive review of moderate exercise as “medicine” for brain injury, concluding that it probably normalizes concussed brains, even in cases of persistent post-concussion syndrome.
original abstract †Abstracts here may not perfectly match originals, for a variety of technical and practical reasons. Some abstacts are truncated for my purposes here, if they are particularly long-winded and unhelpful. I occasionally add clarifying notes. And I make some minor corrections.
Sport-related concussion (SRC) is a physiological brain injury that produces cerebral and systemic effects, including exercise intolerance. Exercise intolerance after concussion is believed to be the result of autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction. Ventilation is inappropriately low for the level of exercise intensity, raising arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) levels. Elevated PaCO2 increases cerebral blood flow (CBF) out of proportion to exercise intensity, which is associated with symptoms that limit exercise performance. Thus, elevated exercise PaCO2 may signal incomplete recovery from SRC. This article reviews recent observational and experimental data and presents the evidence that subthreshold aerobic exercise normalizes the cerebrovascular physiological dysfunction and is “medicine” for patients with concussion and persistent postconcussive symptoms (PPCS). It discusses the systematic evaluation of exercise tolerance after concussion using the Buffalo Concussion Treadmill Test (BCTT) and reviews the utility of the Buffalo Concussion Bike Test (BCBT), the data from which are used to establish an individualized heart rate “dose” of subthreshold exercise to safely speed recovery, which also may work in the acute recovery phase after SRC with the potential to reduce the incidence of PPCS. Evaluation and treatment approaches based on the physiology of concussion suggest that exercise is medicine for concussion, potentially adding a new dimension to concussion care to help safely speed recovery and prevent PPCS in some patients.
- “Semantic memory functional MRI and cognitive function after exercise intervention in mild cognitive impairment,” J Carson Smith, Kristy A Nielson, Piero Antuono, Jeri-Annette Lyons, Ryan J Hanson, Alissa M Butts, Nathan C Hantke, and Matthew D Verber, J Alzheimers Dis, 2013.
This page is part of the PainScience BIBLIOGRAPHY, which contains plain language summaries of thousands of scientific papers & others sources. It’s like a highly specialized blog. A few highlights:
- Relationships Between Sleep Quality and Pain-Related Factors for People with Chronic Low Back Pain: Tests of Reciprocal and Time of Day Effects. Gerhart 2017 Ann Behav Med.
- Modulation in the elastic properties of gastrocnemius muscle heads in individuals with plantar fasciitis and its relationship with pain. Zhou 2020 Sci Rep.
- Association Between Plantar Fasciitis and Isolated Gastrocnemius Tightness. Nakale 2018 Foot Ankle Int.
- No Added Benefit of Combining Dry Needling With Guideline-Based Physical Therapy When Managing Chronic Neck Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Stieven 2020 J Orthop Sports Phys Ther.
- Effectiveness of customised foot orthoses for Achilles tendinopathy: a randomised controlled trial. Munteanu 2015 Br J Sports Med.