The Pain & Therapy Bibliography
A unique database of scientific sources about musculoskeletal pain, injury & treatment, constantly updated & annotated since 1997
Some people collect stamps; I collect science about painful musculoskeletal problems (with a smattering of important items from other areas of pain science). I have been building this database for about 19 years now. It’s big — about 2000 scientific papers, and several hundred other items like books, webpages, etc. — but it does not pretend to be comprehensive (there are huge institutional databases for that, especially the Physiotherapy Evidence Database).
What makes this bibliography valuable is that its contents were hand-picked, every record chosen for a reason, and many hundreds of them are also described and “translated,” their significance emphasized, with links to related articles. I favour sources with an interesting angle: surprising results, odd methods, profound implications, and so on.
In short, it has depth and character.
So where is it?
All around you. The bibliography is everywhere on PainScience.com, in the footnotes mostly, but there is no master table of contents for it. There’s a list of the most recent entries below, and the 100 greatest hits — the best and most interesting science. And you can find bibliography pages with a site search (use the Google search box at the top of the page).
About footnotes & citation style
A robust bibliography and “good footnotes” still set PainScience apart in modern online publishing. It’s still rare to see effective footnoting on websites. I have invested heavily over the years in doing it right.
I first put PainScience.com on a firm bibliographic foundation in 2007 — a “footnotes first” content management system based on the fairly exotic BibTeX data format, a huge custom programming job. In 2015, I converted my referencing format to the Vancouver system, the standard used by most medical journals, along with a bunch of other upgrades — a massive project. Read more.
All of this is extraordinary for a private educational site — unique, in fact. I take referencing really seriously!
Recent highlights to the bibliography
Items added in the last 100 days with a summary of more than 100 words.
- Wang C, Schmid CH, Iversen MD, et al. Comparative Effectiveness of Tai Chi Versus Physical Therapy for Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Trial. Ann Intern Med. 2016 May. PubMed #27183035. Added May 19.
- Wilke J, Engeroff T, Nürnberger F, Vogt L, Banzer W. Anatomical study of the morphological continuity between iliotibial tract and the fibularis longus fascia. Surg Radiol Anat. 2016 Apr;38(3):349–52. PubMed #26522465. Added May 17.
- Ferreira ML, Ferreira PH, Latimer J, et al. Relationship between spinal stiffness and outcome in patients with chronic low back pain. Man Ther. 2009 Feb;14(1):61–7. PubMed #18164644. Added May 16.
- Arnbak B, Hendricks O, Hørslev-Petersen K, et al. The discriminative value of inflammatory back pain in patients with persistent low back pain. Scand J Rheumatol. 2016 Mar:1–8. PubMed #26982485. Added May 14.
- Bastian B, Jetten J, Hornsey MJ, Leknes S. The Positive Consequences of Pain: A Biopsychosocial Approach. Pers Soc Psychol Rev. 2014 Apr;18(3):256–279. PubMed #24727972. Added May 13.
- Richards KV, Beales DJ, Smith AJ, O’Sullivan PB, Straker LM. Neck Posture Clusters and Their Association With Biopsychosocial Factors and Neck Pain in Australian Adolescents. Phys Ther. 2016 May 12. PainSci #53482. Added May 12.
- Shnayderman I, Katz-Leurer M. An aerobic walking programme versus muscle strengthening programme for chronic low back pain: a randomized controlled trial. Clin Rehabil. 2013 Mar;27(3):207–14. PubMed #22850802. Added May 11.
- Jelsing EJ, Finnoff JT, Cheville AL, Levy BA, Smith J. Sonographic evaluation of the iliotibial band at the lateral femoral epicondyle: does the iliotibial band move? J Ultrasound Med. 2013 Jul;32(7):1199–206. PubMed #23804342. Added May 5.
- Kjaer P, Tunset A, Boyle E, Jensen TS. Progression of lumbar disc herniations over an eight-year period in a group of adult Danes from the general population: a longitudinal MRI study using quantitative measures. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2016;17(1):26. PubMed #26767364. PainSci #53406. Added Apr 22.
- Bagnato GL, Miceli G, Marino N, Sciortino D, Bagnato GF. Pulsed electromagnetic fields in knee osteoarthritis: a double blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2016 Apr;55(4):755–62. PubMed #26705327. PainSci #53404. Added Apr 15.
- Altman AR, Davis IS. Prospective comparison of running injuries between shod and barefoot runners. Br J Sports Med. 2016 Apr;50(8):476–80. PubMed #26130697. Added Apr 13.
- Hasegawa S, Kobayashi M, Arai R, et al. Effect of early implementation of electrical muscle stimulation to prevent muscle atrophy and weakness in patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2011 Aug;21(4):622–30. PubMed #21334221. Added Apr 1.
- Ganga HV, Slim HB, Thompson PD. A systematic review of statin-induced muscle problems in clinical trials. Am Heart J. 2014 Jul;168(1):6–15. PubMed #24952854. Added Mar 13.
- Enthoven WT, Geuze J, Scheele J, et al. Prevalence and "Red Flags" Regarding Specified Causes of Back Pain in Older Adults Presenting in General Practice. Phys Ther. 2016 Mar;96(3):305–12. PubMed #26183589. Added Mar 7.
- Lauche R, Schuth M, Schwickert M, et al. Efficacy of the Alexander Technique in treating chronic non-specific neck pain: a randomized controlled trial. Clin Rehabil. 2016 Mar;30(3):247–58. PubMed #25834276. Added Mar 2.
- Rainville J, Laxer E, Keel J, et al. Exploration of sensory impairments associated with C6 and C7 radiculopathies. Spine J. 2016 Jan;16(1):49–54. PubMed #26253986. Added Feb 24.
100 bibliography highlights
What’s here? 100 of the best and most interesting are listed here — the quirkiest, the best news, the worst news, the most compelling. The greatest hits of pain science.
- A critical evaluation of the trigger point phenomenon
- Spinal manipulation no better for back pain than placebos
- Central sensitization
- Functional Movement Screen unreliable
- Adverse events and cervical manipulation for neck pain
- Promising trial of cognitive functional therapy for low back pain
- Massage therapy attenuates inflammatory signaling after exercise-induced muscle damage
- Forefoot runners have fewer injuries, but causality unclear
- Neck strength can reduce chronic neck pain long-term
- Regular Swedish versus “tensegrity-based” massage
- Location of back and neck pain could not be detected by feel
- More than 20% of manual therapy treatments do some harm
- Cellular response to simulated myofascial release
- Worn out shoes do change the biomechanics of running, but not much
- Small, flawed trial of foam rolling shows 8% ROM increase
- Comparison of 2 types of massage for chronic low back pain
- Trial of therapeutic massage for neck pain
- Brief, intense muscular training for cardiovascular fitness
- Patellar maltracking in patellofemoral pain with patella alta
- Why Most Published Research Findings Are False
- Curcumin “likely” reduces muscle soreness after exercise
- Thigh and hip exercises effective for patellofemoral pain
- Increased trapezius pain sensitivity is not associated with increased tissue hardness
- Regular hamstring stretching increased range of motion
- The greatest hits of back pain science are a disappointment
- Massage therapy probably helps patients with bone cancer
- Flexibility gains due to changes in sensation, not muscle length
- Safe but useless for knee arthritis: glucosamine, chondroitin sulphate, and celecoxib
- The iliotibial band is uniformly, firmly attached to the femur
- Intense, brief workouts almost as effective as time-consuming cardio
- Trial of glucosamine for low back pain finds no therapeutic effect
- Nerve root impingement fairly rare, barely more common in car accident victims
- A fascinating landmark study of placebo surgery for knee osteoarthritis
- The hazards of NSAIDs, especially diclofenac
- Massage vs minimal exercise for poor circulation
- Education, not core exercise, reduces back pain incidence in soldiers
- Trigger points are acidic and contain pain-causing metabolites
- 8 weeks of core strengthening, coordination exercise for chronic low back pain
- Do strong quadriceps help patellofemoral pain?
- Surprisingly effective back pain injection: intradiscal methylene blue
- Quality of online sports medicine information “highly variable”
- Only quantity of exercise for back pain produces better results
- Failed trial of vertebroplasty for compression fractures
- Deyo and Weinstein’s 2001 low back pain tutorial
- Disappointing first trial of surgery for tennis elbow
- Regular, moderate exercise boosts makes neutrophils busier for longer
- Yoga, stretching equally and slightly effective for back pain
- Stress fractures: it’s not how hard you hit the ground, but how fast you hit it
- Intravascular danger signals guide neutrophils to sites of sterile inflammation
- Current evidence does not support Botox for trigger points
- Online tutorials for chronic pain reduced pain, anxiety, disability
- Prebiotics reduces waking cortisol response
- Functional implications of the Q-angle in the patellofemoral joint
- Botox for trigger points, update
- Strong criticism of “more is better” strength training
- Chiropractic subluxation is still “unsupported speculation”
- Special core strengthening prevents no more injuries than ordinary sit-ups
- Both heat and cold for back and neck strain mildly beneficial
- Massage impairs post exercise muscle blood flow and lactic acid removal
- General practitioners do not follow guidelines for low back pain care
- A review of low quality evidence about exercise for neck pain
- Chiropractic identity, role and future: survey
- Is hip strength a risk factor for patellofemoral pain?
- Regular physical activity prevents chronic pain
- Stretching and heart rate variability in inflexible subjects
- Smoking associated with low back pain, intervertebral disc disease
- Cramps caused by effort, not dehydration and electrolyte shortage
- Recent injury had no effect on FMS scores
- Asymmetry of psoas and quadratus lumborum unrelated to injury
- No clear benefit to muscle relaxants for acute neck strain
- The science of trigger point diagnosis is a confusing mess so far
- Myoglobin in plasma after trigger point massage
- Cherries for soreness? Well, weakness at least
- What causes the burn in intense muscle effort?
- Dry needling for myofascial pain, review
- A disturbing and typical example of sloppy modern acupuncture research
- Promising results from athroscopic surgery for IT band syndrome
- Does long-distance running lead to cartilage damage? An MRI study
- Underwhelming: spinal adjustment and massage for back pain, neck pain
- The effect of leg length on back pain: a classic test
- Is exercise effective, or just efficacious?
- Lumbosacral transition vertebra prevalence, significance
- The Conundrum of Calcaneal Spurs
- A major, comprehensive report on treatments for knee arthritis
- Magnetic resonance imaging in follow-up assessment of sciatica
- Minor benefits of pilates for chronic low back pain
- Tuning fork, ultrasound diagnosis of stress fractures is unreliable
- Hamstring flexibility cannot predict lumbar joint use in reaching
- Women adapt effectively and minimally to wearing high heels
- Acupuncture for back pain, a poor quality trial
- Can trigger point therapy improve restricted ankle joint motion?
- Review: patients are “highly satisfied” with physical therapy
- Extremely thorough, valuable review of studies of back pain treatments
- Stretching, strengthening don’t affect knee and shin injury rates in soldiers in basic training
- Exercise reduces anterior knee pain risk
- Prospective Predictors of Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome
- Kinesio taping in treatment and prevention of sports injuries
- Icing delays recovery from muscle soreness
- Deep friction massage to treat tendinopathy: still no evidence
- Fascia is too tough for mechanical deformation
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