Vitamin D and Muscle Health: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trials
Three articles on PainSci cite Bislev 2021: 1. Strength Training for Pain & Injury Rehab 2. Vitamins, Minerals & Supplements for Pain & Healing 3. Vitamin D for Pain
original abstract †Abstracts here may not perfectly match originals, for a variety of technical and practical reasons. Some abstacts are truncated for my purposes here, if they are particularly long-winded and unhelpful. I occasionally add clarifying notes. And I make some minor corrections.
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin D supplementation versus placebo on muscle health. For this systematic review and trial-level meta-analysis of placebo-controlled trials, a systematic search of randomized controlled trials published until October 2020 was performed in Medline, Embase, and Google Scholar. We included studies in humans (except athletes) on supplementation with vitamin D2 or D3 versus placebo, regardless of administration form (daily, bolus, and duration) with or without calcium co-supplementation. The predefined endpoints were physical performance reported as timed up and go test (TUG; seconds), chair rising test (seconds), 6-minute walking distance (m), and Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB; points). Furthermore, endpoints were maximum muscle strength (Newton) measured at handgrip, elbow flexion, elbow extension, knee flexion, and knee extension, as well as muscle (lean tissue) mass (kg). Falls were not included in the analysis. Cochrane Review Manager (version 5.4.1.) calculating mean difference (MD) using a random effect model was used. In total, 54 randomized controlled trials involving 8747 individuals were included. Vitamin D versus placebo was associated with a significantly longer time spent performing the TUG (MD 0.15 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.03 to 0.26] seconds, N = 19 studies, I2 = 0%, n = 5223 participants) and a significant lower maximum knee flexion strength (MD -3.3 [-6.63 to -0.03] Newton, N = 12 studies, I2 = 0%, n = 765 participants). Total score in the SPPB showed a tendency toward worsening in response to vitamin D compared with placebo (MD -0.18 [-0.37 to 0.01] points, N = 8 studies, I2 = 0%, n = 856 participants). Other measures of muscle health did not show between-group differences. In subgroup analyses, including studies with low vitamin D levels, effects of vitamin D supplementation did not differ from placebo. Available evidence does not support a beneficial effect of vitamin D supplementation on muscle health. Vitamin D may have adverse effects on muscle health, which needs to be considered when recommending vitamin D supplementation. © 2021 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).
- “Effects of vitamin D supplementation on musculoskeletal health: a systematic review, meta-analysis, and trial sequential analysis,” Bolland et al, Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol, 2018.
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