One article on PainSci cites Hirata 2021: Complete Guide to Frozen Shoulder
PainSci commentary on Hirata 2021: ?This page is one of thousands in the PainScience.com bibliography. It is not a general article: it is focused on a single scientific paper, and it may provide only just enough context for the summary to make sense. Links to other papers and more general information are provided wherever possible.
This study basically found that pain (specifically frozen shoulder pain) made people feel helpless and fear the worst and not the other way around. That is, “catastrophizing” was a symptom of being in pain, not a driver of it. And yet the authors clearly believe that it does work the other way around, based on lots of “circumstantial” evidence in modern pain science, on evidence in other conditions, and perhaps indirectly via other measurable psychological factors like fear and depression:
“Although this study was not able to reveal factors that directly affect pain intensity, the improvement of self-efficacy and pain catastrophizing was not directly considered to improve pain intensity; the influence was considered indirect.”
Translation: we couldn’t find a direct connection, but there’s probably an indirect one. Maybe so.
~ Paul Ingraham
original abstract †Abstracts here may not perfectly match originals, for a variety of technical and practical reasons. Some abstacts are truncated for my purposes here, if they are particularly long-winded and unhelpful. I occasionally add clarifying notes. And I make some minor corrections.
BACKGROUND: Pain catastrophizing and self-efficacy are useful for predicting pain; these are associated with pain intensity and facilitate evaluation of psychological factors. However, it remains unclear whether the effects are direct or indirect in patients with frozen shoulder; the impact on each variable has also not been clarified. Thus, this study aimed to examine the structural relationship between pain catastrophizing, self-efficacy, and pain intensity in patients with frozen shoulder.
METHODS: Participants who were diagnosed with frozen shoulder between January 2016 and March 2017 were recruited from a single orthopedic clinic. Patients aged 18 years or older, who had been symptomatic for < 1 year and reported localized pain in one shoulder, experienced night pain, and had restricted active and passive shoulder motions were included. Pain intensity (Numerical Rating Scale (NRS)), pain catastrophizing (Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS)), and self-efficacy (Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (PSEQ)) were measured at the first examination, and the relationship was examined using the Bayesian estimation method. The model was modified repeatedly based on the posterior prediction p value, deviance information criterion (DIC), and Bayesian information criterion (BIC); the model with the highest explanatory power was adopted as the final model.
RESULTS: Ninety-three patients diagnosed with frozen shoulder were included in this study. On path analysis, the model in which pain intensity affected psychological factors had the most explanation. The convergence index potential scale reduction was below 1.1, and the convergence of the estimate was confirmed. The posterior prediction p value was 0.25, DIC = 1328.705, and BIC = 1356.872; the validity of the fit of the model was confirmed. The path coefficients from the NRS to the PSEQ, from the NRS to the PCS, and from the PSEQ to the PCS scores were - 0.232 (95% confidence interval (CI), - 0.406 to - 0.033), 0.259 (95% CI, 0.083-0.419), and - 0.504 (95% CI, - 0.646 to - 0.334), respectively; these values were statistically significant (p < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: Our results show that pain intensity increases the risk of chronic pain including pain catastrophizing and self-efficacy and that pain catastrophizing increases by decreasing self-efficacy in patients with frozen shoulder.
This page is part of the PainScience BIBLIOGRAPHY, which contains plain language summaries of thousands of scientific papers & others sources. It’s like a highly specialized blog. A few highlights:
- Association of Lumbar MRI Findings with Current and Future Back Pain in a Population-based Cohort Study. Kasch 2022 Spine (Phila Pa 1976).
- A double-blinded randomised controlled study of the value of sequential intravenous and oral magnesium therapy in patients with chronic low back pain with a neuropathic component. Yousef 2013 Anaesthesia.
- Is Neck Posture Subgroup in Late Adolescence a Risk Factor for Persistent Neck Pain in Young Adults? A Prospective Study. Richards 2021 Phys Ther.
- Sudden amnesia resulting in pain relief: the relationship between memory and pain. Choi 2007 Pain.
- Photobiomodulation therapy is not better than placebo in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Guimarães 2021 Pain.