One article on PainSci cites DiGiovanni 2003: Complete Guide to Plantar Fasciitis
PainSci notes on DiGiovanni 2003:
82 patients with chronic plantar fasciitis stretched either their calves or their arches. Arch stretching produced moderately better results: less pain on their first-step measure, and less pain for their worst pain. These are not necessarily the best ways to measure the plantar fasciitis, and there was no significant difference in other important primary outcomes, such as function and satisfaction with treatment outcome. The authors appears to have fished for more positive results by with “analysis of the response rates to the outcome measures,” which does not inspire confidence in their positive conclusion. Until replicated, these results are only a little bit encouraging at best. At worst, they may be distorted and trivial.
original abstract †Abstracts here may not perfectly match originals, for a variety of technical and practical reasons. Some abstacts are truncated for my purposes here, if they are particularly long-winded and unhelpful. I occasionally add clarifying notes. And I make some minor corrections.
BACKGROUND: Approximately 10% of patients with plantar fasciitis have development of persistent and often disabling symptoms. A poor response to treatment may be due, in part, to inappropriate and nonspecific stretching techniques. «Big assumption there.» We hypothesized that patients with chronic plantar fasciitis who are managed with the structure-specific plantar fascia-stretching program for eight weeks have a better functional outcome than do patients managed with a standard Achilles tendon-stretching protocol.
METHODS: One hundred and one patients who had chronic proximal plantar fasciitis for a duration of at least ten months were randomized into one of two treatment groups. The mean age was forty-six years. All patients received prefabricated soft insoles and a three-week course of celecoxib, and they also viewed an educational video on plantar fasciitis. The patients received instructions for either a plantar fascia tissue-stretching program (Group A) or an Achilles tendon-stretching program (Group B). All patients completed the pain subscale of the Foot Function Index and a subject-relevant outcome survey that incorporated generic and condition-specific outcome measures related to pain, function, and satisfaction with treatment outcome. The patients were reevaluated after eight weeks.
RESULTS: Eighty-two patients returned for follow-up evaluation. With the exception of the duration of symptoms (p < 0.01), covariates for baseline measures revealed no significant differences between the groups. The pain subscale scores of the Foot Function Index showed significantly better results for the patients managed with the plantar fascia-stretching program with respect to item 1 (worst pain; p = 0.02) and item 2 (first steps in the morning; p = 0.006). Analysis of the response rates to the outcome measures «an odd way of reckoning» also revealed significant differences with respect to pain, activity limitations, and patient satisfaction, with greater improvement seen in the group managed with the plantar fascia-stretching program.
CONCLUSIONS: A program of non-weight-bearing stretching exercises specific to the plantar fascia is superior to the standard program of weight-bearing Achilles tendon-stretching exercises for the treatment of symptoms of proximal plantar fasciitis. These findings provide an alternative option to the present standard of care in the nonoperative treatment of patients with chronic, disabling plantar heel pain.
- “Plantar fascia-specific stretching exercise improves outcomes in patients with chronic plantar fasciitis. A prospective clinical trial with two-year follow-up,” Benedict F Digiovanni, Deborah A Nawoczenski, Daniel P Malay, Petra A Graci, Taryn T Williams, Gregory E Wilding, and Judith F Baumhauer, Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery, 2006.
This page is part of the PainScience BIBLIOGRAPHY, which contains plain language summaries of thousands of scientific papers & others sources. It’s like a highly specialized blog. A few highlights:
- Relationships Between Sleep Quality and Pain-Related Factors for People with Chronic Low Back Pain: Tests of Reciprocal and Time of Day Effects. Gerhart 2017 Ann Behav Med.
- Modulation in the elastic properties of gastrocnemius muscle heads in individuals with plantar fasciitis and its relationship with pain. Zhou 2020 Sci Rep.
- Association Between Plantar Fasciitis and Isolated Gastrocnemius Tightness. Nakale 2018 Foot Ankle Int.
- No Added Benefit of Combining Dry Needling With Guideline-Based Physical Therapy When Managing Chronic Neck Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Stieven 2020 J Orthop Sports Phys Ther.
- Effectiveness of customised foot orthoses for Achilles tendinopathy: a randomised controlled trial. Munteanu 2015 Br J Sports Med.