PainSci summary of Lankhorst 2012?This page is one of thousands in the PainScience.com bibliography. It is not a general article: it is focused on a single scientific paper, and it may provide only just enough context for the summary to make sense. Links to other papers and more general information are provided at the bottom of the page, as often as possible. ★★★★☆4-star ratings are for bigger/better studies and reviews published in more prestigious journals, with only quibbles. Ratings are a highly subjective opinion, and subject to revision at any time. If you think this paper has been incorrectly rated, please let me know.
The authors only included prospective studies in their review, which are studies that follow people over time — starting before they develop pain. This is a much better way of observing risk factors than the typical cross-sectional study design that could never say “which came first.”
Out of 13 possible risk factors commonly studied, including numerous popularly blamed biomechanical factors, only knee extension (quadriceps) weakness stood out as a significant predictor of developing PFPS.
original abstract†Abstracts here may not perfectly match originals, for a variety of technical and practical reasons. Some abstacts are truncated for my purposes here, if they are particularly long-winded and unhelpful. I occasionally add clarifying notes. And I make some minor corrections.
STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review.
OBJECTIVES: To systematically outline the risk factors for patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS).
BACKGROUND: PFPS is the most commonly diagnosed condition in young individuals with knee complaints. High incidence among athletes suggests a possibility of prevention. The first step toward prevention is identification of possible risk factors.
METHODS: Prospective studies that included 20 or more patients with PFPS and examined at least 1 possible risk factor for PFPS were included. An assessment list was applied to evaluate the quality of the studies. A meta-analysis was conducted using a random-effects model. Significant differences were based on calculated mean differences, with matching 95% confidence intervals (CIs). For dichotomous data, odds ratios or relative risks were calculated.
RESULTS: Of the 3845 potentially relevant articles, 7 were included in this review. These studies examined a total of 135 variables, and pooling was possible for 13 potential risk factors. The pooled data showed that knee extension peak torques were significantly lower in the PFPS group than in controls. Mean differences in torque, with negative differences reflecting lower means in the PFPS group, were as follows: (a) standardized relative to body weight at 60°/s, -0.24 Nm (95% CI: -0.39, -0.09); (b) standardized relative to body weight at 240°/s, -0.11 Nm (95% CI: -0.17, -0.05); (c) standardized relative to body mass index at 60°/s, -0.84 Nm (95% CI: -1.23, -0.44); (d) standardized relative to body mass index at 240°/s, -0.32 Nm (95% CI: -0.52, -0.12); (e) nonstandardized in a concentric mode at 60°/s, -17.54 Nm (95% CI: -25.53, -9.54); (f) nonstandardized in a concentric mode at 240°/s, -7.72 Nm (95% CI: -12.67, -2.77).
CONCLUSION: Weaker knee extension strength, expressed by peak torque, appears to be a risk factor for PFPS, based on meta-analyses of pooled results from multiple studies. Because several other risk factors for PFPS were described only in single studies, these additional risk factors, as well as those with conflicting evidence, need to be confirmed in future studies.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognosis, level 1a-.
- “Prospective Predictors of Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome: A Systematic Review With Meta-analysis,” Evangelos Pappas and Wing M Wong-Tom, Sports Health, 2012.
One article on PainScience.com cites Lankhorst 2012 as a source:
- PS Save Yourself from Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome! — Patellofemoral pain syndrome (aka runner’s knee) explained and discussed in great detail, including every imaginable self-treatment option and all the available scientific evidence
This page is part of the PainScience BIBLIOGRAPHY, which contains plain language summaries of thousands of scientific papers & others sources. It’s like a highly specialized blog. A few highlights:
- Effectiveness of customised foot orthoses for Achilles tendinopathy: a randomised controlled trial. Munteanu 2015 Br J Sports Med.
- A Bayesian model-averaged meta-analysis of the power pose effect with informed and default priors: the case of felt power. Gronau 2017 Comprehensive Results in Social Psychology.
- The neck and headaches. Bogduk 2014 Neurol Clin.
- Agreement of self-reported items and clinically assessed nerve root involvement (or sciatica) in a primary care setting. Konstantinou 2012 Eur Spine J.
- Effect of NSAIDs on Recovery From Acute Skeletal Muscle Injury: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Morelli 2017 Am J Sports Med.