PainSci summary of Clay 2010?This page is one of thousands in the PainScience.com bibliography. It is not a general article: it is focused on a single scientific paper, and it may provide only just enough context for the summary to make sense. Links to other papers and more general information are provided at the bottom of the page, as often as possible. ★★★★☆4-star ratings are for bigger/better studies and reviews published in more prestigious journals, with only quibbles. Ratings are a highly subjective opinion, and subject to revision at any time. If you think this paper has been incorrectly rated, please let me know.
How often does injury lead to chronic pain? Why do some injured people develop chronic pain and others do not? Researchers kept tabs on 168 patients who suffered non-life-threatening orthopaedic injuries.
54% reported persistent pain six months after the injury and 87% reported that this pain interfered with their normal work activities.
Long-term pain was more likely to the extent that pain was acute at the beginning (independently of injury severity), if patients felt responsible for the injury, and if they were pessimistic or emotionally traumatized. “Psychosocial factors strongly predicted persistent pain, pain-related work disability, and pain severity,” the researchers concluded, and noted that “many of these factors are potentially modifiable and should alert the clinician about the need for interventions in order to prevent the development of pain chronicity.”
original abstract†Abstracts here may not perfectly match originals, for a variety of technical and practical reasons. Some abstacts are truncated for my purposes here, if they are particularly long-winded and unhelpful. I occasionally add clarifying notes. And I make some minor corrections.
The study quantifies the association between a range of bio-psychosocial factors and the presence of persistent pain, pain severity and pain interfering with normal work activities in a cohort of 168 patients with a range of non-life-threatening orthopaedic injuries. Participants were recruited following presentation to 1 of 4 Victoria hospitals for treatment for their injury and followed until 6 months postinjury.
Multivariate analysis was employed to determine factors associated with pain outcomes, 6 months postinjury. The prevalence of pain was common; 54% of participants reported the presence of persistent pain at 6 months, with the majority (87%) reporting that pain interfered to an extent with their normal work activities. High initial pain, external attributions of responsibility for the injury, and psychological distress were found to be significant independent predictors of the presence of all 3 outcomes. In addition, poor recovery expectations was found to be a significant predictor of pain-related work disability and being injured at work a significant predictor of pain severity. Many of these factors are potentially modifiable and should alert the clinician about the need for interventions in order to prevent the development of pain chronicity.
PERSPECTIVE: This study has quantified determinants of pain, 6 months after non-life-threatening acute orthopaedic trauma. Psychosocial factors strongly predicted persistent pain, pain-related work disability, and pain severity. These findings may assist clinicians to determine the need for, and likely effectiveness of, individual pain-management approaches in this population.
One article on PainScience.com cites Clay 2010 as a source:
- PS Save Yourself from Low Back Pain! — Low back pain myths debunked and all your treatment options reviewed
This page is part of the PainScience BIBLIOGRAPHY, which contains plain language summaries of thousands of scientific papers & others sources. It’s like a highly specialized blog. A few highlights:
- Effectiveness of customised foot orthoses for Achilles tendinopathy: a randomised controlled trial. Munteanu 2015 Br J Sports Med.
- A Bayesian model-averaged meta-analysis of the power pose effect with informed and default priors: the case of felt power. Gronau 2017 Comprehensive Results in Social Psychology.
- The neck and headaches. Bogduk 2014 Neurol Clin.
- Agreement of self-reported items and clinically assessed nerve root involvement (or sciatica) in a primary care setting. Konstantinou 2012 Eur Spine J.
- Effect of NSAIDs on Recovery From Acute Skeletal Muscle Injury: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Morelli 2017 Am J Sports Med.