Three articles on PainSci cite Angus 2021: 1. When to Worry About Low Back Pain 2. A Guide to Sciatica Treatment for Patients 3. Complete Guide to Low Back Pain
original abstract †Abstracts here may not perfectly match originals, for a variety of technical and practical reasons. Some abstacts are truncated for my purposes here, if they are particularly long-winded and unhelpful. I occasionally add clarifying notes. And I make some minor corrections.
OBJECTIVE: Atraumatic back pain is an increasingly common presentation to the ED. A minority of these cases will have significant structural pathology, resulting in acute cauda equina compression (CEC). Although clinicians often look for 'red flags' to identify potential CEC, the prognostic accuracy of these presenting symptoms and clinical examination findings is unclear. We sought to evaluate the accuracy of individual clinical features in a large cohort of ED patients with atraumatic backpain and reference standard imaging, for the diagnosis of CEC.
METHODS: A retrospective case note review from 2014 to 2018 within an established ED atraumatic back pain pathway, undertaken at the largest tertiary spinal referral centre in the UK. We analysed routine data, collected prospectively by treating clinicians within a structured electronic health record clinical proforma. Data on signs and symptoms in 996 patients with suspected CEC referred for definitive MRI over a 4-year study period were extracted and compared against a final reference standard diagnosis.
RESULTS: We identified 111 patients with radiological evidence of CEC within the cohort referred for definitive imaging (111/996, 11.1%), of whom 109 (98.2%) underwent operative intervention. Patients with CEC were more likely to present with bilateral leg pain (OR=2.2), dermatomal sensory loss (OR 1.8) and bilateral absent ankle or ankle and knee jerks (OR=2.9). Subjective weakness was found to be associated with CEC on univariate but not multivariate analysis. We found no relationship between digital rectal examination findings and the diagnosis of CEC.
CONCLUSIONS: In our cohort, factors independently associated with CEC diagnosis on MRI included bilateral leg pain, dermatomal sensory loss. Loss of lower limb reflexes was strongly suggestive of CES (likelihood ratio 3.4 on multivariate logistic regression). Our findings raise questions about the diagnostic utility of invasive digital rectal examination.
- “Does patient history and physical examination predict MRI proven cauda equina syndrome?,” Jeremy Fairbank, Robin Hashimoto, Andrew Dailey, Alpesh A Patel, and Joseph R Dettori, Evid Based Spine Care J, 2011.
This page is part of the PainScience BIBLIOGRAPHY, which contains plain language summaries of thousands of scientific papers & others sources. It’s like a highly specialized blog. A few highlights:
- Is Neck Posture Subgroup in Late Adolescence a Risk Factor for Persistent Neck Pain in Young Adults? A Prospective Study. Richards 2021 Phys Ther.
- Photobiomodulation therapy is not better than placebo in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Guimarães 2021 Pain.
- No effect of creatine monohydrate supplementation on inflammatory and cartilage degradation biomarkers in individuals with knee osteoarthritis. Cornish 2018 Nutr Res.
- The CANBACK trial: a randomised, controlled clinical trial of oral cannabidiol for people presenting to the emergency department with acute low back pain. Bebee 2021 Med J Aust.
- Relationships Between Sleep Quality and Pain-Related Factors for People with Chronic Low Back Pain: Tests of Reciprocal and Time of Day Effects. Gerhart 2017 Ann Behav Med.