PainSci commentary on Pardo 2018: ?This page is one of thousands in the PainScience.com bibliography. It is not a general article: it is focused on a single scientific paper, and it may provide only just enough context for the summary to make sense. Links to other papers and more general information are provided wherever possible.
This was a small test of the effect of teaching chronic back pain patients about how pain works (pain neuroscience education, a strategy popularized by Explain Pain). A combination of education with basic therapeutic exercises was compared to the exercises alone. The combination of both was seemed to be clear winner after three months: a couple extra points on a 10-point scale. The trial is too small to be taken at face value — the evidence on this topic is mixed and still unpersuasive taken as a whole — but it’s certainly promising.
~ Paul Ingraham
original abstract †Abstracts here may not perfectly match originals, for a variety of technical and practical reasons. Some abstacts are truncated for my purposes here, if they are particularly long-winded and unhelpful. I occasionally add clarifying notes. And I make some minor corrections.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of a pain neurophysiology education (PNE) program plus therapeutic exercise (TE) for patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP).
DESIGN: Single-blind randomized controlled trial.
SETTING: Private clinic and university.
PARTICIPANTS: Patients with CLBP for ≥6 months (N=56).
INTERVENTIONS: Participants were randomized to receive either a TE program consisting of motor control, stretching, and aerobic exercises (n=28) or the same TE program in addition to a PNE program (n=28), conducted in two 30- to 50-minute sessions in groups of 4 to 6 participants.
MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: The primary outcome was pain intensity rated on the numerical pain rating scale which was completed immediately after treatment and at 1- and 3-month follow-up. Secondary outcome measures were pressure pain threshold, finger-to-floor distance, Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire, Pain Catastrophizing Scale, Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia, and Patient Global Impression of Change.
RESULTS: At 3-month follow-up, a large change in pain intensity (numerical pain rating scale: -2.2; -2.93 to -1.28; P<.001; d=1.37) was observed for the PNE plus TE group, and a moderate effect size was observed for the secondary outcome measures.
CONCLUSIONS: Combining PNE with TE resulted in significantly better results for participants with CLBP, with a large effect size, compared with TE alone.
- “Blended-Learning Pain Neuroscience Education for People With Chronic Spinal Pain: Randomized Controlled Multicenter Trial,” Anneleen Malfliet, Jeroen Kregel, Mira Meeus, Nathalie Roussel, Lieven Danneels, Barbara Cagnie, Mieke Dolphens, and Jo Nijs, Physical Therapy, 2018.
- “A randomized controlled trial of an educational intervention to prevent the chronic pain of whiplash associated disorders following rear-end motor vehicle collisions,” RJ Brison, L Hartling, and S Dostaler, Spine, 2005.
- “The Pain Course: A Randomised Controlled Trial Examining an Internet-Delivered Pain Management Program when Provided with Different Levels of Clinician Support,” B F Dear, M Gandy, E Karin, L G Staples, L Johnston, V Fogliati, B M Wootton, M D Terides, R Kayrouz, K Nicholson Perry, L Sharpe, M K Nicholas, and N Titov, Pain, 2015.
This page is part of the PainScience BIBLIOGRAPHY, which contains plain language summaries of thousands of scientific papers & others sources. It’s like a highly specialized blog. A few highlights:
- Photobiomodulation therapy is not better than placebo in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Guimarães 2021 Pain.
- No effect of creatine monohydrate supplementation on inflammatory and cartilage degradation biomarkers in individuals with knee osteoarthritis. Cornish 2018 Nutr Res.
- The CANBACK trial: a randomised, controlled clinical trial of oral cannabidiol for people presenting to the emergency department with acute low back pain. Bebee 2021 Med J Aust.
- Relationships Between Sleep Quality and Pain-Related Factors for People with Chronic Low Back Pain: Tests of Reciprocal and Time of Day Effects. Gerhart 2017 Ann Behav Med.
- Modulation in the elastic properties of gastrocnemius muscle heads in individuals with plantar fasciitis and its relationship with pain. Zhou 2020 Sci Rep.