One article on PainSci cites Iwai 2012: Does Epsom Salt Work?
PainSci notes on Iwai 2012:
Water can’t go through or around the dead cells of the stratum corneum, thanks to a microscopic “uniquely structured fatty layer” between the cells of the stratum corneum, which no one knew about until surprisingly recently. This is a really cool paper about it. NewScientist.com has a nice plain English translation: “Strange fat explains skin’s waterproof properties.”
original abstract †Abstracts here may not perfectly match originals, for a variety of technical and practical reasons. Some abstacts are truncated for my purposes here, if they are particularly long-winded and unhelpful. I occasionally add clarifying notes. And I make some minor corrections.
The skin barrier is fundamental to terrestrial life and its evolution; it upholds homeostasis and protects against the environment. Skin barrier capacity is controlled by lipids that fill the extracellular space of the skin's surface layer--the stratum corneum. Here we report on the determination of the molecular organization of the skin's lipid matrix in situ, in its near-native state, using a methodological approach combining very high magnification cryo-electron microscopy (EM) of vitreous skin section defocus series, molecular modeling, and EM simulation. The lipids are organized in an arrangement not previously described in a biological system-stacked bilayers of fully extended ceramides (CERs) with cholesterol molecules associated with the CER sphingoid moiety. This arrangement rationalizes the skin's low permeability toward water and toward hydrophilic and lipophilic substances, as well as the skin barrier's robustness toward hydration and dehydration, environmental temperature and pressure changes, stretching, compression, bending, and shearing.
Specifically regarding Iwai 2012:
This page is part of the PainScience BIBLIOGRAPHY, which contains plain language summaries of thousands of scientific papers & others sources. It’s like a highly specialized blog. A few highlights:
- Relationships Between Sleep Quality and Pain-Related Factors for People with Chronic Low Back Pain: Tests of Reciprocal and Time of Day Effects. Gerhart 2017 Ann Behav Med.
- Modulation in the elastic properties of gastrocnemius muscle heads in individuals with plantar fasciitis and its relationship with pain. Zhou 2020 Sci Rep.
- Association Between Plantar Fasciitis and Isolated Gastrocnemius Tightness. Nakale 2018 Foot Ankle Int.
- No Added Benefit of Combining Dry Needling With Guideline-Based Physical Therapy When Managing Chronic Neck Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Stieven 2020 J Orthop Sports Phys Ther.
- Effectiveness of customised foot orthoses for Achilles tendinopathy: a randomised controlled trial. Munteanu 2015 Br J Sports Med.