Sensible advice for aches, pains & injuries

Jonas Salk at the University of Pittsburgh where he developed the first polio vaccine.

A Historical Perspective On Aches ‘n’ Pains

We are living in a golden age of pain science and musculoskeletal medicine … sorta

updated (first published 2007)ARCHIVEDArchived pages are rarely or never updated. Most featured articles on are updated regularly over the years, but not archived pages.
by Paul Ingraham, Vancouver, Canadabio
I am a science writer and a former Registered Massage Therapist with a decade of experience treating tough pain cases. I was the Assistant Editor of for several years. I’ve written hundreds of articles and several books, and I’m known for readable but heavily referenced analysis, with a touch of sass. I am a runner and ultimate player. • more about memore about

The 20th Century was such a scientific and technological earthquake that we all now have a tendency to assume that the human species has advanced knowledge about basically everything, but we really don’t. In many ways, the state of our knowledge of anything relatively minor/subtle in medicine is still surprisingly primitive.

For most of history, medicine had bigger, scarier fish to fry than treating mere aches and pains. And it still does. But just a few decades ago, doctors and researchers were necessarily preoccupied with much more pressing public health issues … and rewarding new treatments.

Insulin and penicillin were still changing the world, as were a string of new vaccines — diptheria, pertussis, tuberculosis, tetanus, flu, yellow fever, typhus, polio, measles, mumps! Surgery and anesthesia were finally coming into their own, with error rates plummeting.1 The first organ transplants were saving people who would be be doomed without them. Dialysis! Pacemakers! Laser treatments for eyes! MRI and CT scan! Arthroscopy!

Medicine was still creating huge leaps in the length and quality of our lives.2 It was an era of low-hanging medical fruit.

When you look at the big picture, it’s easy to see that we’ve been rather busy making an amazing amount of progress in many, many other ways. Our World In Data provides many terrific examples. So many of my worst cynical impulses are contradicted by Max Roser’s charts and data. Refreshing! As Bill Clinton said, “Follow the trendlines not the headlines.” Chart Source: Max Roser &, CC BY-SA license.

Meanwhile, musculoskeletal medicine is a bit of a backwater

Chronic pain and stubborn “minor” injuries (like repetitive strain injury) were barely touched by medical science until about the 1980s, and they remain a bit of a backwater to this day, both scientifically3 and clinically, as most doctors are unqualified to treat chronic pain and non-traumatic injuries.4 PM&R (Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, A.K.A. physiatry) is one of the youngest and most obscure medical specialities, and the only one that tackles most “aches and pains” head on. (Rheumatologists and orthopedists in theory deal with all forms of therapy for any kind of musculoskeletal problems, but in practice these specialities have been dominated by serious diseases and injuries, and by profitable elective surgeries that “make sense” to the surgeons who make money doing them but are amazingly unstudied to this day — or, for the few that have been properly tested, proven ineffective56 or dangerous!7)

Pehaps we do have the medical “luxury” of paying more attention to relatively minor pain problems that were overshadowed by the more critical medical issues of the past. The science of pain is both more important and more difficult — weirder even — than anyone imagined half a century ago. But of course those problems aren’t really so minor — just less major than things that kill you outright.

Chronic pain is a pretty scary fish to fry too

Non-lethal chronic pain accounts for a stupendous amount of human suffering. The economic costs of even mild to moderate problems — your garden variety back pain, frozen shoulder, patellofemoral pain, carpal tunnel syndrome, and so on — are quite hair-raising. Virtually all of the research that does on any of these things starts out with an accounting of its horribleness.

More severe chronic pain problems — a horrible neck pain that just won’t quit, or dreaded afflictions like fibromyalgia and complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) — are truly awful. Indeed, CRPS can be so horrendous and untreatable8 that many victims take their own lives to escape the pain. And yet patients with chronic pain often feel abandoned and even disbelieved.9

The general neglect of pain science was most unfortunate. Turns out it’s both more important and more difficult — weirder even — than anyone imagined half a century ago.

For most of history, medicine had bigger, scarier fish to fry than treating aches and pains. Not that pain isn’t scary too…

A sad legacy

Given its late arrival, the state of musculoskeletal health care is still surprisingly primitive in general. Huge numbers of professionals still believe obsolete conventional wisdom — ideas that predate the increasingly golden age of research in musculoskeletal health care that is finally underway. Ideas that can still be found in the textbooks, making progressive professionals who know better roll their eyes.

For instance, a great many problems are treated ineffectively and simplistically as though they were “mechanical” in nature — ignoring old evidence to the contrary! Particularly in chiropractic and massage therapy, there is an amateurish industry-wide obsessive preoccupation with “alignment” and other structural factors — like leg-length differences. And then there’s a litany of even more embarrassing ideas and distractions in those professions.10

Modern medicine has also generally failed patients, with benign neglect, useless surgeries (cited above), and the unmitigated disaster of the opioid crisis.11

People with severe unexplained body pain bounce around the medical system like they are in a pinball machine, serially misdiagnosed and mistreated, often never finding a single doctor or therapist who recognizes the problem, or — having at least recognized it — has a clue what to do about it.

There is a groan that unites men and women, rich and poor, in any nation. These [muscle] pains are “explained” in every culture, but the universal fact of this persistence must mean that no adequate therapy exists.

Professor Patrick D. Wall, FRS, DM, FRCP, in the Foreword to Muscle Pain: Understanding its nature, diagnosis and treatment

Some “getting the word out” reading

About Paul Ingraham

Headshot of Paul Ingraham, short hair, neat beard, suit jacket.

I am a science writer, former massage therapist, and I was the assistant editor at for several years. I have had my share of injuries and pain challenges as a runner and ultimate player. My wife and I live in downtown Vancouver, Canada. See my full bio and qualifications, or my blog, Writerly. You might run into me on Facebook or Twitter.

What’s new in this article?

Minor update: mentioned physiatry/PM&R (a strange oversight, overdue for correction).

Added more medical and scientific context and some new citations, particularly about orthopedic surgeries and opioids. Some general editing. Removed a small section of dubious value.

New introductory paragraph, for additional historical context.



  1. The story of anaesthesia is incredible: fatal errors were horrifying at first, largely due to lack of standardization of equipment, and then reduced to nearly zero in one the most impressive quality control initiatives in any human endeavour. The story is marvelously told in Atul Gawande’s fantastic book, Complications. BACK TO TEXT
  2. Visualizing the History of Improving Health around the World ( BACK TO TEXT
  3. Don’t get me wrong: there’s a lot of research. If you do a PubMed search for most pain problems, you’ll find quite a lot. But it’s a big world, and that research is dwarfed by the scale of Big Medical Science (which has been pumping out almost unbelievable amounts of research for decades). It’s a trickle of surprisingly recent, tiny, and many amateurish studies. BACK TO TEXT
  4. Doctors are unqualified to care properly for most common pain and injury problems, especially the stubborn ones, and this has been proven by other doctors: Stockard et al found that 82% of graduates lacked “basic competency” in this area. For more information, see The Medical Blind Spot for Aches, Pains & Injuries: Most physicians are unqualified to care for many common pain and injury problems, especially the more stubborn and tricky ones. BACK TO TEXT
  5. Louw A, Diener I, Fernández-de-Las-Peñas C, Puentedura EJ. Sham Surgery in Orthopedics: A Systematic Review of the Literature. Pain Med. 2016 Jul. PubMed #27402957. PainSci #53458.

    This review of a half dozen good quality tests of four popular orthopedic (“carpentry”) surgeries found that none of them were more effective than a placebo. It’s an eyebrow-raiser that Louw et al could find only six good (controlled) trials of orthopedic surgeries, and all of them were bad news.

    Surgeries have always been surprisingly based on tradition, authority, and educated guessing rather than good scientific trials; as they are tested properly, compared to a placebo (a sham surgery), many are failing the test. This review introduction is excellent, and does a great job of explaining the problem. As of 2016, this is the best single academic citation to support the claim that “sham surgery has shown to be just as effective as actual surgery in reducing pain and disability.” The need for placebo-controlled trials of surgeries (and the damning results) is explored in much greater detail — and more readably — in the excellent book, Surgery: The ultimate placebo, by Ian Harris.

    The surgeries that failed their tests were:

    • vertebroplasty for osteoporotic compression fractures (stabilizing crushed verebtrae)
    • intradiscal electrothermal therapy (burninating nerve fibres)
    • arthroscopic debridement for osteoarthritis (“polishing” rough arthritic joint surfaces)
    • open debridement of common extensor tendons for tennis elbow (scraping the tendon)

  6. Even where the need for surgical intervention seems obvious, such as stabilizing a badly fractured spine, things aren’t so simple. See Spinal Fracture Bracing: My wife’s terrible accident, and a whirlwind tour of the science and biomechanics of her spine brace. BACK TO TEXT
  7. Cohen D. How safe are metal-on-metal hip implants? BMJ. 2012;344:e1410. PubMed #22374741. PainSci #53447.

    A scholarly analysis of the safety of MoM implants:

    Hundreds of thousands of patients around the world may have been exposed to toxic substances after being implanted with poorly regulated and potentially dangerous hip devices, a BMJ/ BBC Newsnight investigation reveals this week. Despite the fact that these risks have been known and well documented for decades, patients have been kept in the dark about their participation in what has effectively been a large uncontrolled experiment.

    Cobalt-chromium implants have been used successfully in orthopaedics for years—for example, in knee operations and fracture repair. They are known to release metal ions, but some metal-on-metal prostheses do so on a much greater scale than previously thought. These ions can seep into local tissue causing reactions that destroy muscle and bone and leaving some patients with long term disability.

    Harris tells the (chilling) story of metal-on-metal hip implants in Surgery: The ultimate placebo, one of the best-ever (and freshest) examples of surgical overconfidence.

  8. O'Connell NE, Wand BM, McAuley J, Marston L, Moseley GL. Interventions for treating pain and disability in adults with complex regional pain syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;4:CD009416. PubMed #23633371. PainSci #54535. BACK TO TEXT
  9. Toye F, Seers K, Allcock N, et al. Patients' experiences of chronic non-malignant musculoskeletal pain: a qualitative systematic review. The British Journal of General Practice. 2013 Dec;63(617):829–41. PubMed #24351499.

    This paper reviewed qualitative research on musculoskeletal pain to shed light on what it’s like to have chronic pain. Several worrisome themes were clear. Chronic musculoskeletal pain often forces causes patients into the awkward position of having to prove the legitimacy of their condition: “if I appear ‘too sick’ or ‘not sick enough’ then no one will believe me.” Many end up doubting themselves and questioning their own identity and wondering who is “the real me.” Many lose hope and feel lost (or lost by) the health care system.

  10. Both massage and chiropractic are guilty of believing and promoting an astonishing array of pseudoscientific ideas and therapies. See Does Chiropractic Work? and Does Massage Therapy Work? BACK TO TEXT
  11. PS Ingraham. Opioids for Chronic Aches & Pains: The nuclear option: “Hillbilly heroin” (Oxycontin), codeine and other opioids for musculoskeletal problems like neck and back pain. 2858 words. BACK TO TEXT