Two articles on PainSci cite Gemmell 2008: (1) The Complete Guide to Trigger Points & Myofascial Pain (2) Trigger Point Doubts
original abstract †Abstracts here may not perfectly match originals, for a variety of technical and practical reasons. Some abstacts are truncated for my purposes here, if they are particularly long-winded and unhelpful. I occasionally add clarifying notes. And I make some minor corrections.
The purpose of this study was to determine the immediate effect of ischaemic compression, trigger point pressure release and placebo ultrasound on pain, degree of cervical lateral flexion and pressure pain threshold of upper trapezius trigger points in subjects with non-specific neck pain. Randomised, single-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Anglo-European College of Chiropractic (AECC) in Bournemouth, England. Forty-five subjects from the AECC student body between 18 and 55 years of age with non-specific neck pain of at least 30mm on a visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain, an upper trapezius trigger point and decreased cervical lateral flexion to the opposite side of the active upper trapezius trigger point were entered into the study. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups with 15 subjects in each group: trigger point pressure release, ischaemic compression or sham ultrasound (control group). Neck pain level was determined using a visual analogue scale, degree of lateral flexion was determined using a CROM goniometer and pain pressure thresholds were measured with a pain pressure algometer. All subjects attended one treatment session and outcome measures were repeated within five minutes after treatment. Clinical improvement was considered as a reduction of 20mm or more on the visual analogue scale. Nine subjects in the ischaemic compression group improved after treatment compared to seven subjects in the trigger point pressure release group and four subjects in the control group. The number needed to treat for one patient to improve with ischaemic compression compared to trigger point pressure release was 7.5 (95% CI −4.53 to 2.05). The number needed to treat for one patient to improve with ischaemic compression compared to sham ultrasound was 2.5 (95% CI 1.39–12.51). The odds ratio for improvement with ischaemic compression compared to trigger point pressure release was 1.68 (95% CI 0.41–6.88). The odds ratio for improvement with ischaemic compression compared to sham ultrasound was 5.01 (95% CI 1.19–21.06). A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated there was no statistically significant difference beyond chance in pain level, lateral flexion or pain threshold among the groups (P>0.05). Ischaemic compression is superior to sham ultrasound in immediately reducing pain in patients with non-specific neck pain and upper trapezius trigger points. Further research is needed to determine if there is a difference between ischaemic compression and trigger point pressure release.
This page is part of the PainScience BIBLIOGRAPHY, which contains plain language summaries of thousands of scientific papers & others sources. It’s like a highly specialized blog. A few highlights:
- Modulation in the elastic properties of gastrocnemius muscle heads in individuals with plantar fasciitis and its relationship with pain. Zhou 2020 Sci Rep.
- Association Between Plantar Fasciitis and Isolated Gastrocnemius Tightness. Nakale 2018 Foot Ankle Int.
- Effectiveness of customised foot orthoses for Achilles tendinopathy: a randomised controlled trial. Munteanu 2015 Br J Sports Med.
- A Bayesian model-averaged meta-analysis of the power pose effect with informed and default priors: the case of felt power. Gronau 2017 Comprehensive Results in Social Psychology.
- The neck and headaches. Bogduk 2014 Neurol Clin.