PainSci summary of Eng 2015: ?This page is one of thousands in the PainScience.com bibliography. It is not a general article: it is focused on a single scientific paper, and it may provide only just enough context for the summary to make sense. Links to other papers and more general information are provided at the bottom of the page, as often as possible.
This paper presents the abstract and speculative “results” of a thought experiment aided by a fancy model of the leg, so it can’t be taken too seriously, and in particular it has no clear clinical implications. But it is interesting! Mostly it purports to show that the IT band stores elastic energy, much like the achilles tendon, just a lot less: “1J of energy per stride during slow running and 7J during fast running,” which is “approximately 14% of the energy stored in the Achilles tendon at a comparable speed.”
If that’s how it actually works, it’s a handy biological adaptation that makes running a little more efficient: more evidence that we are “born to run” (Bramble).
original abstract †Abstracts here may not perfectly match originals, for a variety of technical and practical reasons. Some abstacts are truncated for my purposes here, if they are particularly long-winded and unhelpful. I occasionally add clarifying notes. And I make some minor corrections.
The human iliotibial band (ITB) is a poorly understood fascial structure that may contribute to energy savings during locomotion. This study evaluated the capacity of the ITB to store and release elastic energy during running, at speeds ranging from 2-5m/s, using a model that characterizes the three-dimensional musculoskeletal geometry of the human lower limb and the force-length properties of the ITB, tensor fascia lata (TFL), and gluteus maximus (GMax). The model was based on detailed analyses of muscle architecture, dissections of 3-D anatomy, and measurements of the muscles' moment arms about the hip and knee in five cadaveric specimens. The model was used, in combination with measured joint kinematics and published EMG recordings, to estimate the forces and corresponding strains in the ITB during running. We found that forces generated by TFL and GMax during running stretch the ITB substantially, resulting in energy storage. Anterior and posterior regions of the ITB muscle-tendon units (MTUs) show distinct length change patterns, in part due to different moment arms at the hip and knee. The posterior ITB MTU likely stores more energy than the anterior ITB MTU because it transmits larger muscle forces. We estimate that the ITB stores about 1J of energy per stride during slow running and 7J during fast running, which represents approximately 14% of the energy stored in the Achilles tendon at a comparable speed. This previously unrecognized mechanism for storing elastic energy may be an adaptation to increase human locomotor economy.
- “Endurance running and the evolution of Homo,” Dennis M Bramble and Daniel E Lieberman, Nature, 2004.
- “The evolution of marathon running: capabilities in humans,” Daniel E Lieberman and Dennis M Bramble, Sports Medicine, 2007.
- Born to run: a hidden tribe, superathletes, and the greatest race the world has never seen (book), by Christopher McDougall. Amazon.com ❐
- “Iliotibial band syndrome: an examination of the evidence behind a number of treatment options,” E C Falvey, R A Clark, A Franklyn-Miller, A L Bryant, C Briggs, and P R McCrory, Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 2010.
Specifically regarding Eng 2015:
This page is part of the PainScience BIBLIOGRAPHY, which contains plain language summaries of thousands of scientific papers & others sources. It’s like a highly specialized blog. A few highlights:
- Relationships Between Sleep Quality and Pain-Related Factors for People with Chronic Low Back Pain: Tests of Reciprocal and Time of Day Effects. Gerhart 2017 Ann Behav Med.
- Modulation in the elastic properties of gastrocnemius muscle heads in individuals with plantar fasciitis and its relationship with pain. Zhou 2020 Sci Rep.
- Association Between Plantar Fasciitis and Isolated Gastrocnemius Tightness. Nakale 2018 Foot Ankle Int.
- No Added Benefit of Combining Dry Needling With Guideline-Based Physical Therapy When Managing Chronic Neck Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Stieven 2020 J Orthop Sports Phys Ther.
- Effectiveness of customised foot orthoses for Achilles tendinopathy: a randomised controlled trial. Munteanu 2015 Br J Sports Med.