original abstract†Abstracts here may not perfectly match originals, for a variety of technical and practical reasons. Some abstacts are truncated for my purposes here, if they are particularly long-winded and unhelpful. I occasionally add clarifying notes. And I make some minor corrections.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the presence of trigger points (TrPs) in several head and neck muscles in subjects with chronic tension-type headache (CTTH) and in healthy subjects; and to evaluate the relationship of these TrPs with forward head posture (FHP), headache intensity, duration, and frequency.
BACKGROUND: Tension-type headache (TTH) is a headache in which myofascial TrPs in head and neck muscles might play an important etiologic role.
DESIGN: A blinded, controlled, pilot study.
METHODS: Twenty-five CTTH subjects and 25 matched controls without headache were studied. TrPs in bilateral upper trapezius, sternocleidomastoids, and temporalis muscles were identified according to Simons et al's diagnostic criteria: tenderness in a hyperirritable spot within a palpable taut band, local twitch response elicited by snapping palpation, and elicited referred pain with palpation. A TrP was considered active if the subject recognized the evoked referred pain as familiar headache. If the evoked referred pain was not recognized as familiar headache, the TrP was considered as latent. Side-view pictures of each subject were taken in both sitting and standing positions in order to assess FHP by measuring the cranio-vertebral angle. Both measurements were made by a blinded assessor. A headache diary was kept for 4 weeks in order to assess headache intensity, frequency, and duration.
RESULTS: The mean number of TrPs on each CTTH subject was 3.9 (SD: 1.2), of which 1.9 (SD: 1.2) were active TrPs and 1.9 (SD: 0.8) were latent TrPs. Control subjects only exhibited latent TrPs (mean: 1.4; SD: 0.8). There was a significant difference between the CTTH group and the controls for active TrPs (P < .001), but not for latent TrPs (P > .05). Differences in the distribution of active and latent TrPs within each muscle were also significant for all the analyzed muscles (P < .01). CTTH subjects with active TrPs in the right upper trapezius muscle or left sternocleidomastoid muscle showed a greater headache intensity and duration, but not headache frequency, compared to those with latent TrPs (P < .05). Active TrPs in the right temporalis muscle were associated with longer headache duration (P < .01), whereas active TrPs in the left temporalis muscle were associated with greater headache intensity (P < .05). CTTH subjects with active TrPs in the analyzed muscles had a greater FHP than those with latent TrPs in both sitting and standing positions. Differences were only significant for TrPs in the left sternocleidomastoid and FHP in the sitting position (P < .01).
CONCLUSIONS: Active TrPs in upper trapezius, sternocleidomastoid, and temporalis muscles were associated with CTTH. CTTH subjects with active TrPs usually reported a greater headache intensity and longer headache duration than those with latent TrPs. CTTH subjects with active TrPs tended to have a greater FHP than CTTH subjects with latent TrPs.
- “The role of myofascial trigger points in musculoskeletal pain syndromes of the head and neck,” César Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, David Simons, Maria Luz Cuadrado, and Juan Pareja, Current Pain & Headache Reports, 2007.
- “Myofascial trigger points in cluster headache patients: a case series,” Elena P Calandre, Javier Hidalgo, Juan M Garcia-Leiva, Fernando Rico-Villademoros, and Antonia Delgado-Rodriguez, Head & Face Medicine, 2008.
One article on PainScience.com cites Fernández-de-Las-Peñas 2006 as a source:
- PS Save Yourself from Neck Pain! — A complete guide to chronic neck pain and the disturbing sensation of a “crick”
This page is part of the PainScience BIBLIOGRAPHY, which contains plain language summaries of thousands of scientific papers & others sources. It’s like a highly specialized blog. A few highlights:
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- A Bayesian model-averaged meta-analysis of the power pose effect with informed and default priors: the case of felt power. Gronau 2017 Comprehensive Results in Social Psychology.
- The neck and headaches. Bogduk 2014 Neurol Clin.
- Agreement of self-reported items and clinically assessed nerve root involvement (or sciatica) in a primary care setting. Konstantinou 2012 Eur Spine J.
- Effect of NSAIDs on Recovery From Acute Skeletal Muscle Injury: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Morelli 2017 Am J Sports Med.