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bibliography*The PainScience Bibliography contains plain language summaries of thousands of scientific papers and others sources, like a specialized blog. This page is about a single scientific paper in the bibliography, Akins 2019.

Inactivity induces resistance to the metabolic benefits following acute exercise

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Tags: exercise, sedentariness, self-treatment, treatment

PainSci summary of Akins 2019?This page is one of thousands in the PainScience.com bibliography. It is not a general article: it is focused on a single scientific paper, and it may provide only just enough context for the summary to make sense. Links to other papers and more general information are provided at the bottom of the page, as often as possible. ★★★☆☆?3-star ratings are for typical studies with no more (or less) than the usual common problems. Ratings are a highly subjective opinion, and subject to revision at any time. If you think this paper has been incorrectly rated, please let me know.

If you sit still long enough — lazy for four days in a row — this evidence shows that your body loses the ability to benefit from exercise. Ten volunteers sat for more than thirteen hours and took fewer than 4000 steps per day, and then did a one-hour workout on a treadmill. A workout like that normally has measurable benefits for metabolism for twenty-four hours, but there was no such effect in these subjects.

~ Paul Ingraham

original abstractAbstracts here may not perfectly match originals, for a variety of technical and practical reasons. Some abstacts are truncated for my purposes here, if they are particularly long-winded and unhelpful. I occasionally add clarifying notes. And I make some minor corrections.

Acute exercise improves postprandial lipemia, glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity, all of which are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. However, recent research suggests that prolonged sedentary behavior might abolish these healthy metabolic benefits. Accordingly, this study aimed to elucidate the impact of an acute bout of exercise on postprandial plasma triglyceride, glucose, and insulin concentrations after 4 days of prolonged sitting (~13.5 h/day). Ten untrained to recreationally active men (n = 5) and women (n = 5) completed a counterbalanced, crossover study. Four days of prolonged sitting without exercise (SIT) were compared with 4 days of prolonged sitting with a 1-h bout of treadmill exercise (SIT + EX; 63.1 ± 5.2% V̇o2max) on the evening of the fourth day. The following morning, participants completed a high-fat/glucose tolerance test (HFGTT), during which plasma was collected over a 6-h period and analyzed for triglycerides, glucose, and insulin. No differences between trials (P> 0.05) were found in the overall plasma triglyceride, glucose, or insulin responses during the HFGTT. This lack of difference between trials comes with similarly low physical activity (~3,500-4,000 steps/day) on each day except for the 1-h bout of exercise during SIT + EX the day before the HFGTT. These data indicate that physical inactivity (e.g., sitting ~13.5 h/day and <4,000 steps/day) creates a condition whereby people become "resistant" to the metabolic improvements that are typically derived from an acute bout of aerobic exercise (i.e., exercise resistance). NEW & NOTEWORTHY In people who are physically inactive and sitting for a majority of the day, a 1-h bout of vigorous exercise failed to improve lipid, glucose, and insulin metabolism measured the next day. It seems that something inherent to inactivity and/or prolonged sitting makes the body resistant to the 1 h of exercise preventing the normally derived metabolic improvements following exercise.

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