PainSci summary of Battié 2009?This page is one of thousands in the PainScience.com bibliography. It is not a general article: it is focused on a single scientific paper, and it may provide only just enough context for the summary to make sense. Links to other papers and more general information are provided at the bottom of the page, as often as possible. ★★★★☆4-star ratings are for bigger/better studies and reviews published in more prestigious journals, with only quibbles. Ratings are a highly subjective opinion, and subject to revision at any time. If you think this paper has been incorrectly rated, please let me know.
original abstract†Abstracts here may not perfectly match originals, for a variety of technical and practical reasons. Some abstacts are truncated for my purposes here, if they are particularly long-winded and unhelpful. I occasionally add clarifying notes. And I make some minor corrections.
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Disc degeneration was commonly viewed over much of the last century as a result of aging and "wear and tear" from mechanical insults and injuries. Thus, prevention strategies and research in lumbar degenerative changes and associated clinical conditions focused largely on mechanical factors as primary causes using an "injury model." The Twin Spine Study, a research program on the etiology and pathogenesis of disc degeneration, has contributed to a substantial revision of this view of determinants of lumbar disc degeneration.
PURPOSE: To provide a review of the methods and findings of the Twin Spine Study project.
STUDY DESIGN/SETTING: Narrative review of the Twin Spine Study.
METHODS: The Twin Spine Study, which started in 1991, is a multidisciplinary, multinational research project with collaborators primarily in Canada, Finland, and the United States. The most significant investigations related to determinants of disc degeneration included occupational exposures, driving and whole-body vibration exposure, smoking exposure, anthropomorphic factors, heritability, and the identification of genotypes associated with disc degeneration.
RESULTS: Among the most significant findings were a substantial influence of heredity on lumbar disc degeneration and the identification of the first gene forms associated with disc degeneration. Conversely, despite extraordinary discordance between twin siblings in occupational and leisure-time physical loading conditions throughout adulthood, surprisingly little effect on disc degeneration was observed. Studies on the effects of smoking on twins with large discordance in smoking exposure demonstrated an increase in disc degeneration associated with smoking, but this effect was small. No evidence was found to suggest that exposure to whole-body vibration through motorized vehicles leads to accelerated disc degeneration in these well-controlled studies. More recent results indicate that the effect of anthropometric factors, such as body weight and muscle strength on disc degeneration, although modest, appear in this work to be greater than those of occupational physical demands. In fact, some indications were found that routine loading may actually have some benefits to the disc.
CONCLUSIONS: The once commonly held view that disc degeneration is primarily a result of aging and wear and tear from mechanical insults and injuries was not supported by this series of studies. Instead, disc degeneration appears to be determined in great part by genetic influences. Although environmental factors also play a role, it is not primarily through routine physical loading exposures (eg, heavy vs. light physical demands) as once suspected.
- “Systematic Literature Review of Imaging Features of Spinal Degeneration in Asymptomatic Populations,” W Brinjikji, P H Luetmer, B Comstock, B W Bresnahan, L E Chen, R A Deyo, S Halabi, J A Turner, A L Avins, K James, J T Wald, D F Kallmes, and J G Jarvik, AJNR Am J Neuroradiol, 2015.
- “MRI Findings of Disc Degeneration are More Prevalent in Adults with Low Back Pain than in Asymptomatic Controls: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis,” W Brinjikji, F E Diehn, J G Jarvik, C M Carr, D F Kallmes, M H Murad, and P H Luetmer, AJNR Am J Neuroradiol, 2015.
These three articles on PainScience.com cite Battié 2009 as a source:
- PS The Trouble with Chairs — The science of being sedentary and how much it does (or doesn’t) affect your health and back pain
- PS Natural Imperfection — Evolution doesn’t care if you have back pain … just as long as you can breed
- PS Save Yourself from Low Back Pain! — Low back pain myths debunked and all your treatment options reviewed
This page is part of the PainScience BIBLIOGRAPHY, which contains plain language summaries of thousands of scientific papers & others sources. It’s like a highly specialized blog. A few highlights:
- Effectiveness of customised foot orthoses for Achilles tendinopathy: a randomised controlled trial. Munteanu 2015 Br J Sports Med.
- A Bayesian model-averaged meta-analysis of the power pose effect with informed and default priors: the case of felt power. Gronau 2017 Comprehensive Results in Social Psychology.
- The neck and headaches. Bogduk 2014 Neurol Clin.
- Agreement of self-reported items and clinically assessed nerve root involvement (or sciatica) in a primary care setting. Konstantinou 2012 Eur Spine J.
- Effect of NSAIDs on Recovery From Acute Skeletal Muscle Injury: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Morelli 2017 Am J Sports Med.