One article on PainSci cites Cagnie 2013: Trigger Point Doubts
PainSci commentary on Cagnie 2013: ?This page is one of thousands in the PainScience.com bibliography. It is not a general article: it is focused on a single scientific paper, and it may provide only just enough context for the summary to make sense. Links to other papers and more general information are provided wherever possible.
Yet another deeply flawed trial of ischemic pressure for TrPs: tiny (just 19 subjects), and uncontrolled. They tried to control the experiment by comparing to a no-treatment period before the treatment, but that’s really no different than a simple before-and-after comparison, and it just doesn’t cut it: no matter what the results are, they can’t be taken seriously.
For whatever it's worth — almost nothing — they treated the subjects with eight sessions of massage each, “in which deep pressure was given on the 4 most painful TPs identified during examination.” They measured several things — pain, pressure tolerance, disability, strength — and only clinically change was pain... which they claim without publishing numerical data. Based on a graph, it looks like the change just barely reached the level of clinical significant. In a tiny uncontrolled trial.
Completely unpersuasive! But they conclude: “This study has demonstrated that a 4-week treatment of TPs for IC resulted in a significant improvement in general neck and shoulder complaint.”
~ Paul Ingraham
original abstract †Abstracts here may not perfectly match originals, for a variety of technical and practical reasons. Some abstacts are truncated for my purposes here, if they are particularly long-winded and unhelpful. I occasionally add clarifying notes. And I make some minor corrections.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the short-term effect of ischemic compression (IC) for trigger points (TPs) on muscle strength, mobility, pain sensitivity, and disability in office workers and the effect on disability and general pain at 6-month follow-up.
METHODS: Nineteen office workers with mild neck and shoulder complaints received 8 sessions of IC in which deep pressure was given on the 4 most painful TPs identified during examination. Outcome measures were general neck and shoulder complaints on a Numeric Rating Scale, Neck Disability Index (NDI), neck mobility (inclinometer), muscle strength (dynamometer), and pain sensitivity (Numeric Rating Scale and algometry). Subjects were tested at baseline (precontrol), after a control period of no treatment of 4 weeks (postcontrol), and after a 4-week intervention training (posttreatment). At 6-month follow-up, pain and disability were inquired.
RESULTS: The results showed a statistically significant decrease in general neck/shoulder pain at posttreatment (P = .001) and at 6-month follow-up (P = .003) compared with precontrol and postcontrol. There was no significant main effect for NDI scores. Pressure pain threshold increased at posttreatment in all 4 treated TPs (P < .001). There was a significant increase in mobility and strength from precontrol/postcontrol to posttreatment (P < .05).
CONCLUSION: This study has demonstrated that a 4-week treatment of TPs for IC resulted in a significant improvement in general neck and shoulder complaints, pressure pain sensitivity, mobility, and muscle strength in the short term in a small sample of office workers with mildly severe chronic pain. At 6-month follow-up, there was a further decrease in general pain, but no change in NDI scores.
This page is part of the PainScience BIBLIOGRAPHY, which contains plain language summaries of thousands of scientific papers & others sources. It’s like a highly specialized blog. A few highlights:
- Exercise and education versus saline injections for knee osteoarthritis: a randomised controlled equivalence trial. Bandak 2022 Ann Rheum Dis.
- Association of Lumbar MRI Findings with Current and Future Back Pain in a Population-based Cohort Study. Kasch 2022 Spine (Phila Pa 1976).
- A double-blinded randomised controlled study of the value of sequential intravenous and oral magnesium therapy in patients with chronic low back pain with a neuropathic component. Yousef 2013 Anaesthesia.
- Is Neck Posture Subgroup in Late Adolescence a Risk Factor for Persistent Neck Pain in Young Adults? A Prospective Study. Richards 2021 Phys Ther.
- Sudden amnesia resulting in pain relief: the relationship between memory and pain. Choi 2007 Pain.