PainSci commentary on Hodges 1997: ?This page is one of thousands in the PainScience.com bibliography. It is not a general article: it is focused on a single scientific paper, and it may provide only just enough context for the summary to make sense. Links to other papers and more general information are provided wherever possible.
This widely cited paper presents evidence that is the basis for much of the popularity and alleged importance of “advanced” core strength training. However, it was never good enough to support clinical decisions, and in 2011 it was rebutted directly by Hodges et al who found that “training bilateral pre-activation of the transversus abdominis prior to rapid movement is not justified and may potentially be problematic for the production of normal movement patterns.”
I don’t know what the truth is. I am summarizing primarily to point out the shakiness of the rationale for core training.
~ Paul Ingraham
original abstract †Abstracts here may not perfectly match originals, for a variety of technical and practical reasons. Some abstacts are truncated for my purposes here, if they are particularly long-winded and unhelpful. I occasionally add clarifying notes. And I make some minor corrections.
Because the structure of the spine is inherently unstable, muscle activation is essential for the maintenance of trunk posture and intervertebral control when the limbs are moved. To investigate how the central nervous system deals with this situation the temporal components of the response of the muscles of the trunk were evaluated during rapid limb movement performed in response to a visual stimulus. Fine-wire electromyography (EMG) electrodes were inserted into transversus abdominis (TrA), obliquus internus abdominis (OI) and obliquus externus abdominis (OE) of 15 subjects under the guidance of real-time ultrasound imaging. Surface electrodes were placed over rectus abdominis (RA), lumbar multifidus (MF) and the three parts of deltoid. In a standing position, ten repetitions of shoulder flexion, abduction and extension were performed by the subjects as fast as possible in response to a visual stimulus. The onset of TrA EMG occurred in advance of deltoid irrespective of the movement direction. The time to onset of EMG activity of OI, OE, RA and MF varied with the movement direction, being activated earliest when the prime action of the muscle opposed the reactive forces associated with the specific limb movement. It is postulated that the non-direction-specific contraction of TrA may be related to the control of trunk stability independent of the requirement for direction-specific control of the centre of gravity in relation to the base of support.
Specifically regarding Hodges 1997:
- “Corset hypothesis rebutted - Transversus abdominis does not co-contract in unison prior to rapid arm movements,” Susan Lisa Morris, Brendan Lay, and Garry Thomas Allison, Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon), 2011.
This page is part of the PainScience BIBLIOGRAPHY, which contains plain language summaries of thousands of scientific papers & others sources. It’s like a highly specialized blog. A few highlights:
- No long-term effects after a three-week open-label placebo treatment for chronic low back pain: a three-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial. Kleine-Borgmann 2022 Pain.
- Exercise and education versus saline injections for knee osteoarthritis: a randomised controlled equivalence trial. Bandak 2022 Ann Rheum Dis.
- Association of Lumbar MRI Findings with Current and Future Back Pain in a Population-based Cohort Study. Kasch 2022 Spine (Phila Pa 1976).
- A double-blinded randomised controlled study of the value of sequential intravenous and oral magnesium therapy in patients with chronic low back pain with a neuropathic component. Yousef 2013 Anaesthesia.
- Is Neck Posture Subgroup in Late Adolescence a Risk Factor for Persistent Neck Pain in Young Adults? A Prospective Study. Richards 2021 Phys Ther.