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bibliography * The PainScience Bibliography contains plain language summaries of thousands of scientific papers and others sources, like a specialized blog. This page is about a single scientific paper in the bibliography, Kerney 2011.

Intracellular invasion of green algae in a salamander host

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PainSci summary of Kerney 2011?This page is one of thousands in the PainScience.com bibliography. It is not a general article: it is focused on a single scientific paper, and it may provide only just enough context for the summary to make sense. Links to other papers and more general information are provided at the bottom of the page, as often as possible.

It’s not enough that salamanders have seemingly miraculous regenerative powers, without equal in vertebrates. Oh no, salamanders have to be more amazing still, by being the only vertebrates that are effectively photosynthetic, thanks to a deep symbiotic relationship with an algae, a proper endosymbiote. That is, the algae don’t just hang out around the salamander cells, but actually in them — and you can even see the algae, the only endosymbiote visible to the naked eye (you can see it in their eggs). Incredible.

Just how special are you, salamanders?!

original abstractAbstracts here may not perfectly match originals, for a variety of technical and practical reasons. Some abstacts are truncated for my purposes here, if they are particularly long-winded and unhelpful. I occasionally add clarifying notes. And I make some minor corrections.

The association between embryos of the spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) and green algae ({\textquotedblleft}Oophila amblystomatis{\textquotedblright} Lamber ex Printz) has been considered an ectosymbiotic mutualism. We show here, however, that this symbiosis is more intimate than previously reported. A combination of imaging and algal 18S rDNA amplification reveals algal invasion of embryonic salamander tissues and cells during development. Algal cells are detectable from embryonic and larval Stages 26{\textendash}44 through chlorophyll autofluorescence and algal 18S rDNA amplification. Algal cell ultrastructure indicates both degradation and putative encystment during the process of tissue and cellular invasion. Fewer algal cells were detected in later-stage larvae through FISH, suggesting that the decline in autofluorescent cells is primarily due to algal cell death within the host. However, early embryonic egg capsules also contained encysted algal cells on the inner capsule wall, and algal 18S rDNA was amplified from adult reproductive tracts, consistent with oviductal transmission of algae from one salamander generation to the next. The invasion of algae into salamander host tissues and cells represents a unique association between a vertebrate and a eukaryotic alga, with implications for research into cell{\textendash}cell recognition, possible exchange of metabolites or DNA, and potential congruence between host and symbiont population structures.

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This page is part of the PainScience BIBLIOGRAPHY, which contains plain language summaries of thousands of scientific papers & others sources. It’s like a highly specialized blog. A few highlights: