Effects of acute static, ballistic, and PNF stretching exercise on the muscle and tendon tissue properties
One article on PainSci cites Konrad 2017: Quite a Stretch
PainSci commentary on Konrad 2017: ?This page is one of thousands in the PainScience.com bibliography. It is not a general article: it is focused on a single scientific paper, and it may provide only just enough context for the summary to make sense. Links to other papers and more general information are provided wherever possible.
This was a comparison of the effect of a single dose of static stretching, ballistic stretching, or proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching, but very thoroughly measured (several different metrics). The comparison showed “no clinically relevant difference between the stretching groups.”
~ Paul Ingraham
original abstract †Abstracts here may not perfectly match originals, for a variety of technical and practical reasons. Some abstacts are truncated for my purposes here, if they are particularly long-winded and unhelpful. I occasionally add clarifying notes. And I make some minor corrections.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of a single static, ballistic, or proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching exercise on the various muscle-tendon parameters of the lower leg and to detect possible differences in the effects between the methods. Volunteers (n = 122) were randomly divided into static, ballistic, and PNF stretching groups and a control group. Before and after the 4 × 30 s stretching intervention, we determined the maximum dorsiflexion range of motion (RoM) with the corresponding fascicle length and pennation angle of the gastrocnemius medialis. Passive resistive torque (PRT) and maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) were measured with a dynamometer. Observation of muscle-tendon junction (MTJ) displacement with ultrasound allowed us to determine the length changes in the tendon and muscle, respectively, and hence to calculate stiffness. Although RoM increased (static: +4.3%, ballistic: +4.5%, PNF: +3.5%), PRT (static: -11.4%, ballistic: -11.5%, PNF: -13,7%), muscle stiffness (static: -13.1%, ballistic: -20.3%, PNF: -20.2%), and muscle-tendon stiffness (static: -11.3%, ballistic: -10.5%, PNF: -13.7%) decreased significantly in all the stretching groups. Only in the PNF stretching group, the pennation angle in the stretched position (-4.2%) and plantar flexor MVC (-4.6%) decreased significantly. Multivariate analysis showed no clinically relevant difference between the stretching groups. The increase in RoM and the decrease in PRT and muscle-tendon stiffness could be explained by more compliant muscle tissue following a single static, ballistic, or PNF stretching exercise.
- “Comparison of ballistic and static stretching on hamstring muscle length using an equal stretching dose,” Covert et al, Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 2010.
This page is part of the PainScience BIBLIOGRAPHY, which contains plain language summaries of thousands of scientific papers & others sources. It’s like a highly specialized blog. A few highlights:
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