original abstract†Abstracts here may not perfectly match originals, for a variety of technical and practical reasons. Some abstacts are truncated for my purposes here, if they are particularly long-winded and unhelpful. I occasionally add clarifying notes. And I make some minor corrections.
BACKGROUND: There is no robust evidence on the contribution of reduced hamstring flexibility to the development of low back pain (LBP) in cohort studies.
PURPOSE: To investigate whether individuals with LBP have impaired hamstring flexibility and stiffness and what measures have been used to compare hamstring flexibility and stiffness between individuals with and without LBP.
METHODS: A systematic literature search was undertaken in PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL, SCOPUS, and Cochrane databases from inception to April 2018. The GRADE system was used to determine the quality of evidence for each measure evaluated in meta-analysis.
RESULTS: Respectively, seventeen and two studies having acceptable methodological quality were analyzed with regard to hamstring flexibility and stiffness. Four measures were identified for hamstring flexibility and five for stiffness. Meta-analyses were undertaken in straight leg raising (SLR), sit and reach and knee extension in 90° hip flexion for hamstring flexibility and for hamstring stiffness measures of stiffness at 50° SLR and gradient of stiffness from 20° to 50° SLR (Me-grad). Significantly reduced hamstring flexibility or increased stiffness (P < .05) was detected in SLR, 90/90 knee extension and Me-grad. However, the validity of measures for hamstring flexibility was problematic and GRADE scores for all measures in the meta-analyses were very low.
CONCLUSION: There have been four measures for hamstring flexibility and five for stiffness to evaluate individuals with and without LBP. It was impossible to conclude whether individuals with LBP have impaired hamstring flexibility and stiffness due to very low quality of evidence for meta-analyses.
These three articles on PainScience.com cite Hori 2019 as a source:
- Quite a Stretch — Stretching science has shown that this extremely popular form of exercise has almost no measurable benefits
- Save Yourself from Low Back Pain! — Low back pain myths debunked and all your treatment options reviewed
- Stretching for Pain (and Pleasure) — Is stretching a treatment for chronic pain?
This page is part of the PainScience BIBLIOGRAPHY, which contains plain language summaries of thousands of scientific papers & others sources. It’s like a highly specialized blog. A few highlights:
- Modulation in the elastic properties of gastrocnemius muscle heads in individuals with plantar fasciitis and its relationship with pain. Zhou 2020 Sci Rep.
- Association Between Plantar Fasciitis and Isolated Gastrocnemius Tightness. Nakale 2018 Foot Ankle Int.
- Effectiveness of customised foot orthoses for Achilles tendinopathy: a randomised controlled trial. Munteanu 2015 Br J Sports Med.
- A Bayesian model-averaged meta-analysis of the power pose effect with informed and default priors: the case of felt power. Gronau 2017 Comprehensive Results in Social Psychology.
- The neck and headaches. Bogduk 2014 Neurol Clin.